The attitudes and beliefs of aparticular time period are reflected in first hand documents, purposely and inadvertently through thebiases and ideals of the authors of the pieces. The arrogant self-serving attitude of the first colony isreflected in Captain John Smiths, The General History of Virginia. The Puritans holier-than-thouideals are reflected in the essay by William Bradford, Of Plymouth Plantation. Finally the fear ofthe unknown by the colonists is shown in Cotton Mathers reflection on the Salem Witch Trials, TheWonders of the Invisible world.
In all of the documents, the biases and believes of the authors showthe attitudes of the people at the time. Captain John Smith epitomizes the self-serving attitude of thefirst colony in his essay, The General History of Virginia. Smith is not interested in what people inhis time think of his writing. His work is written so future generations will see Captain John Smith (herefers to himself in third person) as a hero. According to Smith it was entirely his doing that thecolony was established.
He says, The New President and Martin, being little beloved, of weakjudgment in dangers, and less industry in peace, committed the managing of all things abroad toCaptain Smith…, meaning that the President is weak and inferior to himself, and goes on to say,…who by his own example, good words, and fair promises…himself always bearing the greatesttask for his own share… Feeling that he was responsible for the survival of the colony, Smith showshis attitude of self promotion. This was the belief of many people of the time who wanted to beremembered.
Smith does not take all the credit for his work. He believes that God is helping him. The Indians did not help Smith by their own accord, But almighty God (by his divine providence)had mollified the hearts of those stern savages. (Smith) Again his feeling of superiority shows when,he believes the Indians are not human enough to act with out the help of God. Smith believes thatGod is solely on his side. The Puritans, who believed God had chosen them to be the ones who getto enter heaven, also believed they were above everyone else.
In William Bradfords essay, OfPlymouth Plantation, he exemplifies the belief that the Puritan colony as a complete entity (ratherthan Smith who promoted only himself) is superior. In their own self-righteousness, the Puritans feltthat non-Puritans, did not deserve help at their hands, but gave it to prove themselves better thanothers. Rather than doing deeds that would promote them in their own life time, the Puritans workedfor the afterlife. They all believed that since God choose them, all that they had to do to get intoheaven was to live pure lives.
Bradford is not as hostile towards the Indians-he does not refer tothem as savages-as Smith, but as with Smith, Bradford believes that the Indians were specialinstrument[s] sent of God for their good… The Puritan people were bias towards all non-Puritans,not necessarily on purpose, but more inadvertently by their religious teachings. The Puritans also helda fear of the unknown. They believed that the devil was a physical being who lived in the forest. Hecohorts were witches who did his evil bidding.
Anything unusual that happened in the community wasattributed to witchcraft. The Wonders of the Invisible World, by Cotton Mather shows the trial ofone such witch by the name of Martha Carrier. The claims of the people in the trial seem to begrossly exaggerated as to make a stronger case against Cather. Claims such as, several gallons ofcorruption, running from a wound and, he could thrust a knitting needle into his wound four inchesdeep, show the exaggeration used to convict suspected witches.
The victims (those accused ofwitchcraft) were generally those who, such as Martha Cather, were not upstanding members of thePuritan community. Mather sums up the Puritan intolerance for members of the community who arenot upstanding in his memorandum, This rampant had, Martha carrier, was the person of whom theconfessions of the witches and of her own children among the rest agreed that the devil hadpromised her she should be queen of Hell. Anything that was not understood was attributed towitchcraft during the early years of America in the Puritan colonies.
This showed the fear and lack ofunderstanding of the world the Puritans had. Primary documents give excellent insight into thelifestyles of the period in which they are written. The biases expressed by the authors show thefeelings of the time. Different people of the same time share different believes (i. e. the Puritanscompared to John Smith). Much can be gained through the study of primary documents of a timeperiod; the unique nature of primary source material is a superb way to get a true feel for the peopleof a certain time period.