Essay, Research Paper
The latter half of the 20th century has been dominated by the Cold War and the actions and events environing it. During this period different confederations and pacts were formed and many of these were institutionalized. One such confederation was the North Atlantic Treaty Organization ( NATO ) . This organisation was set up by the Northern Atlantic Western Powers to battle the Eastern Soviet menace. Today nevertheless NATO still exists and plays an active function in international dealingss. The inquiry asked so is why after the Soviet Threat has dispersed an organisation that was set up with the exclusive intent of get the better ofing the Soviets, is still prevailing.
NATO was formed on the 4th of April 1949 with an confederation of 12 independent states committed to defence and security. Between 1952 and 1982 four more states joined and three more in March 1999. The original confederation was formed with the intent of halting Soviet enlargement in Europe, with the United States as the chief drive force. With the prostration of the Soviet Union and the eventful terminal of the Cold War it may be asked why has NATO survived and still plays an active and influential function in European interstate political relations.
NATO has a definite ground for still go oning on in Europe. Harmonizing to Michael Ruhle ( Senior Planning Officer, Policy Planning and Speechwriting Section of NATO & # 8217 ; s Political Affairs Division ) NATO has changed from a singular-purpose organisation to a multi-purpose establishment, & # 8220 ; working together to make a more benign strategic environment. & # 8221 ; Mr. Ruhle argues that NATO is lending to the & # 8220 ; emerging Euro-Atlantic security architecture. & # 8221 ; It is non truly an establishment but an designer. The architecture being a & # 8220 ; series of cardinal political procedures that shape the strategic environment, the European integrating procedure, the development of Russia, the development of transatlantic dealingss, and the development of crisis direction in the Euro-Atlantic area. & # 8221 ; NATO can be seen to be an establishment taking at peace and security within Europe.
There are other confederations than NATO that have become or are multi-purpose establishments. This can be seen through the EU, with its expansion operation and its designs for Russia. Besides the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe ( OSCE ) in defusing minority obstructions in Europe, supervising elections in Bosnia and working with an understanding in Kosovo. NATO, harmonizing to Mr. Ruhle is nevertheless, alone as merely it can offer coherence in conveying about these procedures.
The NATO web site offers an interesting position on the grounds for NATO & # 8217 ; s being. & # 8220 ; Today following the terminal of the Cold War and of the division of Europe, the Alliance has been restructured to enable it to take part in the development of concerted security constructions for the whole of Europe. It has besides transformed its political and military constructions in order to accommodate them to peacekeeping and crisis direction undertakings undertaken in cooperation with states which are non members of the Alliance and with other international organizations. & # 8221 ; Its peace programs and constructions includes the North Atlantic Cooperation Council ( NACC ) , replaced by the Eu
ro-Atlantic Partnership Council ( EAPC ) and the Partnership for Peace ( PfP ) .
However there is a different manner of looking at the continuity of on organisation such as NATO in modern-day international dealingss. Stephen Walt argues that confederations that persist are a consequence of hegemonic leading, continuing credibleness, domestic political relations and elect use, the impact of institutionalization and ideological solidarity, shared individualities and security communities. A strong drive force behind an confederation will prolong it even after the immediate menace has gone, particularly if that force is willing to bear the costs of the confederation and its intents. The hegemonic power within the confederation must be strongly committed to continuing and even spread outing the relationship. They must besides be stronger than any in the confederation that may no longer wish to take part or lend.
To last the confederation must be a symbol of credibleness and resoluteness. States may be unwilling to draw out of an confederation in instance an opposition or another ally may see this move as a deficiency of resoluteness. Walt argues that US engagement in Bosnia was a consequence of the fright that no response would make farther intuition on NATO & # 8217 ; s function and hereafter, instead than a echt attention for the Bosnian people. Alliances have besides been known to last because of groups within a province are interested in the continuance of a peculiar confederation. In the instance of NATO, there has been active support for NATO expansion by Polish-Americans.
Walt argues that the higher the degree of institutionalization there is the harder it becomes to interrupt up an confederation. Mr. Ruhle calls this bureaucratic inactiveness. In a extremely bureaucratic confederation there is a group of people who evidently don & # 8217 ; t want the confederation to interrupt up. NATO is a good illustration of this as support stems from former NATO functionaries, defense mechanism intellectuals, military officers, journalists and policy analysts. All who have addressed the issues confronting Euro-Atlantic cooperation and struggle. Coupled with this is that a extremely institutionalised organisation may so supply the necessary capablenesss, that would be utile in the hereafter. Particularly in the country of cost. NATO can construct on its foundations of cooperation began in the cold war and promote continued relationships in the Contemporary International System.
When two states portion common political and societal values and aims, an confederation may be easier to prevail, even after the original principle is gone. Karl Deutsch & # 8220 ; argued that organizing a security community rested on compatible values, outlooks of economic addition, a broad scope of common minutess, wide elite webs and high degrees of societal communication. & # 8221 ;
As a sum-up, the grounds NATO still exists differ harmonizing to perceptual experiences. Harmonizing to NATO, it is continued because of its ability to lend to the emerging Euro-Atlantic security architecture. However, it can be argued that NATO persists because of its nature as an organisation. Organizations are non easy to interrupt up particularly one as big and influential as NATO, plus it does supply a system of communicating that can promote farther cooperation and peace within Europe.