Case Studies In depth study of an individual Correlation Studies Assess degree of relationship between two variables Positive correlation; Negative correlation Correlation does not equal causation Experimental Studies Allow for Inferences about causality Independent variable; Dependent variable Types of Personality Measures: Self-Report Tests usually pencil and paper tests Most common type of test Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory (IMP) NEO personality Inventory (NEO-Pl) Objective Assessment: Measurement that Is not dependent on a Judgment by the Individual making the assessment weaknesses Does not allow for details or rich impressions from individuals Strengths More reliable, less biased Subjective Assessment: Measurement that relies on interpretation Weaknesses Different observers may make different Judgments Strengths Complex phenomena may be examined and valuable insight gained Types of Personality Measures: Projective Tests: Provides an unstructured stimulus, task, or situation to which the person responds

The goal is to gain access to unconscious motives and concerns of the individual Examples: Rorschach Inkblot FIFO Draw a person Example: Inkblot Example: TAT=Make up a story about this picture, including what will happen next TAT: attempts to see how a person places order on a vague stimulus Types of Personality Measures: Expressive Behavior: The analysis of how people stand, move, speak, etc. Includes the examination of: Speech rate gaze patterns posture gestures Types of Personality Measures: Interviews: Unstructured interviews Typically yield rich information, but validity is questionable Structured interviews More valid, but usually do not reveal individual nuances (e. G. , ACID – Structured Clinical Interview) Types of Personality Measures: Judgments by Others: Someone else answers questions about the person being measured Some traits are easier to Judge than others Can use ratings from parents, teachers, friends, spouses, psychologists, etc.

Types of Personality Measures: Biological Measures: Assumes that the nervous system is an important element of personality Modern Biological Measures Electroencephalogram (KEG) Positron emission topography (PET) scan Functional magnetic resonance imagery (fem.) Hormonal levels Reliability: Test-retest reliability Same test yields same results at multiple points of time Internal consistency reliability Higher correlation between items on a measure means that they are measuring the same concept Cockroach’s alpha Validity: Are we measuring what we think we’re measuring? Construct validity The extent to which a test truly measures a theoretical construct.

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