The aim of this experiment is to determine how the height of a horizontally launched projectile affects the projectiles range. 2. 0 Theory: Galileo showed an appreciation for the proper relationship between mathematics, theoretical physics, and experimental physics. Galileo discovered that a parabola was the theoretically ideal trajectory of an accelerated projectile in the absence of friction and other disturbances.
Galileo agreed that there are limits to the validity of this theory and noted that a projectile trajectory which was close to the size Earth could not be presented as a parabola but e believed that distances reached with the artillery used in his day would only have a slight impact to the parabolic representation. Using Galileo theory on projectile motion, we can deduce that projectile motion is made up of two motions. A) Horizontal component which is constant velocity b) Vertical component which is constant acceleration.
In class, a computer simulator was used to answer questions and indicate any relationships between the change in certain variables and how that affected different results. Since the mass and angle of inclination were constant, there was no changes n data gathered that was effected by said variables. Through the computerized simulations, the class had gathered that as the height of the apparatus changed the time of flight increased and so did the horizontal range. This graph shows the parabolic relationship between the change in the initial height and how it affects the horizontal range.
The velocity of the ball as it leaves the apparatus can be calculated by the conservation of energy equation. Due to the metal balls spherical shape, rotational motion must also be taken into account so the equation changes. 3. Materials/Equipment: Metal Ball Plastic tube Writing utensils (pencils) Tape measure Sticky Tape 4. 0 Risk Assessment Risk Solution Stepping on the ball Provide a clear path for the ball to continue on with a closed ending which prevents the ball being stepped on. Slipping on loose sand Brush and collect any loose sand as the experiment is conducted.
Collision with flying projectile Performing the experiment with the line of projection aimed away of class mates will minimize the chance of injury or being caught in crossfire 5. 0 Method 1. Position the tube on the edge of table. 2. Measure the height of the apparatus from the ground up to the exit point. 3. Determine the position on the tube from which the ball will be released. 4. Release the ball from this position and note the approximate point of landing; retrieve the ball. 5. Place the tray of sand at the approximate landing point.
To maximize reliability for each height that was tested there was multiple tests done for that height. 5 tests were conducted at each height but in the end, the 5 results were analyzed closely. In the final results, a few attempts were discarded due to them being outliers. All the results were then averaged to simplify the results into one core number for each height. 7. 3 Accuracy In the results section, there is a range of tables which present the collected data with calculated values.
The calculated values were reasonably close to the recorded values but issues like air resistance, circular motion, the launch tube moving or changing angle, and the method of measuring may have caused data differences. 8. 0 Conclusion The aim of this experiment was to discovery the relationship between the change in height and how it affects the change in horizontal range. Throughout the experiment it can be stated that the height of a horizontally launched projectile has an impact on owe far the projectile travels.
With the results collected there is a definite parabolic 9. 0 References Author Year of publication Title Edition/date accessed Publisher/URL link Place of publication Robert Hollow, Anne Morgan 1990 History of ideas in physics Illustrated edition Jacaranda Press Queensland, Australia Unknown Projectile motion 02/1 1/2013 http://en. Wisped. Org/wick/ProJectile_motion Michael Andresen, Peter Pendant, Richard Gut, Bruce McKay, Jill Taco 2008 Physics 2 HAS Course Third edition Jacaranda Science New South Wales, Australia