Strategic work is a management role. It involves setting the direction for the organization (or group), deciding what to do and what not to do, who to hire and when. If it involves committing the organization to money in some way, that’s strategic work. Here are some examples (not an exhaustive list): managing the project portfolio, deciding on a product line, deciding when to hire which kinds of people, deciding on a software process initiative. Project management is mostly tactical, the operational approach to the day-to-day decisions.

The one exception is at the beginning of the project, when you decide on release criteria and a life cycle. When you decide on release criteria, you have defined the boundaries of this release, a strategic decision. When you decide on a life cycle, that’s a tragic approach to how you use the people. The rest of a project or a program is tactical. Looking for and managing risks? Tactical. Understanding how people are working together-or not? Tactical. Conducting a meeting? Tactical. Problem- solving? In the context of a project, tactical.

There’s also work that requires tactical time, and is strategic management work. For example: one-on- ones, feedback, coaching, career development/discussion, working across the organization to smooth the way for a project, solve other problems, or accomplish something that managers needs to do, such as collaborating on he project portfolio. This is the day-to-day work of a manager, which makes it tactical. It’s strategic in nature, because it builds culture, retains people, builds a trusting relationship with people across the organization, and implements the mission.

I can never tell if this is strategic or tactical. Strategic work is difficult. It requires thought and discussion. Tactical work is difficult in a different way. Tactical work often demands answers quickly. Strategic work, assuming you don’t postpone it and create management debt should take longer because reflection is a good thing for strategic work. Operations management is an area of management concerned with overseeing, designing, and controlling the process of production and redesigning business operations in the production of goods or services.

It involves the responsibility of ensuring that boisterousness’s are efficient in terms of using as few resources as needed, and effective in terms of meeting customer requirements. It is concerned with managing the process that converts inputs (in the forms of materials, labor, and energy) into outputs (in the form of goods and/or services). The relationship of operations management to senior management in immemorial contexts can be compared to the relationship of line officers to highest-level senior officers nonmilitary science.

The highest-level officers shape the strategy and revise it over time, while the line officers make tactical decisions in support of carrying out the strategy. In business as in military affairs, the boundaries between levels are not always distinct; tactical information dynamically informs strategy, and individual people often move between roles over time. References http://www. Shorthand. Com/blob/mid/2010/06/strategic-vs.-tactical- management -work. HTML http://www. Contraindications. Com/definition/tactical-management . HTML http://en. Kipped. Org/wick/Kenya_water_crisis Tactical Network Planning for Food Aid Distribution in Kenya – Marie-Eve Rancorous, Jean-Fran├žois Corrode, Gilbert Elaborate and Ben Watkins (February 2013 CIRCLET-2013-09) 3. Discuss the various categories of skills required by managers to make them effective operations of an organization The key role of an operational manager is to ensure that customer service standards are met. For one to be able to achieve this, it is essential that he has among others; i) Understands customer needs

A successful operations manager needs to have a deep acknowledgment of customer needs. That requires an understanding of what is a true measure of satisfaction to a customer. Maybe it is an immediate response to customer inquiries, a safe environment or fair price assurance. By knowing what makes your customers happy, you will be able to connect with them and provide guidance to your subordinates on how to take care of customers’ needs. Ii) Communicates effectively An effective operations manager knows how to communicate on many different levels with all types of people.

The ability to get your message across to your staff, your superiors and, most importantly, your customers is an essential skill that will be put to the test each day. Using a wide array of communication vehicles, including verbal, written and body language techniques, will allow you to establish a rapport with each audience. Iii) Active Listening Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times. Iv) Understands the organization’s financial performance

Operations managers are directly responsible for contributing to their organizations’ financial performance. A successful operations manager knows how to prepare sales projections and expense budgets, and analyze profit & loss statements and balance sheets. To simplify the process of creating financial projections, an efficient operations manager should utilize business planning software, which allows one to build a comprehensive set of financial projections, reports and charts in less time. V) Motivates the team Organizations don’t get much done unless their people are motivated.

A successful operations manager knows the importance of building a strong team and developing positive relationships among team members. This can be achieved by understanding and addressing the individual needs and concerns of your staff. Vi) Tracks and measures staff performance It’s essential to set work objectives for each of your team members and be able to measure their progress. As an operations manager, you need to establish specific measurements that tell your staff how they are doing against the goal. This will provide you with the clear base for employee recognition, but also for Taft development.

In addition, measuring and tracking individual personnel performance will provide feedback that helps focus on issues and success factors that will improve the overall organization’s performance. An effective operations manager should look into utilizing human resource software, which streamlines the process of setting performance goals, evaluating employees and maintaining up-to-date training and certification information. Vii) Creates a positive learning environment Successful operations mangers understand the need to surround themselves with highly skilled and capable employees.

You can accomplish this by providing specific, timely and respectful coaching and feedback to your crew to ensure operational excellence and to improve individual performance. As a role model to your staff you also need to be responsible for your own self-development. Viii) Maximizes staff utilization An operations manager is responsible for proper management of the organization’s most critical asset?its people. As an operations manager, you need to ensure proper staffing for any given time.

By establishing staffing threshold levels, you will be able to immediately assess staffing shortfalls and adjust. This will include directing your crew to other tasks to reduce bottlenecks or finding replacements in case of no-shows. Utilizing scheduling software will allow you to reduce time needed to perform the tedious task of staff scheduling. With the help of scheduling software, operations managers can schedule their personnel based on skills, seniority or desired workload, as well as track time off and view staff availability and number of hours scheduled.

This will help ensure proper coverage and reduce overtime. Ix) Delegates The difference between successful, happy operations managers and successful UT unhappy operations managers can be found in the ability to get things done through others. As an operations manager, you need to learn how to hand over specific tasks to your team members. This should not be perceived by anyone on your team, including you, as putting additional burden on others, but a way to give you?the team leader?the time to concentrate on strategic projects that your entire team will ultimately benefit from. ) Enforces standards As an operations supervisor, you need to ensure your staff adheres to all policies and practices established by your organization and government regulations. If your company does not provide clearly written policies to your employees, you are putting yourself and your staff at risk of legal ramifications and implications. Utilizing human resource software will allow your organization to quickly create employee handbooks, utilize office policy examples and various HER forms and checklists, as well as a library of IRS forms and U.

S. Department of Labor posters. This should help protect not only your customers, but also you and your staff. Xi) Infuses pride in organizational values and mission Effective operations managers act with integrity, honesty and knowledge that remote the culture and mission of the company. You cannot expect your staff to adhere to company values or even operational polices if you do not demonstrate a full understanding of company strategy. Xii) Technical skills They are the skills a manager needs to perform specialized tasks within the organizational.

It is the ability to use specific knowledge, techniques and resources in performing specific functions. They are important for first level managers because the spend most of their time working and interacting with the operating employees. They have a good understanding of the work being done y the employees xiii) Conceptual Skills It relates to a managers ability to think in abstract. Managers need to see relationships between forces others aren’t seeing and to understand how a variety of factors are interrelated and to take a global perspective of the organization and its environment.

It thus involves the manager’s thinking and planning abilities and the manager takes a broader view of the organization. To managers require these skills because they’re responsible for identifying and exploiting new opportunities. Xiv) Diagnostics skills These are skills used to define and understand situations. They are applicable to the top managers. There are moderately important to middle managers and least important to supervisory managers. Xv) Human Relations Skills These are skills a manager needs to work well with people.

They include; ability to understand one else’s position, ability to present ones position in a reasonable way, ability to compromise and to deal effectively with conflicts, ability to motivate others, ability to coordinate, lead and communicate. A manager with human skills allows subordinates to express themselves without fear and encourages participation and involvement. Deskills are important to all because at each level, managers interact and work with peoples. Xvi) Stress and Change Management Skills Most of managers work in stressful environment.

In the normal course of doing their jobs, they experience high levels of ambiguity and often try to change organizations and people resistant to change. Stress could be caused by; responsibility for the performance or welfare of others, lack of involvement in decisions that affect the person experiencing stress, crowded, noisy, uncomfortable working conditions, organizational work and change and receiving performance evaluations. Stress is not automatically bad, but it can affect adversely the physical and mental health as well as work performance.

They experience frustrations. Managers are responsible for introducing and managing change which can be a source of stress. Citing examples where appropriate, discuss how the external environment influences operations of an organization External environmental constraints are factors imposed from outside the organization and are generally beyond the control of managers. These factors may limit managers in performing the five functions of management. References http://www. Regalement. Mom/200802gc04. PH http://job-descriptions. Carpentered. Mom/General-and-Operations-Managers-3 . CFML http://www. Majors. Com/skills-and-unknowing/General-and-Operations -Managers 4. Write brief notes on internal environment and its relevance to management. The internal constraints are internal to the organization and hence within the control of management. For example; organizational policies, procedures and rules, organizational charters and guidelines, limited money, personnel or HER and other resources and higher level managers. Critically explain the major feature of 2″ schools of “Management” under the Classical Theory.

Scientific Management It is closely associated with the work of Frederick W. Taylor, Frank and Lillian Gilberts and Henry l. Giant. They believed that by using observation, measurements, logics and analysis, the manual tasks could be redesigned to make their executioner efficient. The main objective of this initially was to determine how jobs could be designed in order to maximize the output per employee or to improve efficiency (F. W Taylor is the father of scientific management). Scientific management is the name given to the principles and practices that emerged out of F. Tailor’s work.

He was interested in analyzing the job and determining its basic concepts. Contributions of Scientific Management enables management to set standards of performance that are attainable and to give extra pay to those who exceed the minimum i. E. Those who produce more or exceed the production output should be rewarded more. Pay should always be pegged to performance and productivity. Based on the conclusion made by the scientific managers, modern managers should realize the importance of proper employee’s selection and those who are best suited for the job and henceforth training and development.

Administrative Management Henry Payola is recognized as the father of classical organization theory/father of modern management/administrators in a large Press mining company. He believed that managers would be successful if they understood and applied the basic principles and functions of management. He believed that a manager’s job could be divided into 5 functions/processes of managerial responsibilities; Planning, Organizing, Directing, Controlling and Staffing. Discuss how Henry Payola’s general principles of management are applied today in an organization with which you are familiar Division of labor – work must e divided among workers.

It is based on the fact that specialization belongs to the natural order of things. The more people specialize, the more efficiently they can perform their work. Aims at producing more and better results with the same effort. Authority and responsibility (right to command and have obligation) i. E managers need authority to carry out responsibility. Authority is the right to command or the right to give order. Responsibility is an obligation and an essential counterpart of authority. Discipline – workers should respect rules and regulations of the organization.

It implies obedience and respect for the agreements between and organization and employees. Untidy of Command – An employee should receive commands from only one supervisor. Each employee should have one immediate Boss who gives instructions and the employee is accountable to. Unity of direction – this helps in that one manger should have one plan for each of the organizational objectives. The efforts of everyone in theorization should be co-ordinate and focused in the same direction. Individual subordination – the interest of the organization should always come before the individual interest.

Where the interests differ, managers would always reconcile. Remuneration – The pay should be fair and good and performance should always be rewarded. Centralization – there should be one point in the organization that exercises overall control. It is decreasing the role of the subordinates in decision making and facilitates communication and consultation between organizational units. Decentralization is its opposite and it’s the concept of offering more participation in decisions making. Scalar chain of command – authority should flow downwards from the top to the bottom through he chain of command.

Order – People and materials would be at the right place at the right mime. Equity – managers should be fair in dealing with employees Stability of tenure – efficiency can only be achieved by a stable labor force. A high staff turnover is not healthy for an efficient functioning of an organization. Initiative – Employees should be given freedom to act and be innovative. And participate in decision making. Spirit De corps – This means in union there is strength – teamwork should always be encouraged.

Identify major components of contemporary management At the heart of any organization lies its culture in which are found the heliotropes on how to work together and individually, how to treat customers, and how to generate revenue or keep the business operating successfully. Leaders and even middle managers are concerned with some hitting some key goals tied to customers, products, and revenue, but they sometimes do not pay attention to the culture?the overriding beliefs and behaviors in the organization that truly determine the ability to hit those key goals or not (Ford 2008: 1).

It is the culture that determines how things get done?whether it is in a good or bad way?and it provides the mechanism for changing strategies and responding o competition or causing the demise of a merger or creating silos of isolation and conflict (Ford 2008: 2). Therefore, effectively managing culture in a way that addresses problems and helps everyone in the organization embrace this culture will provide a strong foundation for accomplishing all the organization’s strategic objectives.

This paper will critically evaluate both the assumptions and methods put forward by various writers, including Edgar Scheme, to effectively manage organizational culture as an integral component of management practices and strategic success. As part of social science, the study of Couture has been around for many decades as a means of better understanding how it plays a role in the “functioning of society” (Dimension and Mishear 1995:204).

In recent years, business theorists began to look at the organization of companies in the same manner, understanding that the same solicitation process could be applied to a business that previously might have just been seen as an intangible thing rather than a living organism that was made up of individual and collective behaviors. One book described culture as the result of “group learning experiences in which number of people face a problem and work out a solution together” (Miner 2007: 321).

This could mean that one organization develops a culture that can provide them with a competitive advantage whilst another may focus on ethical or environmental standards and still another may look to create a culture that is geared toward customers or technological innovation (Sims 2002: 301 Whatever the case, the culture is directed toward a particular belief about one of those areas that serves to direct all the organization’s approach to strategy as well as its interaction with the external and internal environments.

That would certainly scribe what is happening with business today as products and services are framed around finding solutions whilst internal processes are devised to solve internal problems. Other issues on an internal scale are also being linked to culture, especially when it comes to large firms caught up in scandals riddled with a lack of ethics like Enron and many of the recent lending practices in the US. And the U. K. Hat led to the credit crunch, in which the blame was placed firmly on the shoulders of the leaders and the culture that they had developed that might have promoted greed and a lack of ethical behaviors (Pester 2009: ). Now that this understanding is becoming more readily accepted within organizational studies, theories on business culture and how it is being managed have begun to be formulated with a diverse array of ideas about how it plays out within management practice and organizational development (Martin 1 992: 4.

One of the earliest proponents of an organizational culture theory was Edgar Scheme who believed that organizational culture was comprised of “assumptions, values, and artifacts” (Hatch 1993:657). His perspective was based on a functional perspective in which these three components, which help to explain pacific standards, beliefs, and ideals, form the basis of how to react to and cope with other factors that would help existing workers and new members to perceive and think about these factors in the same way to achieve a “normal” way in which to address existing problems or issues (Scheme 1988: 12).

In this way, Chine’s theory illustrated that culture was a multi-layered intangible within a company that was first based on visible organizational structures and processes known as artifacts that were then connected to the organization’s values (the strategies, philosophies, and goals) as well as to the basic underlying assumptions in an organization, which is comprised of those beliefs that are “a given” or that are ‘taken for granted” (Scheme 1992:2).

Similarly, Rousseau saw culture as a multi-layered, ring-like framework in which there are both visible and invisible signs and feelings of an organization’s culture both of which must be addressed (1990: 158), illustrating that it is both tangible and intangible aspect of daily operations. Since then, a number of theories have evolved from this early definition to envision organizational Couture as a combination of these components as well as symbols and processes, which provide fluidity ND flexibility for cultures to shift and change based on both dynamic internal and external factors (Hatch 1 993:657).

There are three key theoretical views of culture in organizations that help to explain how culture works and what it achieves. First, the integrative theory sees culture as a means of achieving some sort of a consensus across the organization in which there is general agreement and united effort toward a common goal and purpose (Martin 2002: 94). The differentiation theory maintains that there may be subcultures or groups within an organization that share a common belief but that may diverge from an verbal consensus (Martin 2002:94).

Then, there is the fragmentation theory, which maintains that there may always be ambiguity and conflict within any type of culture but that it is necessary in order to adapt, be flexible, and be open to change (Martin 2002:94). These last two theories contend that these types of organizational cultures are often found in large organizations, particularly those that are global in nature (Bush 2003: 160). There are also typologies of organizational cultures that have been developed within theoretical frameworks as a way to categories certain approaches to developing a culture.

For instance, Quinn & McGrath (1985:318) created four types of organizational structures– Hierarchy, Market, Autocracy, and Clan) that correlated with four cultural types– Hierarchical, Rational, Ideological, and Consensual. These have then been used as benchmarks for organizations that are looking to adapt their cultures or bring structure to what has become a fragmented culture in order to take advantage of the of cultural types and accompanying behaviors and ideals in hopes of improving their performance.

Since many theorists contend that organizational culture very much impacts an organization’s ability to attract and retain talent, achieve specific performance levels that achieve profitability, and grow and expand operations (Dimension and Mishear 1995: 204), it is clear that culture must be crafted, shaped, and managed in an effective way in order for it to help those within the organization realize certain strategic objectives.

This is especially important in a business environment that is becoming more turbulent and unstable as well as one that requires specific cultural change when the external environment and demands shift as well as dynamic internal changes occur, especially when dealing with mergers of two organizations with different ultras (Gymkhanas et al. 2000:261). For example, one study found a direct correlation between company performance, using annual growth rates in sales, equity ratio, and the rate of return on its total assets, when study 88 Japanese organizations of various sizes (Keno 1990: 11).

The highest performance rates were in those companies that had a vitality’s, follow the leader culture and a vitality’s culture versus those cultures that were stagnant, follow the leader and stagnant, and bureaucratic (Keno 1990: 12). Often, the cultures that were stagnant and bureaucratic were found in the larger organizations as well as hose that had older employees versus those organizations that were newer, younger, and more flexible in their cultures (Keno 1990: 17).

Hence, a number of traits have to be in place and carefully managed to formulate an organizational culture that will become embedded in the organization and become part of the daily behaviors of all that work there. One theory of organizational Couture suggests that there are four key traits that management must nurture, namely consistency, adaptability, involvement, and mission (Dimension and Mishear 1995: 204).

These traits also involve other effective behaviors that have been identified for helping an organizational culture focus on the right aspects of business, and these include “flexibility, openness, and responsiveness” as “strong predictors of growth” (Dimension and Mishear 1995: 204). Additionally, other behaviors that are essential with a business culture include profitability predictors, such as “integration, direction, and vision” (Dimension and Mishear 1995: 204). Even more current literature suggests the need for an organizational culture to focus on these three behaviors as a formula for success.

Scheme referred to the development and management of these traits as cultural embedding, which is primarily the responsibility of an organization’s leader and management team based on what they determine are the most important values, traits, and goals to have for the organization to achieve what it intends to do (Miner 2007:321). It is the set of ideologies that an organization’s leader has, according to existing theories on the subject, which will direct how the Couture is developed and what ideals and values are encouraged (Gymkhanas et al. 2000: 262).

In order to maintain the cultural embedding and ensure the right culture is developed at both the overall level and among the developing subculture ramekin, it is then up to the leader and management to ensure some types of control mechanisms are in place over the tangible and intangible aspects of the organization, including the “(1) organizational structure and design, (2) organizational procedures and systems, (3) the design of buildings and physical space, (4) stories and myths regarding important people and events, and (5) formal statements of organizational philosophies and missions” (Miner 2007: 321).

A similar school of though contends that the notion of organizational culture is based on the premise that people within an organization act out their oleos and responsibilities in response to how they define the concept of work and how their organization rewards or punishes that definition of work, which then determines how they respond to those cultural beliefs (Chain 2000: 83; Alveolus 1993: 118).

As such, managers would need to shape their organizational culture in such a way to help influence their workers’ definition of the concept of work so that they can maximize their talent and increase productivity in order to achieve their objectives. Again, this returns to the notion of cultural embedding where the management and leadership must imbue this culture into each individual thin their organization to influence beliefs and behaviors (Chain 2000: 83).

Because many of the concepts involved in culture tend to be intangible and somewhat hidden, including beliefs and values that may be hard to discern or articulate, the available management theories contend that it is up the leadership to take up the cause and communicate what the values and beliefs mean on a regular and consistent basis as part of the embedding process (Bush 2003: 160; Smirch 1985: 58).

Additionally, the theories contend that leadership must also take up the cause of culture by creating and encouraging pacific rituals and ceremonies, such as reward programmer, employee meetings, and other tactics that are designed to reinforce the values and beliefs of the organizations (Bush 2003: 161). Effective intervention by leadership in an organization can help adjust the culture to where it should be in order to meet strategic objectives.

Theorists believe that leadership can enact this type of cultural shift through consensus building with the organizational members, focusing on trust and relationship-building both internally and externally, directing high levels of communication and feedback throughout the organization, providing the necessary training and knowledge transfer, and, most importantly, leading by example (Deal and Kennedy 1982: 189).

These tactics by management are particularly essential for larger organizations that may have subcultures, including those with multiple locations, which may need to change or adapt to an overall organizational shift in strategy or beliefs, such as a movement to an environmentally sensitive culture or a culture that is more customer-focused.

It is important to remember that, more often than not, theory is one thing and practice is something that is usually entirely different cause it involves the dynamics of the real world as well as a wide range of human personalities, behaviors, and leadership styles that make organizational culture into its own specific process within a wide array of organizations. However, these theories provide a foundation for organizations to learn how to adapt their behaviors and beliefs to better achieve their performance goals and strategic objectives.

It is the leadership that sets the tone and shapes the cultural structure just like the leader of a country convinces the majority of its citizens to uphold certain beliefs and values. So, too, will those managing the masses within an organization as they are responsible for guiding how work is perceived?and this can be in a positive or negative way?which then determines how those within the culture will enact it with each other, customers, and other stakeholders.

Leading the way must be the head of the organization along with the entire management team who can articulate and reward the behaviors and beliefs that they see as their ideal organizational culture, helping those within the organization better understand the types of tangible and intangible components are essential for success.

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