Human resource management (HARM, or simply HER) is the management of an organization’s workforce, or human resources. It is responsible for the attraction, selection, training, assessment, and rewarding of employees, while also overseeing organizationalleadership and culture, and ensuring compliance with employment and labor laws. In circumstances where employees desire and are legally authorized to hold a collective bargaining agreement, HER will also serve as the company’s primary liaison with the employees’ representatives (usually a labor union).
HER is a product of he human relations movement of the early 20th century, when researchers began documenting ways of creating business value through the strategic management Of the workforce. The function was initially dominated by transactional work such aspirator and benefits administration, but due to globalization, company consolidation, technological advancement, and further research, HER now focuses on strategic initiatives like mergers and acquisitions, talent management, succession planning, industrial and labor relations, and diversity and inclusion.
In startup companies, HRS duties may be performed by trained professionals. In larger companies, an entire functional group is typically dedicated to the discipline, with staff specializing in various HER tasks and functional leadership engaging in strategic decision making across the business. To train practitioners for the profession, institutions of higher education, professional associations, and companies themselves have created programs of study dedicated explicitly to the duties of the function.
Academic and practitioner organizations likewise seek to engage and further the field of HER, as evidenced by several field-specific publications. History Antecedent theoretical developments HER spawned from the human relations movement, which began in the early 20th century due to work by Frederick Taylor in lean manufacturing. Taylor explored what he termed “scientific management” (later referred to by others as “Tailors”), striving to improvidence efficiency in manufacturing jobs.
He eventually keyed in on one of the principal inputs into the manufacturing process-?labor-?sparking inquiry into workforce productivity. [al The movement was formalized following the research of Elton Mayo, whose Hawthorne studies serendipitously documented how stimuli unrelated to financial compensation and working conditions-?attention and engagement-?yielded more productive workers. Contemporaneous work by Abraham Moscow, Kurt Lenin, Max Weber, Frederick Herbert, and David McClellan formed the basis for studies in organizational behavior and organizational theory, giving room for an applied discipline.
Birth and evolution of the discipline By the time enough theoretical evidence existed to make a business case for strategic workforce management, changes in the business landscape ( la Andrew Carnegie, John Rockefeller) and in public policy (a l; Sidney and Beatrice Webb, Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal) had ransomed the employer-employee relationship, and the discipline was formalized as “industrial Andorra relations”.
In 1913, one of the oldest known professional HER associations-?the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development-?was founded in England as the Welfare Workers Association, then changed its name a decade later to the Institute of Industrial Welfare Workers, and again the next decade to Institute of Labor Management before settling upon its current in the United States, the world’s first institution of higher education dedicated to workplace studies-?the School of Industrial and Labor Relations-?was formed at Cornell
University in 1945. 14] During the latter half of the 20th century, union membership declined significantly, while workforce management continued to expand its influence within organizations. “Industrial and labor relations” began being used to refer specifically to issues concerning collective representation, and many companies began referring to the profession as “personnel administration”.
In 1 948, what would later become the largest professional HER association-?the Society for Human Resource Management (SHIRR)-?was founded as the American Society for Personnel Administration Nearing the 21st century, advances in remonstration and communications greatly facilitated workforce mobility and collaboration. Corporations began viewing employees as assets rather than as cogs in a machine. “Human resources management”, consequently, became the dominant term for the function-?the ASP even changing its name to SHIRR in 1998. 5] “Human capital management” is sometimes used synonymously with HER, although human capital typically refers to a more narrow view of human resources; I. E. , the knowledge the individuals embody and can contribute to an organization. Likewise, other terms sometimes used o describe the field include “organizational management”, “manpower management”, “talent management”, “personnel management”, and simply “people management”. In popular media HER has been depicted in several popular media. On the U. S. Elevation series of The Office, HER representative Toby Anderson is sometimes seen as a nag because he constantly reminds coworkers of company policies and government regulations.  Long-running American comic strip Dilbert also frequently portrays sadistic HER policies through character Cater, the “evil director of human resources” .  Additionally, an HER manager is the title hearted in the 2010 Israeli film The Human Resources Manager, while an HER intern is the protagonist in 1 999 French film Resources humanness.
Additionally, the BBC sitcom deaneries main character Philippe is an HER manager Practice Business functionality Dave Lurch lists the functions of HER as: aligning HER and business strategy, re- engineering organization processes, listening and responding to employees, and managing transformation and change. CO] In practice, HER is responsible for employee experience during the entire employment lifestyle. It is first charged with attracting the right employees through employer branding. It then must select the right employees through the recruitment process.
HER then inboards new hires and oversees their training and development during their tenure with the organization. HER assesses talent through use performance appraisals and then rewards them accordingly. In fulfillment of the latter, HER may sometimes administer payroll underemployed benefits, although such activities are more and more being outsourced, with HER playing a more strategic role. Finally, HER is involved in employee terminations – including resignations, performance-related dismissals, and redundancies.
At the macro-level, HER is in charge of overseeing organizational leadership and culture. HER also ensures compliance with employment and labor laws, which differ by geography, and often oversees health, safety, and security. In circumstances where employees desire and are legally authorized to hold a collective bargaining agreement, HER will typically also serve as the company’s primary liaison with the employee’s representatives (usually a labor union). Consequently, HER, usually through industry representatives, engages in lobbying efforts with governmental agencies (e. . , in the United States, the United States Department of Labor and the National Labor Relations Board) to further its oratories. The discipline may also engage in mobility management, especially pertaining to expatriates; and it is frequently involved in the merger and acquisition process. HER is generally viewed as a support function to the business, helping to minimize costs and reduce risk.  Careers There are almost half a million HER practitioners in the United States and thousands more worldwide. 10] The Chief HER Officer is the highest ranking HER executive in most companies and typically reports directly to the Chief Executive Officer and works with the Board of Directors on CEO ] Within companies, HER positions generally fall into one of two categories: generalist and specialist. Generalists support employees directly with their questions, grievances, and projects. They “may handle all aspects of human resources work, and thus require an extensive range of knowledge. The responsibilities of human resources generalists can vary widely, depending on their employer’s needs.  Specialists, conversely, work in a specific HER function. Some practitioners will spend an entire career as either a generalist or a specialist while others will obtain experiences from each and choose a path later. Being an HER manager consistently ranks as one of the best jobs, with a #4 ranking by CNN Money in 2006 and a #20 ranking by the same organization in 2009, due to its pay, personal satisfaction, job security, future growth, and benefit to society. [1 5] Human resource consulting is a related career path where individuals may work as advisers to companies and complete tasks outsourced from companies.
In 2007, there were 950 HER consultancies globally, constituting a USED $18. 4 billion market. The top five revenue generating firms were Mercer, Ernst ; Young Dolomite, Watson Wyatt (now part of Towers Watson), Non (now urged withiest), and PWS consulting.  For 2010, HER consulting was ranked the #43 best job in America by CNN Money.  Education Higher De auction  Further information: List of human resource management graduate degree programs The School of Industrial and Labor Relations decoration University was the world’s first school for college-level study in HER.
Several universities offer programs of study pertaining to HER and related fields. Toothaches of Industrial and Labor Relations at Cornell University was the world’s first school for college-level study in HER. [1 8] It continues to offer education at the undergraduate, graduate, and professional levels; and it operates a joint degree program with the Samuel Curtis Johnson Graduate School of Management, which HER Patriot termed the “crown jewel for aspiring HER professionals” . 19] Other universities with entire colleges dedicated to the study of HER include Michigan State University, University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign, and Rennin University of China. Dozens of other universities house departments and institutes related to the field, either within a business school or in another college. Professional associations Main article: List of human resource management associations HER education also comes by way of professional associations, which offer training and certification.
The Society for Human Resource Management, which is based in the United States, is the largest professional association dedicated to with over 250,000 members in 140 countries.  It offers a suite of Professional in Human Resources (PR) certifications through its HER Certification Institute. The Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, based in England, is the oldest professional HER association,with its predecessor institution being founded in 1918. Several associations also serve niches within HER.
The Institute of Recruiters (ROR) is a recruitment professional association, offering members education, support and training.  Workload focuses on “total rewards” (I. E. , compensation, benefits, work life, performance, recognition, and career development), offering several certifications and training programs dealing with remuneration Andorra;life balance.