Earlier references: In western countries HARM had its primitive beginning in asses. Not much thought was given on this subject in particular and no written records or documents interesting to note HARM concepts was available, in ancient philosophies of Greek, Indian and Chinese. This is not to suggest that industrial establishment and factories system, as it is known today, existed in ancient Greece, India or china. The philosophy of managing human being as a concept was found developed in ancient literatures in general and in Indian philosophy in particular.

Personnel functions: Till sass, it was not felt necessary to have a separate discipline of management called “Personnel management”. In fact, this job was assigned as part of the factory manager. Adam Smith’s concept Of factory was that it consists Of three resources, land, labor and capital. This factory manager is expected to “procure, Process and peddle” labor as one of the resources. The first time when such a specialist “person” was used; it was to maintain a “buffer” between employer and employee to meet the “legitimate need” of employees.

However, it is the employer who decided what is “legitimate need” of employees. In fact, the specialist “person” was more needed to prevent “unionization” of employees. This was the case before 1 930-s all over the world. Environmental Influences on HARM: Since 1 9305, certain developments took place, which greatly contributed, to the evolution and growth of Human Resources Management (HARM). These developments are given below: D Scientific Management L] Labor Movements C] Government Regulations. Need for the Study : Shortage of skills.

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Skills and knowledge people are always on short supply. Alternatively they are too costly to hire from outside. The best alternative is to improve skill and knowledge of existing employees. C] Technological Obsolescence. Growth of technology takes places very fast. This will render current technology obsolete in the future. There is a great need to upgrade technology. This needs suitable training. ; Personal Obsolescence. At the time recruitment employees possess a certain of knowledge and skill.

As time passes knowledge becomes obsolete, unless it is updated by proper training. This happens because of changes taking place in product technology, production methods, procurement of better machines, setting up of modern production lines, introduction of modern method Of supervision and information processing through MIS and EDDO.. D Organization Obsolescence. Modern management has introduced a number of innovative steps in functions of management like planning, organizing, controlling, coordinating and directing.

Organization which is impervious to such changes is bound to fail and become obsolete. CLC Upgrading Ability of Threshold workers. Public policy provides reservation to disadvantaged sections of the society like handicapped, minorities and dependents of deceased workers etc. All these are threshold workers having less than minimum prescribed level of knowledge and skill. They require extensive training to bring them up to the minimum level of performance standard. C] Coercive training by government.

In order to provide better employability chances of unemployed youth, certain governments taken initiative to mobile resources available at pubic/ government and private sectors to outside candidates. One such example is the “Apprentice Training ” conducted by gobo. Of India. A part of expenditure incurred for this by private sectors are reimbursed by government. D Human capital The latest thinking is to treat employees as “human capital”. The expenditure involved is training and developments are now being considered as an investment.

Scope of Human Resource Management The Scope of HARM is in deed fast. All major activities in the working life of worker from time of his entry in an organization until he / she leaves, come under the preview of HARM. Specifically, the activities included are Human Resource planning, Job analysis and design, Recruitment, Selection, Orientation and placement, Training and development, Performance appraisal and Job evaluation, employee and executive remuneration and communication, employee welfare, safety and health, industrial relations and the like.

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