The new container yard is around ID acres in extent and was mechanized. Since it was a new location all the buildings, the hangers were constructed new. With the relocation of such project some consequences were occurred. There are some hazardous conditions were developed and these are affected to the employees wellbeing.

And also the many provides some kind of service and benefits package to the employees. But most of those don not have the desired results. Meanwhile the company faced greater risk as a result of existing Labor Turnover and Absenteeism Of employees. The morale Of work force has been gone down. The top management fears that any trade union action in the area will have an impact on the other subsidiaries of the group as all the employees belong to the some union. I tried to answer following questions and tried to solve the problems that are occurred in the company through this case study. 1 . Identify the hazards 2.

Identify the factors which are likely to cause occupational diseases 3. To do a safety audit & safety inspection 4. Identify the improvements to the external and internal environment 5. Assess the present benefits & services package 6. Plan out a suitable benefits & service package for the organization. Question NO 01 Identify the Hazards. Health & Safety are important aspects of an organization’s smooth & effective & functioning. Good Health performance ensures an accident free industrial environment. A working environment that is free of accidents & occupational diseases that may cause personal injury or ill health to employees.

When we refer to hazards in relation to occupational Health & Safety the most commonly used definition is “A hazard is a potential source of harm or adverse health effect on a person or persons. The terms hazard & risk are often used inter changeably. But this simple example explains difference between these ;’0. If there was a spill of water in a room then that water would present a slipping hazard to persons passing through it. If access to that area was prevented by a physical barrier then the hazard would remain though the risk would be minimized. According to this case study Cargo &

Container Handling Co. Ltd was earlier located in Colombo, in close proximity to the port. With the relocation of such projects out of Colombo city the container yard along with all its technical operations was relocated in Hennaed – Withal. The new container yard is around 10 acres in extent & was mechanized. Since it was a new location all the buildings, the hangers were constructed new. This is the picture at the initial stages of relocation of the yard. So as a result of this relocation of the yard several health & safety related problems were occurred.

In hear we can find several types of safety shards that can be affecting to the worker’s ill health as follows; Damaged roads & yards The present condition is that road & the yard are damaged due to the use of heavy machinery & the rain. There are ruts & holes & on rainy days these get filled with muddy rain water. Drains in the yard overflow and the whole are becomes water locked. During the rainy season the drains in the yard overflow & the whole area becomes water lacked. These have become very good grounds for mosquitoes to breed.

Few spot lights in the yard Yard is vast & there are only a few spot lights, some re fused & broken & in any case lights are far apart. Heavy workload (The workers involving packing, repairing of container sand washing, cleaning and painting of containers and mounting on trailers of containers is by the forklift operators, transport to the port, documentation, etc) Some heavy vehicle drivers & machine operators are compelled to continue working in two shifts to cover up for the absentees. Sometimes the trailer driver & the helper who go to the port are compelled to wait in the queue for long hours due to the congestion in the port.

Unsafe working conditions The employees have to wash & paint the 40 foot long containers & there is no intonation, & some employees faint inside or have difficulty in breathing and/ or get suffocated. There are no medical facilities available in night. There is a medical officer attending to the employees on day shift but not such facilities available in night. Not provide appropriate knowledge & education of available hazards to the employees. Question no 02 Identify the factors which are likely to cause occupational diseases. Health & safety are important aspects of an organization’s smooth & effective functioning.

Good health & safety performance ensure an accident – free industrial environment. An occupational disease is any chronic ailment that occurs as a result of work or occupational activity. It is an aspect of occupational safety and health. An occupational disease is typically identified when it is shown that it is more prevalent in a given body of workers than in the general population, or in other worker populations. A condition that results from exposure in a workplace to a physical, chemical or biological agent to the extent that the normal physiological mechanisms are affected and the health of the worker is impaired.

Biological agents include such organisms as bacteria, viruses, fungus, parasites, spores and moulds. They may be found in or on soil, water, organic matter, plants and animals. Chemical agents can include such things as battery acid, solvents, ammonia and pesticides. Physical agents include various forms of energy that may harm a worker, for example, heat, cold, light, vibration, noise and radiation. Ergonomic hazards are associated with work such as lifting or moving of heavy objects and tasks where there is excessive repetitive motion. According to this case study several hazards are available in this company.

Most of these hazards are help to increase occupational diseases and it will cause for employee’s health. Drains in the yard overflow and the whole are becomes water locked. The drains in the yard are not properly designed & maintained. During the rainy season the drains in the yard overflow & the whole area becomes water lacked as there is no proper outflow in the adjacent lands. This environment becomes very good grounds for mosquitoes breed. It helps to spread infection Such as dengue, malaria etc. Among workers. These types of occupational diseases may affect to the good health of the workers.

Inadequate illumination The yard is vast & there are only a few spot lights, some are fused & broken & n any case lights are far apart. Poor lightening in ware house can cause eye stain & contribute to serious accidents. Adequate lightning should be provided for workers to be able to see clearly the task & machinery they operate. As a result of inadequate illumination visual fatigue, double vision, headache, pain full irritation lactation etc, can be happened. Heavy work load & additional excessive night shifts Individuals spending most of the day on their work are at greater risk of health problems.

This company has 24 hour operation system & manual workers work on two shifts. It so happens that heavy vehicle drivers & aching operators are compelled to continue working in 2 shifts to cover up for the absentees. This situation cause for worker’s stress & it affected to his psychological wellbeing. And also this situation cause to problems such as depression, headache, poor circulation & damaged, heart & circulatory problems. Wait in queue for long hours Waiting for service is considered to make the customer frustrated, angry & stress.

According to this case sometimes the trailer driver & the helper who go to the port are compelled to wait in the queue for long hours due to the congestion in the port. So in such situation worker get more dissatisfaction tit their duty & it affect to their mental wellbeing. It can be cause for their stress, back injuries, affect to their shoulders, limbs and so on. The drinking water not available in the yard Under the health provisions of the low states that supply of adequate wholesome drinking water for all works is mandatory.

According to this case study drinking water is available in the office & the operational units but not in the yard. There is not appropriate method of providing drinking water. Most of the workers are spent time in the yard, not in the office. So it is mandatory to provide adequate drinking water in the yard. Otherwise it affect o the employee’s health. It will cause for dehydration problems, renal diseases, diarrhea disease etc. Inadequate ventilation Low says that the employer has to liable to provide suitable & sufficient ventilation & fresh air for all employees.

Effective & suitable provisions shall be made for securing & maintaining by the circulation of fresh air in every part in the work place. But in this company the employees have to wash & paint the 40 foot long containers & there is no ventilation. As a result of that some employees get faint inside or have difficulty in breathing and/or get suffocated. Its a serious unhealthy work related issue. It help to increase Ashman, respiratory diseases etc. Staff not educated of available hazards Various places in the yard safety posters, safety slogans, safety management are displayed & exhibited.

But the technical staff is unable to explain the details & salient features of such posters & slogans. Employer has great responsibility for provide through knowledge & understanding about these safety measures to the workers. If worker not get proper idea of these policies & other safety measurements they have to face dangerous situations. Lack of knowledge of PEE, safety policies directly causes occupational accidents. Question No 03 TO do a safety audit and safety inspection Why make audits and inspections? Audits and inspections are an important part of your Health and Safety Management System in that they are part of the review process.

Done correctly, audits and inspections serve a number of important functions. They help identify health and safety issues and give you the opportunity to correct them before they result in accidents. They are a demonstration of your commitment to good standards of health and safety. They provide the opportunity to constructively engage with a range of staff on health and safety matters and help to build a good health and safety culture. They provide confirmation that all the elements of you Health and Safety Management System are working as you expect. Safety audit team is responsible to A.

Identify problems and hazards B. What is the reason for the hazard Identify the responsible person What he did What he is doing & What he did not C. Take action Inform top management Make/establish safety policies Appointed responsible person & Authorized Conducting meetings, training programs, D. Conduct regular inspections Daily/Monthly/Quarterly/Annually According to this case we can do a safety audit for this company by following above steps. It will help management to identify what are the possible hazards & safety improvements. Following table provide some example for safety audit.

Hazard Possible reasons for hazard Who is responsible Consequences / damages according to the current situation Poss. able situations The damaged roads Due to the use of heavy machinery & the rain Maintenance manager Difficult transport Affected to the productivity Waste time for transport Harmful for vehicles Increase employee conflicts Reconstructing the roads in appropriate methods & measurements as soon as possible Drains in the yard overflow & the whole area become water cocked There is no proper outflow in adjacent lands Damaged roads Affect to the employee’s health ( diarrhea diseases) Increase epidemic diseases e. . ;dengue Reconstructing drains in standard measures Pumped dirty water gulled Spray EDT or other anti aids for mosquitoes Yard is vast Some lights are fused & broken In any case lights are far apart Maintenance manager / Safety manager Increase accidents, hazards, near misses. Affect to the employees performance & their health Increase number of spot lights Provide suitable adequate illumination Heavy work load May be lack of employees May Not having proper work schedule

Her manager & top management De motivate employees Affect to worker’s mental wellbeing Divided 2 shifts into 3 shifts Implement job rotation system By answering following questions you can identify what are the hazardous situations & what are the improvements. 01. The damaged roads and yards Reason for damaged Is resources are allocated for repairing Are they Conducting maintenance Does the roads are made in a stranded measurements Solutions has taken so far What are the possible solutions 02.

Drains in the yard overflow and the whole are becomes water locked Reasons for water block What are the consequences/ damages Solutions has taken Are the constructions standardized 03. Few spot lights in the yard Reason for the problem What are the consequences/damages because of the problem What is the required standard Of illumination 04. Container handling rash and manual workers work on two shifts what is the possible schedule for workers what are the problems may occur if this situation continuous what would be the possible solutions (new schedule) 05.

Heavy workload forklift operators, transport to the port, documentation, etc) Consequences ( Time wasting, De motivated employees) Reason for this problem (whether lack of employees) Question No 04 Identify the improvements to the external & internal environment According to this case study this cargo & container handling company is faced serious situation as a result of their unsafe working conditions & lack of consideration of the workers. As a result of that the existing Labor Turnover & absenteeism level is considerably go high. The morale of the employees has gone down.

The top management fears that any trade union action in area will have an impact on impact on the other subsidiaries of the group as all the employees belong to the some union. So management has great responsibility to identify he available hazardous facts that are affecting to the worker’s health & performance. After implement possible improvements & solutions for above problems. According to my view following solutions can be implementing for the improvements of external & internal environment. Reconstructing damaged roads in appropriate method & filling the ruts & holes in constant maintenance.

Drains must be reconstructed according to the standard measurements as soon as possible. Because of during the rainy season the drains in the yard overflow & whole area became water locked as there is no proper outflow in the adjacent lands. Inch slope to 8 inch length Increase the diameter of the outlet Connect the drains to municipal drain system Bumper the dirty water gulled. It’s a short term solution. Clean the environment as an immediate solution for the mosquito breeding. Spray EDT or other anti aids for mosquitoes as soon as possible. As mentioned earlier there is a hazard of few spot lights.

The yard is vast and there are only few spot lights, some are broken & any case lights are far apart. For this situation We can increased number of spot lights or We can implement high voltage spot lights. There by we can get more illumination from few lights. Or We Can implement LED light system or rotate flash light system. Must place light near to apart The cargo & container handling is a 24 hour operation & the manual workers work on two shifts. This procedure brings down the morale of the work force. We can implement Spilt Shift system for operations.

A split shift is a type of shift-work schedule where a person’s work day is split into two or more parts. For example, a person may work from 05:00 to 09:00, take a break until 1 5:00 and then return to work until 19:00. This kind of pattern is especially common or people such as public transport employees (where it is advantageous to have additional staff working during traditional rush hour times) or bar staff that work at lunchtimes and during the evening. It is generally not desired because it ties employees to work for extended periods and the time in between shifts can be lost traveling to and from work.

We can implement job rotation system for cover up absenteeism. E. G. We can implement Forklift operator for the available absenteeism. And also we can provide attendance allowances for the employees. There by employees get motivate themselves attending to their duty regularly. Provide adequate sanitary facilities including washing facilities, Rest rooms etc. Make suitable procedure to employees for washing their uniforms. In this case there is no regular uniform washing facilities. So without proper facilities it is not fair to punish or fine employees. O management must implement suitable programmer for this. Provide accommodations or restrooms for the operators who finish their shift work in the night spend the night in the yard or provide transport facilities for such workers. Provide suitable transport facilities for employees who sick at night. Supply some energy drink such as Tea, water, milk for the trailer drivers & the helpers who wait in the queue for long hours in the port. Implement different trailer drivers & helpers. (Job rotation) Provide air conditioning or suitable ventilation system for long containers. It is a mandatory.

Provide adequate wholesome water to the yard also by providing water filter or something. Management must provide thorough understanding about occupational health & safety measures, policies, slogans & safety signals. Conduct training or workshops for all employees in the company. Question No 05 Assess the present benefits and service package. Cash isn’t always enough in this day and age to recruit the best talent for your company. It’s also important to provide an attractive benefits package. As well as a competitive salary, good benefits help to build a strong working relationship between employees and employers.

Companies find that a strong benefits plan promotes improved work habits and can help to reduce employee turnover. Overall, it can decrease costs and gives employees an enhanced sense of security and belonging. The type of employee benefits provided can vary with each company. It is important for business leaders to consider their options carefully. For example, the industry in which a business falls can help to determine the most appropriate benefits package to provide. Jobs that require for employees to work outside in bad weather may want to offer additional paid sick leave.

Conversely, indoor office positions may require a completely different type of package. According to this case we can find several benefits provided to the employees. But there is some wrong thing happen of their present benefit package. Their package is not equal for all employees & they don’t have clear idea about what exactly outcome of their benefit package & service package. Presently they offer following benefits & service package. 1. Relocation allowances At the initial stages of relocation a “settling in allowance” was paid by the company. And also traveling allowances was paid.

But this allowance is provided only for the executive’s continually. But not for the other employees. They paid to the employees only for three months. 2. Traveling allowance The latter category is entitled to special traveling arrangements such as pick up & drops up at port. But the operatives who finish their shift work in the night in the yard, in spite of the fact facilities are not provided for such staff. This situation may cause for employee grievances. And also absenteeism rate & late attendance can be occurring. 3. Shift allowance A pint of milk is given to all the heavy vehicle drivers & machine operators.

A few employees do not like it but there is no choice. Initiation of the management is good. But some employees were rejected because of lack of understanding of management idea. The purpose of management is to keep heavy work employees fit & health. 4. Provide uniforms Uniforms are a safety precaution & cost effective method. In hear lockers are situated far away from the work stations. It is always better to have the informs lockers in a reasonable place. And also there is a laundryman washes the uniforms but he is not regular, 5. Provide food There is no canteen facility is available.

But vehicle is provided for the tea maker who collects money from the employees & bring food for the employees who have not bought their food at home & who are continue the shift. This is a good idea, provide food. But it is more frequent to have conflicts & disputes. 6. Provide drinking water Provide adequate wholesome drinking for the staff is mandatory by low. But in this company it is not properly following. The drinking water is available in he office & the operational units but not in the yard. Workers spend their times usually at yard not in the office.

So it is a physical need of employees & they have right to full fill their basic needs. 7. Provide medical facilities There is a medical expenses reimbursement scheme for all employees, with special Health policy in operation for the executives with variations from senior executives to junior executives. Minor employees are mostly exposed to the accidents. But management not provided enough medical facilities for such employees. They have only one medical officer & also he is not available at night. If an employee falls in the night or an emergency the worker has to be transported to the nearby hospital.

So these are some of the services & benefits provided by the company. We can understand most of these do not have the desired results. Question NO 6 Plan out a suitable benefits and services package for the organization. Employee benefits play an important role in the lives of employees as well as their families. For that reason, the benefits you offer can be a deciding factor for a potential employee’s decision to work at your business.

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