Human Resource Management (HARM) is a relatively new approach to managing people in any organization. People are considered the key resource in this approach. It is concerned with the people dimension in management of an organization. Since an organization is a body of people, their acquisition, development of skills, motivation for higher levels of attainments, as well as ensuring maintenance of their level of commitment are all significant activities. These activities fall in the domain of HARM.
Human Resource Management is a process, which consists of four main activities, namely, acquisition, development, motivation, as well as maintenance of human resources. Scott, Clothier and Spiegel have defined Human Resource Management as that branch of management which is responsible on a staff basis for concentrating on those aspects Of operations which are primarily concerned with the relationship of management to employees and employees to employees and with the development of the individual and the group.
Human Resource Management is responsible for maintaining good human relations in the organization. It is also concerned with development of individuals and achieving integration of goals of the organization and those of the individuals. Northrop considers human resource management as an extension of general management, that of prompting and stimulating every employee to make his fullest contribution to the purpose of a business. Human resource management is not something that could be separated from the basic managerial function. Is a major component of the broader managerial function.
French Wendell, defines -?Human resource management as the recruitment, selection, development, utilization, compensation and motivation of human resources by the organization”. According to Edwin B. Fillip, -?Human resource management is the planning, organizing directing and controlling of the procurement, development, resources to the end that individual and societal objectives are accomplished”. This definition reveals that human resource (HER) management is that aspect of management, which deals with the planning, organizing, directing and controlling the personnel functions of the enterprise.
NATURE OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT The emergence of human resource management can be attributed to the writings of the human religionists who attached great significance to the human factor. Lawrence Apply remarked, -?Management is personnel administration II. This view is partially true as management is concerned with the efficient and effective use of both human as well as non-human resources. Thus human resource management is only a part of the management process. At the same time, it must be recognized that human resource management is inherent in the process Of management.
This function is performed by all the managers. A manager to get the best of his people must undertake the basic responsibility of selecting people who will work under him and to help develop, motivate and guide them. However, he can take the help of the specialized services of the personnel department in discharging this responsibility. The nature of the human resource management has been highlighted in its following features: 1. Inherent Part of Management: Human resource management is inherent in the process of management.
This function is performed by all the managers throughout the organization rather that by the personnel department only. If a manager is to get the best of his people, he must undertake the basic responsibility of selecting people who will work under him. 2. Pervasive Function: Human Resource Management is a pervasive function of management. It is performed by all managers at various levels in the organization. It is not a responsibility that a manager can leave completely to someone else. However, he may secure advice and help in managing people from experts who have special competence in personnel management and industrial relations. . Basic to all Functional Areas: Human Resource Management permeates all the functional area of management such as production management, financial management, and marketing management. That is every manager from top to bottom, working in any department has to reform the personnel functions. 4. People Centered: Human Resource Management is people centered and is relevant in all types of organizations. It is concerned with all categories of personnel from top to the bottom of the organization. The broad classification of personnel in an industrial enterprise may be as follows: (I) Blue-collar workers (I. . Those working on machines and engaged in loading, unloading etc. ) and white-collar workers (I. E. Clerical employees), (ii) Managerial and non-managerial personnel, (iii) Professionals (such as Chartered Accountant, Company Secretary, Lava. H. Year, etc. And non-professional personnel. 5. Personnel Activities or Functions: Human Resource Management involves several functions concerned with the management of people at work. It includes manpower planning, employment, placement, training, appraisal and compensation of employees.
For the performance of these activities efficiently, a separate department known as Personnel Department is created in most of the organizations. 6. Continuous Process: Human Resource Management is not a one satisfaction. It must be performed continuously if the organizational objectives are to be achieved smoothly. 7. Based on Human Relations: Human Resource Management is concerned with the motivation of human resources in the organization. The human beings can’t be dealt with like physical factors of production.
Every person has different needs, perceptions and expectations. The managers should give due attention to these factors. They require human relations skills to deal with the people at work. Human relations skills are also required in training performance appraisal, transfer and promotion of subordinates. Personnel Management VS. Human Resource Management: Contemporary Human Resource Management, as a part and parcel of management function, underscores strategic approach to management in areas of acquisition, motivation, and management of people at work.
Human Resource Management derives its origin from the practices of the earlier personnel management, which assisted in the management of people in an organization setup. Human Resource Management leverages setting up the systems and procedures for ensuring efficiency, controlling and providing equality of opportunities for all working for the organization. Human Resource Management (HARM) differs from Personnel Management (PM) both in scope and orientation. HARM views people as an important source or asset to be seed for the benefit of organizations, employees and society.
It is emerging as a distinct philosophy of management aiming at policies that promote mutuality-mutual goals, mutual respect, mutual rewards and mutual responsibilities. The belief is that policies of mutuality will elicit commitment, which in turn, will yield both better economic performance and greater Human Resource Development (HARD). Though a distinct philosophy, HARM cannot be treated in isolation. It is being integrated into the overall strategic management of businesses. Further, HARM represents the latest term in the evolution of the subject.
There are several similarities between Human Resource Management (HARM) and Personnel Management (PM) (a) both models emphasize the importance of integrating personnel/HARM practices with organizational goals. (b) Both models vest Personnel/HARM firmly in line management. (c) Human Resource Management (HARM) and Personnel Management (PM) both models emphasize the importance of individuals fully developing their abilities for their own personal satisfaction to make their best contribution to organizational success.