Knowledge workers are employee whose main contribution to the organization is specialized knowledge, such as knowledge Of customers, a process, or a profession. They are especially needed for jobs in health services, business services, social services, engineering and management. Employee empowerment means giving employees responsibility and authority to make decisions regarding all aspects of product development or customer service. Employee engagement- full involvement in one’s work and commitment to one’s job and company, resulting in higher productivity, better customer service, and lower turnover.
Teamwork is the assignment of org to groups of employees with various skills who interact to assemble a product or provide a service. Three issues affect HARM: Customizing is reducing the number of employees on the operating payroll, which may be conducted by a company due to the following reasons: economic downturn, reduce labor costs, company under-performing and reduction of portfolio. Alienation’s expansion includes offspring and the international labor pool-offspring means moving operations from the country where a company is headquartered to a country where pay rates are lower but the necessary skills are available.
The international labor pool means hiring at home may involve selection of employees from other countries and the beginning of the 21 SST century has seen significant immigration. Registers and acquisition: HARM should have a key role in carrying out a merger or acquisitions -Differences between the businesses involved in the deal make conflict inevitable. -Training should include developing conflict resolution skills. -Find out differences in the two companies’ practices with regard to compensation, performance appraisal, and other HER system. Chapter 4 How to formulate job analysis: CIA)O
Job description(Tars) is a list of tasks, duties and responsibilities (Tars) that a particular job entails. The key components are job title, brief description Of the TARS and list Of the essential duties with detailed specifications of the tasks, involved in carrying out each duty. In addition, the job description should be reviewed regularly: Once per year. Performance appraisal is a good opportunity to review the job description. @Job specifications(Soaks) is a list of the knowledge, skills, abilities and other characteristics (Soaks) that an individual must have to perform a particular bob.
K: factual or procedural information necessary for successful performing a task. (How to use computers) S: an individual’s level of proficiency at performing a particular task. (Communication skills) A: a more general enduring ability that an individual have (Able to work in teams) O: job-related licensing,certifications,or personality features (Must have certificate in “MS Word Skills Certificate”) How to design job based on safety and health (ergonomics)? The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) have a “four- pronged” policy for encouraging ergonomic job design.
Tot issue guidelines (rather than regulations) for specific industries. Cote OSHA enforces violations of its requirement that employers have a general duty to protect workers from hazards, including ergonomic hazards. A The OSHA works with industry groups to advise employers in those industries. @The OSHA established a National Advisory Committee on Ergonomics to define needs for further research. Chapter 5 Analyze of transitional matrix Transitional matrix is a chart that lists job categories held in one period and shows the proportion of employees in each of those job categories in a future period.
It answers two questions: ‘Where did people in each job category go? ” and ‘Where did people now in each job category come from? ” What is image advertising? Llama advertising is particularly important for organizations in highly competitive labor markets that perceive themselves as having a bad image. What are the different sources of external sources (recruitment)? Organizations often recruit through direct applicants and referrals, advertisements, employments, employment agencies, schools and Web sites. Direct applicants are people who apply for a vacancy without prompting from the organization.
Referrals re people who apply because someone in the organization prompted them to do so. Chapter 6 What is the aptitude test & the achievement test? Aptitude test evaluates how well a person can learn or acquire skill and abilities. ( Similar to IQ tests ) Achievement test measure a person’s existing knowledge and skill. (Test more relevant to the job ) 4 different interview techniques . Con-directive interview: Interviewer has great discretion in choosing questions on strengths, weaknesses, career goals, work experiences etc.
Structured interview: Interviewer ask pre-determined question on a list on skills, experiences. Cannot ask questions which are not in the list. Situational interview: Interviewer describes a situation that is likely to arise in the job. Then ask what the candidate will do in that situation. @Behavior description interview: Interviewer asks the candidate to describe how he or she handles a type of situation in the past. What should be included in the offer letter? The offer letter should include job responsibilities, work schedule, rate of pay, starting date and other relevant details.
Chapter 7 5 steps of the instructional design in training Assess needs for training: the process of evaluating the organization,person ND task to determine what kind of training, if any, are necessary. @Ensure readiness for training: the organization ensures that employees are ready for training in terms of their attitudes, motivation, basic skills and work environment. Opinion training program includes the program’s objectives, instructors, and methods. @element training program: the organization should put the plan training into real & place, implements the program.
Devalue results of training: organization should ensure the training is meeting objectives,which can use measures: Trainee [email protected] f [email protected]’new skills,knowledge @ performance improvement return on investment Chapter 8 *** 3 reasons for conducting performance management Strategic purpose: means effective performance management helps the organization achieve its business objectives. (Performance expected by employees in order to meet a company’s overall goals and objectives. @Administrative purpose: refers to the ways for organizations use the system to provide information for daily decisions about salary, benefits, and recognition programs. (Check the performance,who to reward, who to mentor) 9 Development purpose: as a basis for developing employees’ knowledge and skills. (How employees can do better in future. ) How to do performance management based on results? Superconductivity getting more done with less resources (money or people) can increase the company’s profits. Firstly, the organization make the products- set of activities or objectives-it expects a group or individual to finish.
Secondly, define how to measure production of these products. F-anally, set up a system for tracking these measures and giving employees feedback about their performance. O Management by objective (MOB) is a system for people at each level of the organization set goals in a process that flows from top to OTTOMH, so employees at all levels are contributing to the organization’s overall goals, which become the standards for evaluating each employee’s performance. Firstly, set specific, difficult and objective goals. Secondly , managers and their employees work together to set the goals.
Finally, the manager gives objective feedback through the finish rate. Different types of errors in performance management Contrast errors: the rater compares an individual, not against an objective standard, but against other employees. Distributional errors: the rater tends to use only one part of a training scale. @Leniency: the reviewer rates everyone near the top. @Strictness: the rater favors lower rankings. Central tendency: the rater puts everyone near the middle of the scale. Orate bias: raters often use their quality color opinion to review others. Hoi error: If the bias is in a favorable direction , it will mistakenly tell employees they do not need to improve in any area. Roans error: If the bias involves negative ratings, it will cause employees to feel frustrated and defensive. Chapter 9 How to develop employees by using the job experiences approach? The organization may enlarge the employee’s current job or move to different jobs. Lateral moves include job rotation, transfer or temporary assignment to another organization. The organization may also use downward moves or promotions as a source of job experience.
Chapter 10 4 reasons of employees’ job dissatisfaction Personal dispositions includes negative affectively and core self-evaluations. Negative affectively means low levels of satisfaction with life, which compared with Other people’s feeling. Core self-evaluations are bottom-line opinions of individuals, which may positive or negative. @Tasks & roles includes role, role ambiguity, role conflict and role overload. A person’s role & behaviors once with that person is expecting in that job. Role ambiguity is about what the organization and others expect from the employee in term of what to do or how to do it.
Role conflict is an employee’s recognition that demands of the job is incompatible or contradictory; a person cannot meet all the demand. Role overload means too much expectations or demands on a person. (The opposite situation is role undergrad) Supervisors & Co-workers includes negative behavior by managers and conflicts between employees. @Pay and Benefits: pay is an indicator of organization, pay and benefits contribute to self-worth. Chapter 1 1 Economic influences on the pay Product Markets includes offer competing goods & services based on quality, service and price.
The cost of labor is a key part of an organization’s costs. (Egg:an important influence on price is the cost to produce the goods and services for sale) Markets: Organizations must complete to gain HER in labor markets. Competing labor for setting a minimum pay to hire employees for a particular job. (Egg:the cost of living-the cost of a household’s expenses, such as house payments, medical care and gasoline) What does pay differential mean? Pay differential means adjustment to a pay rate to reflect differences in working conditions or labor markets.
Chapter 13 5 different types of optional benefits which give to employees The optional benefits include Paid Leave, Group Insurance, Retirement Plans, “Family-friendly’ Benefits and Other Quality of Work-Life Benefits. Chapter 15 Two factors affect human resource management in global: Education: The education and skill levels of a country’s labor force affect how and the extent to companies wants to operate there. If countries with a poorly educated population, companies will limit their activities with low-skill, low-wage job.
Economic system provides incentives or disincentives for developing the value of the labor force. The health of an economic system affects HARM. In developed countries with great wealth, labor costs are relatively high. This impacts compensation and staffing practices. Chapter 1 6 *** what is a outcomes of a high-performance work system? Outcomes of a high-performance work system include higher productivity & efficiency. These outcomes contribute to higher profits. A high performance work system may have other outcomes including high product quality, great customer satisfaction and low employee turnover.