Thus, the approach was called “an educational class system”. The graduates of either universities or polytechnics were hired as high-ranking employees with monthly payment, whilst the graduates of technical or commercial schools which were on a level with secondary education filled the posts of employee in semi-staff condition. Their wages were paid either monthly or daily. In the case of workmen with basic education at shop floors, the payment was only made daily.
The gap of prestige and remuneration amongst the different ranks was distinctive 1 This noticeable correlation between educational background and ex officio standing was developed within a group of large corporations from the beginning of the 20th century. Afterwards, during the asses and ass, it became common in large-scale firms. It has been agreed that, as a key element of corporate employment, the custom of periodically employing new graduates of universities and other educational institutions characterized the growth of the Japanese internal labor market 2 .
Sahara Sojourn, Onion no Rouse-Kankakee(linguistic Relations in Japan),Tokyo , 1 968,IPPP-76, 2 Summary Jinni, Indonesia Juddering Seize no kayak sinuously ( Employment Management of Junior Staff in Electrical Machinery Industry in the 1 ass’s: A Case Study of Hitachi Ltd ) ,Shaky-Aziza Kiosks(Socio-Economic History),vi,non, There has been a general viewpoint that this “educational class system” was abolished by the Japanese policy of demonstration after WWW II; nonetheless, my study points out a new fact that a couple of misapprehension exists there.
The first misconception is that it was rather exceptional for a new employee with comparatively weak educational background to be promoted to a registries post despite his long commitment and contribution to his firm 3 The second is that any potential disaccorded between the highly ranked and compensated group of university graduates and the lower with basic education was dealt with by the former alongside the unique Japanese code of group behavior.
Especially, the superior engineers with university education were known to take a serious view of operatives’ works at shop floor more than assignments at laboratories; and this attitude was positively appraised in the past studies and discussed as a key success factor 4 . Yet, the two standpoints seem invalid. The statements of the management and leading engineers of the period prove that the university graduates of engineering did not possess adequate knowledge for production operation.
Besides, they did not show any preference to practices at shop floor and instead complained a lot about technical operations at workshops. The Japanese firms necessitated both university-educated engineers with theoretical knowledge and shop floor technicians with operational understanding, when they developed new products on the basis of imported western technologies.
My research 5 has investigated the Japanese human resource management of pre-war Japanese corporations, and it presents that the technicians were mostly the graduates of technical schools which were on a level with secondary education and, even in some cases, those with only elementary education. They were, at the beginning, hired as a junior group of workforce I. E. Workmen or employee in semi-staff condition, 3 Sahara, pop,cit, 4 Marjoram Hideaways, Onion Jiujutsu’s no “Genoa-Sissy”in Tutee(The Origins of Genoa (Job Site) – oriented Mind of the Modern Japanese Engineers),
Yashmak Skies Kenney(Yashmak Business Review), vi,non, 5 Chair Hiroshige, Jinni-Kanji-Jinee-Sign no Kisses to Minibus-Aside(Personnel Administration – Development of Human Resource and Educational Class System),Abe Takes, Mazurka Uniform De, Onion Sissies Souza,viva, Kyoto, 2009, however, got promoted later to the higher ranks in accordance with their commitment to work and Internal training programmer, and consequent appraisals of their technical capability.
The Japanese firms of the period required those human resources to improve technological capacity, and acclimated the development by providing them with incentives of promotion to prestigious posts. II. Higher Technical Education and Appraisal of University-graduated Engineers Throughout the historical context of adopting western industrial technologies, Japan experienced the early disintegration of apprentice system and the swift institutional development of technical educations even before the full-scale industrialization.
Henry Dyer, a graduate of Glasgow University, attempted to integrate theoretical and technical educations, and this resulted n the establishment of a symbolic institution of engineering in 1 873, Kobo Diagonal, which was the precursor of the Engineering Department of Tokyo university.
Dyer’s ideology of the combined education of technology gained high reputation of “deserving international attention”, and his approach was recognized to bring forth the university-educated Japanese engineers’ common ethos of taking operations at shop floor seriously 6 . Nevertheless, it is worth noting that a considerable number of managers, engineers, technician, and workmen brought up harsh criticism about the effectually of he university-level technical education as well as the overall capability of university graduates.
Chichi Ai-Chichi, managing director of Mediumistic Electric and an ex rear admiral of technology of the Japanese Imperial Navy, advised his men in 1938 that they should ease up on the ‘Yet unprofessional” new recruits from universities and stop despising the “rookies of practical engineering at real workshops” since the university programmer were generally concerned more with highbrow engineering theories 7 .
Couches Mastoid, professor of engineering at Tokyo University and who was also an eminent guru of engineering of the time, was vexed by the fact that a noticeable majority 6 managers were dissatisfied with university graduates without Myosin Inhibitor, Onion Gouge Kikuyu Security;Is no Kenney(A Study on the History of the Formation of Industrial Education in Japan), Tokyo,1985, Moratoria,pop cit, 7 Chichi Ai-Chichi, Couches in Anna woo Motor-Beak(The Duties of Charged), Nagoya, 1 938, comprehension of their potentials .
Their views of supporting university graduates, as a matter of fact, proved the growing public voice of censuring heir inevitably underdeveloped competency in shop floor practices.
A few causes of the university graduates’ insufficient practical knowledge and incapacity of directing workshop technicians and workmen were discussed: firstly, the drawback of university programmer was derived from the overstress upon note takings at lectures instead of development of the ability of thinking and reading; secondly, university students of engineering tended to dislike practical trainings; and furthermore, the content of the university programmer lacked technical trainings necessary for the actual operations at hop floors 9 .
Concerning the sustainable technological development, Japanese corporations began to necessitate a new group of workforce that could fill the social and professional gap between “highbrow theoreticians” from universities and “practitioners” with relatively insufficient theoretical understandings. The Japanese firms then obtained the essential human resources from their own internal training programmer as well as personnel administration.
The following section will introduce the authors research on the managerial endeavourer in the shipbuilding sector, which led the noticeable Roth of the Japanese heavy industry. II. Internal Development of Human Resources and Professional Promotion In the case Of the shipbuilding industry, this research analyses the human resources development and personnel administration of the naval arsenal and the Nagasaki dockyard of Mediumistic Shipbuilding Company. The following three points deserve our attention.
Firstly, along with the development of the modern educational institution, they recruited university or polytechnic graduates for the prestigious post of administration, but this was not the only approach of employment; another method of personnel was o train talented workshop technicians and workmen internally and then promote them to the superior positions. Secondly, it is worth denoting that the technological underdevelopment facilitated the industry to build up the personnel policy. Couches Mishmash, Gouge Kikuyu Sicken(My Personal View on Industrial Education), Toy Gauge assurance on Eastern Arts and Sciences), vi,nanny, 1914, IPPP 9 Sukiyaki,souses(Journal of Sukiyaki), nine,1925, pop, Couches,pop cit IPPP, Then, lastly, due to the industrial underdevelopment, the two organizations rendered newly recruited assistant engineers from university or polytechnic to workshops for a while during the initial period of their career development: the intention of this programmer was to let them experience the technical practices. The three features are well illuminated in the following historical descriptions.
The naval arsenal in its early phase of 1 870 benchmark a French model of technical school to set up its own, and commenced development of two kinds of human resources: superior technical staffs with education of professional apprehension of theories (similar to the French naval technical officers) and skilled shortchanges at shop floors with basic theoretical education. In tandem with the founding of modern technical schools in Japan, only university graduates were recruited for the superior posts of engineering from 1882, and the corporate training programmer for professional engineers was abolished.