Which of the following would increase cardiac output to the greatest extent?
increased heart rate and increased stroke volume
decreased heart rate and decreased stroke volume
decreased heart rate and increased stroke volume
increased heart rate and decreased stroke volume
increased heart rate and increased stroke volume

Yes, cardiac output = heart rate x stroke volume.

Which of the following would increase heart rate?
epinephrine and norepinephrine
acetylcholine
decreased activity of the sympathetic nervous system
increased activity of the parasympathetic nervous system
epinephrine and norepinephrine

Yes, secreted by the adrenal medulla as a result of sympathetic stimulation, these hormones act as part of the sympathetic response, increasing heart rate.

How would an increase in the sympathetic nervous system increase stroke volume?

decreased end diastolic volume
increased end systolic volume
increased contractility
increased end diastolic volume

increased contractility

Yes, an increase in sympathetic nervous system activity would increase contractility (by increasing available calcium), thus increasing stroke volume. Contractility causes an increase in stroke volume by decreasing end systolic volume; it does not change end diastolic volume.

By what mechanism would an increase in venous return increase stroke volume?

decreased end diastolic volume
increased end systolic volume
increased contractility
increased end diastolic volume

increased end diastolic volume

Yes, an increase in venous return increases the end diastolic volume. The fibers are stretched more, resulting in an increase in the force of contraction (preload, or the Frank-Starling Mechanism).

How would a decrease in blood volume affect both stroke volume and cardiac output?decreased stroke volume and no change in cardiac output
increased stroke volume and increased cardiac output
decreased stroke volume and decreased cardiac output
no change in stroke volume and decreased cardiac output
decreased stroke volume and no change in cardiac output

Yes, a decreased blood volume would decrease the end diastolic volume, thus lowering the stroke volume. Although this would initially lead to a decrease in the cardiac output, heart rate would increase because of increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system in an effort to maintain cardiac output.

The heart’s pacemaker is the:
Purkinje fibers.
atrioventricular bundle.
atrioventricular node.
sinoatrial node.
sinoatrial node.
The role of the coronary arteries is to:
direct blood to the aorta.
supply blood to the heart tissue.
move blood from the atria to the ventricles.
direct blood to the pulmonary veins.
supply blood to the heart tissue.
Which is correctly matched?
Stroke volume: amount of blood pumped out by each ventricle in one minute
Quiescent period: total heart relaxation between heartbeats
Diastole: contraction period
Systole: relaxed period
Quiescent period: total heart relaxation between heartbeats
The pulmonary circuit is not active in the developing fetus.
T/F
TRUE
myocardium
heart muscle
outermost layer of the serous pericardium
parietal layer
inner lining of the heart
endocardium
serous layer covering the heart muscle
epicardium
afterload
back pressure exerted by arterial blood
The left side of the heart is considered the systemic circuit pump. T/F
TRUE
Heart is actually one two or three pumps?

one pump
three pumps
two pumps

two pumps
Which chamber receives blood from the superior and inferior vena cavae?
left atrium
right ventricle
right atrium
left ventricle
Right atrium
Yes, the right atrium receives unoxygenated blood from the systemic circuit.
Which heart chamber receives blood from the pulmonary veins?
left ventricle
right atrium
right ventricle
left atrium
Left atrium
Which heart chamber pumps unoxygenated blood out the pulmonary trunk?
right atrium
right ventricle
left atrium
left ventricle
right ventricle
Which chamber pumps oxygenated blood out the aorta to the systemic circuit?
left ventricle
The first heart sound (the ‘lub’ of ‘lub-dup’) is caused by:
opening of the atrioventricular valves.
closure of the atrioventricular valves.
closure of the semilunar valves.
opening of the semilunar valves.
closure of the atrioventricular valves.
Which heart chamber sends deoxygenated blood to the lungs?
right ventricle
left ventricle
left atrium
right atrium
right ventricle
Which of the following is not a difference between cardiac and skeletal muscle?
-Which of the following is not a difference between cardiac and skeletal muscle?
– Cardiac muscle cells contain more mitochondria than do skeletal muscle cells.
– Cardiac muscle does not use the sliding filament mechanism for contraction; skeletal muscle does.
– Cardiac muscle cells quickly die in the absence of oxygen; skeletal muscle cells are better able to adapt to oxygen deficiency.
– The plasma membranes of cardiac muscle cells interlock, but skeletal muscle fibers are independent.
Cardiac muscle does not use the sliding filament mechanism for contraction; skeletal muscle does.
The heart has _____ chambers and _____ valves.
The heart has _____ chambers and _____ valves.
4; 2
2; 2
2; 4
4; 4
4;4
In what direction does blood flow through the heart?from a region of high oxygen content to a region of low oxygen content
from a region of high volume to a region of low volume
from a region of high pressure to a region of low pressure
from ventricles to atria
from a region of high pressure to a region of low pressure
Correct
Blood moves through the heart from atria to ventricles and out large arteries, always from areas of high pressure to areas of lower pressure through one-way valves.
Atrial pressure is greater than ventricular pressure during which phase of the cardiac cycle?
Atrial pressure is greater than ventricular pressure during which phase of the cardiac cycle?
isovolumetric relaxation
ventricular ejection
atrial contraction
isovolumetric contraction
atrial
The order of impulse conduction in the heart, from beginning to end, is:
The order of impulse conduction in the heart, from beginning to end, is:
SA node, bundle branches, AV node, bundle of His, and Purkinje fibers.
SA node, bundle of His, AV node, bundle branches, and Purkinje fibers.
SA node, bundle branches, bundle of His, AV node, and Purkinje fibers.
SA node, AV node, bundle of His, bundle branches, and Purkinje fibers.
SA node, AV node, bundle of His, bundle branches, and Purkinje fibers.
x

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