Hydraulic fracturing

What is hydraulic fracturing or fracking?

Hydraulic fracturing or fracking has been present for dozens of years now. Many shales far beneath the ground consist natural gas and oil which were created due to decomposition of organisms. So, hydraulic fracturing is the mechanical process which is used to extract these natural resources, from beneath the surface of the ground. Without hydraulic fracking, natural gas could not be manufactured. Hence, fracking makes it reachable today due to advancements in technology.

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What is injected and why? What hydrocarbons are extracted with this technique?

Fracking is a procedure that happens by mixing water with sand and chemicals. Moreover, this mixture gets injected at a high pressure into the ground. Then, a well is stuffed through a crack which is drilled prior to the procedure. This well is drilled vertically 10.000 feet into the ground and then turns horizontal. The pressurized mixture causes the rock layer or shales to crack. These cracks are held open by the sand particles so that natural gas and oil from the sale can flow up the well.

Concentrate on the chemistry process. What are the advantages and dangers of doing this?

Advantages:

Hydralic fracturing has its advantages and disadvantages. One of most important advantage is that fracking has the main role in producing electricity. This is because, due to fracking, producing electricity with natural gas costs roundly as much as producing electricity with coal. That is, fracking has made extraction of natural gas easier. Therefore, due to
its large amount, natural gas is cheaper. In addition, hydraulic fracturing has improved many states’ economies. This happens because, industries that contain the fracking system, pay taxes to the governments and create high-paying jobs.

Disadvantages:

The mixture of water with sand and toxic chemicals is done to hinder various microorganisms such as bacteria which clog the pipes. Also, the superfluous cement which is found in pipes dissolves by hydrochloric acid. The environment would be safe only if fluids and toxic chemicals remained far from the surface of the ground. However, the risk is that throughout the procedure there might be leaks of these toxic chemicals that are caused accidentally by blowouts and backflows of these fluids , which are able to find a way to get back in the surface and pollute rivers, water supplies and streams. During the procedure of fracking, methane leaks out polluting groundwater, people use the water for drinking, which is harmful. Because of this, not only human’s life is damaged but animal’s life as well.

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