The forces of attraction between two masses are along the line between their centers and equal size and opposite directions. The forces equal big G times mass one times mass two divided by the square of the distance between their centers.

The force of gravity is an inverse square law with distance. At twice the distance the force is one quarter as much. The gravitational field at a point is the resultant gravitational force that 1 keg would receive. The gravitational field near a mass equals big G times the mass divided by the distance squared from the centre. The gravitational field on the surface of a mass equals big G times the mass divided by the radius square. 6. 2 Electric force and field (eh) charging by friction, electrons are rubbed off one object leaving it excess positive and onto another object leaving it excess negative.

During all charging processes, the total charge before the process equals the total charge after the process. Conductors are substances that have electrons free to move. Insulators have electrons involved in chemical bonds and are not free to move. The magnitude of the force between two electric charges equals nine times ten to the ninth times the product of the charges divided by the distance between them squared. The direction of the force between two charges is along the line between their centers. Like charges repel and unlike hares attract.

The electric field at a point near a charge is equal to the force that an imaginary +1 C of charge would receive if placed at the point. The unit of electric field is Newton per Coulomb. The electric force on a charge in an electric field is equal to the electric field’s strength times the size of the charge. The electric field at a point near several charges is equal to the vector sum of the field of each charge. Point charges and spherical charges have radial electric fields. The direction is away from a positive charge and towards a negative charge.

An electric field constant in strength exits at different points between two oppositely charged metal parallel plates if the plates are close together compared to their length and width and the points are not near the edges. 6. 3 Magnetic force and field (eh) The earth has a south magnetic pole near the earth’s north pole and a north magnetic pole near the south pole. The magnetic field direction is away from a north pole and towards a south pole. A free swinging magnet in a magnetic field will align itself parallel to the magnetic field.

The north pole of the magnet points towards the Roth because it aligns itself parallel to the earth’s magnetic field and is attracted to the south magnetic pole near the north pole. A wire with an electric current has a magnetic field around it with a shape that is a series of concentric circles centered at the wire. The strength of the field is directly proportional to the current and inversely proportional to the distance from the wire. To determine the direction of the field around the wire, grip the wire with your right hand with your thumb in the direction of the current.

The direction of the field is the way the fingers curl. . A single moving electron has a magnetic field around it. Its shape and direction is the same as for the wire. Just think of the electron forming a current in the opposite direction to its velocity. The force on a moving charge is equal to the strength of the magnetic field at right angles to its direction of motion times its velocity times its charge. A current carrying wire in a magnetic field has a force on it due to the field strength of the magnetic field’s component at 900 to the wire BOB, times the current l, times the length of the wire in the field l.

The direction of the force is in the direction the palm of the right hand is facing when the fingers are pointed in the direction of the field and the thumb is in the direction of the current. The unit of magnetic field is the Tests T. One Tests is the field that will give a force of 1 Newton too wire 1 meter long at 900 to the field carrying a current of 1 ampere. A field of 1 T is very strong! The two types of charge are positive on protons and negative on electrons. During around the wire interacting with the magnetic field. The force is equal to the