Discuss the process of institution building and the role of chief executive in institution building with an example. 1 Organization design-A process for improving the probability that an organization will be successful-More specifically, Organization Design is a formal, guided process for integrating the people, information and technology of an organization. It is used to match the form of the organization as closely as possible to the purpose(s) the organization seeks to achieve. Through the design process, organizations act to improve the probability that the elective efforts of members will be successful.
Typically, design is approached as an internal change under the guidance of an external facilitator. Managers and members work together to define the needs of the organization then create systems to meet those needs most effectively. The facilitator assures that a systematic process is followed and encourages creative thinking. Hierarchical Systems Western organizations have been heavily influenced by the command and control structure of ancient military organizations, and by the turn of the century introduction of Scientific Management.
Most organizations today are signed as a bureaucracy in which authority and responsibility are arranged in a hierarchy. Within the hierarchy rules, policies, and procedures are uniformly and impersonally applied to exert control over member behaviors. Activity is organized within sub-units (bureaus, or departments) in which people perform specialized functions such as manufacturing, sales, or accounting. People who perform similar tasks are clustered together. The same basic organizational form is assumed to be appropriate for any organization, be it a government, school, business, church, or fraternity.
It is familiar, predictable, and rational. It is what comes immediately to mind when we discover that … We really have to get organized! As familiar and rational as the functional hierarchy may be, there are distinct disadvantages to blindly applying the same form of organization to all purposeful groups. To understand the problem, begin by observing that different groups wish to achieve different outcomes. Second, observe that different groups have different members, and that each group possesses a different culture.
These differences in desired outcomes, and in people, should alert us to the danger of assuming there is any single best way of organizing. To be complete, however, also observe that different groups will likely choose different methods through which they will achieve their purpose. Service groups will choose different methods than manufacturing groups, and both will choose different methods than groups whose purpose is primarily social. One structure cannot possibly fit all. , the form of organization must be matched to the purpose it seeks to achieve.
The Design Process Organization design begins with the creation of a strategy ? a set of decision guidelines by which members will choose appropriate actions. The strategy is rived from clear, concise statements of purpose, and vision, and from the organization’s basic philosophy. Strategy unifies the intent of the organization and focuses members toward actions designed to accomplish desired outcomes. The strategy encourages actions that support the purpose and discourages those that do not.
Creating a strategy is planning, not organizing. To organize we must connect people with each other in meaningful and purposeful ways. Further, we must connect people with the information and technology necessary for them to be successful. Organization structure defines the formal relationships among people and specifies both their roles and their responsibilities. Administrative systems govern the organization through guidelines, procedures and policies. Information and technology define the process(sees) through which members achieve outcomes.
Each element must support each of the others and together they must support the organization’s purpose. Exercising Choice Organizations are an invention of man. They are contrived social systems through which groups seek to exert influence or achieve a stated purpose. People choose to organize when they recognize that by acting alone they are emitted in their ability to achieve. We sense that by acting in concert we may overcome our individual limitations. When we organize we seek to direct, or pattern, the activities of a group of people toward a common outcome.
How this pattern is designed and implemented greatly influences effectiveness. Patterns of activity that are complementary and interdependent are more likely to result in the achievement of intended outcomes. In contrast, activity patterns that are unrelated and independent are more likely to produce unpredictable, and often unintended results. The process of organization design matches people, information, and technology to the purpose, vision, and strategy of the organization. Structure is designed to enhance communication and information flow among people.
Systems are designed to encourage individual responsibility and decision making. Technology is used to enhance human capabilities to accomplish meaningful work. The end product is an integrated system of people and resources, tailored to the specific direction of the organization. 2. Job design refers to the way that a set of tasks, or an entire job, is organized. Job design helps to determine: What tasks are done? How the tasks are done, how many tasks are done, and in what order the tasks are done.
It takes into account all factors which affect the work, and organizes the content and tasks so that the whole job is less likely to be a risk to the employee. Job design involves administrative areas such as: job rotation, job enlargement, task/machine pacing, work breaks, and Working hours. A well designed job will encourage a variety of ‘good’ body positions, have reasonable strength requirements, require a reasonable amount of mental activity, and help foster feelings of achievement and self-esteem. . Organizational analysis may be done for different purposes.
These include: 1) Enhancing the general understanding of the functioning of Organizations (i. E. Educational or research purposes. ) (The direct beneficiary is the researcher or the analyst rather than the Organization). Such a study may aim at enhancing the understanding of human behavior through a study of it in organization, or to enhance the understanding of the society as reflected in organizational life. 2) Planning for growth and diversification An analysis or a diagnostic study may be necessary for planning growth, versification, expansion etc.
Organizational analysis may reveal the strengths that could be used for growth and diversification, weak spots that need to be removed in the new plans, the precautions to be taken, structural dimensions to be kept in mind etc. Several insights may be provided on structure, people, systems, styles, technology etc. That have implications for growth. 3) Improving Organizational Effectiveness or Planning General Improvements Organizational Analysis may be used also for improving the general efficiency of an organization.
On the basis of a diagnosis made out of the analysis action tepees could be initiated in terms of toning up administration, introducing new management systems and processes, reduction of wasteful expenditure, introduction of time savers, change of personnel policies to enhance employee motivation, restructuring of some parts, training, elimination of unwanted structures and teasers, improvements in general health of the organization etc. 4) Organizational Problem Solving Whenever some subsystems departments, units etc. All sick or start creating problems a diagnosis may be undertaken with a view to identify the source of the problem and take corrective action. A sick unit, a bottleneck, a communication block, a poor performing department, frequently occurring conflict between two departments, repeated failures of a management system or an organizational process, a frequent violation of an organizational norm, fall in discipline, reduction in output absenteeism, increase in conflicts etc. An all lead to the need for an organizational diagnosis of a part of the organization or the entire organization. Tools of organizational analysis Observation represents the careful and planned method of recording certain phenomena, objects, events in conjunction with a given situation. Constantine, etc. (2008) considers it necessary, within the organization, to focus on observing the interaction between employees, in order to find answers to questions such as: What is the working pace of the employees – slow, methodical, alert, spontaneous?
What rituals do you notice in the enterprise? What are the values disseminated? Do the meetings generally provide revealing information? Who participates in these meetings? Who speaks? Whom do these people speak to? To what extent is sincerity situated in these meetings? How much time is devoted to different topics? The topics which often recur and which re discussed in depth frequently represent indications of the organizational culture values. Observations are used for gathering data on the symbols which are analyzed by the qualitative analysis methods.
Observations include mostly behavioral material, but also semantic symbols. Observations of behavioral symbols include monitoring and recording the organizational rituals, such as, for example, the celebration of company day as a ritual of integration. There will also be careful attention focused on the state and architecture of the buildings, decor, billboards, staff dress code, behavior and habits, working environment, the way in which everyone fulfils their role, employee behavior in conflict situations.
The analysis of these aspects allows knowing the reality, the working environment, both the organization’s physical components and the emotional, psychological elements, harder to decipher at first glance. The opinion interview technique always involves oral information, having the advantage of flexibility, of the ability to get specific answers to each question. Along with the use of the questionnaire, it is one of the techniques most often used in qualitative research. The interview is, however, a complex technique that requires certain abilities and skills from the researcher, especially social, communication and self-reflection skills.
The interview is used in the study of organizational culture to collect qualitative data about the cognitive elements of the culture, such as assumptions, values, norms and attitudes. Interviews may also serve to identify symbols, certain expressions, stories, anecdotes specific to the organization. “To successfully use the interview in organizational culture research, it is important to determine the persons that will be interviewed, hen, where and how the interview will be conducted, the set of questions that will be used and the method of recording it” (Janis©jive©, 201 1 , p 85).
Interviews help us perceive the consistency between what the interviewees say and the facts recorded from other sources. ” These perceptions are generally useful for: defining an updated vision of the history, the important events and its impact on the functioning of the organization; establishing a system of values and its assessment based on the concrete facts recounted by the interviewees; defining the existing professions within the organization, of the way in which he activities are conducted in a formal or less formal way’ (State 0. 2004, p 159). Generally, the interview provides interesting qualitative data, but it is time-consuming, it has high costs and it can record errors caused by the person conducting the research. The questionnaire represents, alongside with the interview, the most used tool and also the main quantitative method for collecting information on organizational culture analysis. Questionnaires are considered the basis of objective research for analyzing the cognitive elements of the culture.
Quantitative© (2011) believes that the main advantages of this tool are: the possibility of widely using it on a large number of subjects; speed and easiness in collecting data and in quantifying the different elements related to culture; a simpler way of establishing the various relationships between culture and other components, as well as the organization’s performance; the possibility to compare the results.
The topics that may be talked in the questionnaire are: mission and core values of the organization; philosophy on which it is based; fundamental directions of organizational culture; cooperation; communication system; freedom of opinion; the motivation / reward / finalization system; the way the organization’s leader is perceived . In terms of form of the questionnaire, there are several types of questions: closed (allowing only the choice between two or more pre-established types of answers), mixed and open (the answer being expressed freely by the subject). The open questions are suggested in the study of complex problems, providing rich information both about the personality of the investigated and about the problem analyses” (Caimans, 2008, p 17).
Nevertheless, the application of questionnaires has certain disadvantages: – the usability that the questions may not be understood by the entire population surveyed; – the existence of multiple meanings of different concepts used in the questionnaire; – the stiffness and inability to adjust the questions to the organizational context and to the subjects participating in the survey; – superficiality of results; – inability to perform historical and context analyses. 4.
TYPES OF CHANGE There are various areas within the organizational domain where changes can be brought about for operational enhancement of the organization as well as desirable behavior of members. The various types of changes that can have inconsiderable impact on the organizational culture are: a) Strategic Change This is a change in the very mission of the organization. A single mission may have to be changed to multiple missions. For example, when British Airways acquired a major part of U. S.
Air, the culture of the entire organization had to be modified to accommodate various aspects of American organizational culture into the British organizational culture. B) Structural Change Decentralized operations and participative management style have seen more recent trends the organizational structure. Since these structural changes haft the authority and responsibility to generally lower level management, it has a major impact on an organization’s social climate and members have to be prepared to develop a team spirit as well as acquire skills to make on-the-spot decisions at points of operations. C) Process-oriented Change These changes relate to technological developments, information processing, automation and use of robotics in the manufacturing operations. This means replacing or retraining personnel, heavy capital equipment investment and operational changes. This would affect the organizational culture and hence changes in the behavior patterns of members. People-oriented Change Even though, any organizational change affects people in some form, it is important that the behavior and attitudes of the members be predictable and in accordance with the expectations of the organization and be consistent with the mission and policies of the enterprise. These changes are directed towards performance improvement, group cohesion, dedication and loyalty to the organization as well as developing a sense of self-actualization among the members. These can be developed by closer interaction with employees and by special behavioral training and modification sessions
A number of theories and models have been postulated. Almost has presented a comprehensive view of a number of Change strategies and called them ‘Seven pure strategies of change’. Each of these strategies have been briefly summarized and explained. The Fellowship Strategy’ The assumption underlying this strategy seems to be, “If we have good, warm inter-personal relations, all other problems will be minor. ” Emphasis is placed on getting to know one another and on developing friendships. Groups that use this model often sponsor discussions, dinners, card parties, and other social events that bring people together.
The fellowship strategy places strong emphasis on treating everyone equally; this often is interpreted as treating everyone the same way. All people must be accepted; no one is turned away. When the group is making decisions, all members are allowed to speak, and all opinions are weighed equally. No fact, feeling, opinion, or theory is considered inherently superior to any other. Arguments are few, because conflict generally is suppressed and avoided. The Political Strategy- Political Strategists tend to believe that “If all the really influential people agree that something should be done, it will be done.
They emphasis a power structure that usually includes not only formally recognized leaders but informal, unofficial leaders as well. Much of the work done under the political strategy is the result of the leaders’ informal relationships. The political strategy emphasizes the identification and influence of people who seem most able to make and implement decisions. It usually focuses on those who are respected and have the largest constituency in a given area. One’s level of influence is based on one’s perceived power and ability to work with other influential people to reach goals that are valued by one’s constituency.
The Economic Strategy Economic strategists believe that “Money can buy anything or any change we want. ” They emphasis the acquisition of or ? at the very least, influence over ? all forms of material goods, such as money, land, stocks, bonds, and any other tractable commodity. This strategy is widely used in the United States and the Western world and is used most often by large corporations and by the very rich. Inclusion in a group that espouses this approach usually is based on possession or control of marketable resources.
Influence within the group is based on perceived wealth. Most decisions are heavily, if not completely, influenced by questions of profitability as measured by an increase in tangible assets. This approach is highly rational, based on the assumption that all people act more or less rationally from economic motives. As a result, such groups often have high needs for control and for rationality. The Academic Strategy The academic strategy assumes that “People are rational. If one presents enough facts to people, they will change. To this end, academic strategists undertake an unending series of studies and produce thousands of pages of reports each year. Inclusion in a group that plans to use the academic strategy to solve problems or to make changes is based primarily on one’s expertise in a given area or on one’s desire to acquire such knowledge. Leadership and influence within the group generally depends on the degree to which the person is perceived as an expert. Newcomers to the field are considered to have little to contribute, while those with advanced degrees or many years of specialized study receive a great deal of attention.
The Engineering Strategy Users of this strategy try to bring about behavioral change without dealing directly with the people involved. The underlying assumption is, “If the environment or the surroundings change enough, people will be forced to change. ” Therefore, engineering strategists may spend a great deal of time studying physical layouts, patterns of interaction, and role descriptions in work places and classrooms without ever speaking to the employees or students. Groups that approach change in this way often recruit members based on their Process of Change Organizational Development and Change Technical skills.
Group needs often are defined in terms of technical skills, Which are considered more important than interpersonal styles. The Military Strategy The military-style approach to change is based on the use of physical force. The name military has been given to this approach because it conveys the appropriate connotation to most people, not because the military is the sole user of this approach. Police Departments, “revolutionary” student groups, and some teachers, for example, employ the military strategy.
The basic assumption behind this approach is, “People react to genuine threats. With enough physical force, people can be made to do anything. ” Therefore, considerable time is spent in learning to use weapons and to fight. Physical indignation, strength, and agility are valued. Membership in military-strategy groups often is determined by one’s physical power and by one’s willingness to submit to discipline. Both within the group and in its dealings with the external environment, influence is exerted primarily through the fear of authority and through the threat of punishment.
Members of military-style groups need control, status, and security. They often tend to view most problems and relationships in terms of power, authority, threat and exploitation. The Confrontational Strategy The confrontational approach to change is based on the assumption that if en can mobiles enough anger in enough people and force them to look at a problem, the required changes will follow. Although conflict is stressed, this strategy emphasizes nonviolent conflict rather than physical force.
Membership in such a group is based on one’s ability to deal with and to use conflict in ways that benefit the group. The organization I am referring to the organization, I am familiar with is a -a large manufacturer/ marketer of safety products -the products are used as [personal protection safety] [ industrial safety] -the products are distributed through the distributors as well as sold directly -the reduces are sold to various industries like mining/fierceness/deference/ as well as to various manufacturing companies. -the company employs about 235 people. The company has the following functional departments *marketing *manufacturing *sales *finance/ administration *human resource *customer service *distribution *warehousing/ transportation *TTS ADOPT THE FOLLOWING MODEL FOR CHANGE 1 . Explain the reason for change with facts. If there are risks , acknowledge them but explain why it is worth taking the risks. 2. Objectively explain the benefits that could result from the change. 3. Get ready and sell the benefits at all times. 4. Anticipate objections. 5. Listen in depth. 6. Seek questions and clarifications / answer them. 7. Invite participation and ask for suggestions . . Avoid surprise because this stirs up unreasoning opposition. 9. Acknowledge the rough spots and show you plan to manage them. 10. Establish a timetable. 11. Set standards and explain your expectations. 12. Contact the informal leaders and use their resources. 13. Acknowledge the staff cooperation / support. 14. Provide feedback on the progress. 15. Reinforce the positive . 16. Keep the two way communication open. HOW DO YOU INITIATE CHANGE Often it is easier to carry out a job if there is a specific plan to follow. When major changes are to be installed, careful planning and preparation are necessary.
Strengthening the forces promoting the change and weakening resistance to it are the main tasks. CREATE A CLIMATE FOR CHANGE How people react to proposed changes is greatly influenced by the kind of climate for change that the manager/supervisor has created in the department. HOW IS THE RIGHT KIND OF CLIMATE CREATED? Supervisors and managers who have enthusiasm for progress and change build a healthy climate. Creating the right climate is more than just passing on changes. It involves: Encouraging employees to seek ways of improving their jobs. Seeking suggestions and ideas from employees.
This requires the manager/supervisor to listen and seriously consider suggestions. It is easy to see that there is a great deal of ego involvement in coming forth with an idea for improvement. Change can become an exciting and dynamic way of life. The manager/supervisor determines the climate in which they initiate change. GET READY TO SELL Much of the difficulty in getting co operation stems from the employees lack of understanding of how the change will affect them. With a little effort, managers/ supervisors can find most of the answers to employees’ questions before they are even asked.
Answers to these questions would be useful. What is the reason for the change? Whom will it benefit and how? Will it inconvenience anyone, if so, for how long? Will training or re training be necessary? When does it go into effect? Armed with the answers to these questions a manager/supervisor can head off many objections and can develop a plan to present the change. IDENTIFY THE SOURCES OF HELP Why should you, the managers and supervisors, shoulder the burden alone? Staff can frequently be a great help in preparing to sell a change by explaining technical aspects and demonstrating new techniques.
One of the most overlooked sources of help in introducing changes are the informal leaders in the work group. With their help the job becomes easier. Giving recognition to informal leaders puts them in a co operative frame of mind. Since union stewards are often informal leaders, their co operation ought to be solicited. The backing of union stewards makes the job easier. ANTICIPATE OBJECTIONS Change that upsets routines requires new knowledge or skills, or inconveniences people are bound to meet with some objections or resistance.