Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Natural Killer (NK) cells?

-NK cells attack transplanted organs.
-NK cells attack infected or cancerous cells.
– NK cells recognize abnormal or cancer cells by a specific antigen on their cell membrane.
– NK cells induce the target cell to undergo “apoptosis” (cell suicide).

NK cells recognize abnormal or cancer cells by a specific antigen on their cell membrane
Which of the following innate internal defenses work by interfering with viral replication?
-complement proteins
-T lymphocytes
-interferons
-phagocytes
interferons
How do phagocytes recognize foreign cells or bacteria?
-Phagocytes recognize a specific antigen on the cell surface.
-The phagocytes recognize molecules on pathogens not normally found on body cells.
-The phagocytes look for the absence of “self” proteins.
-All the foreign cells or bacteria are marked with opsonins that the phagocytes recognize.
The phagocytes recognize molecules on pathogens not normally found on body cells
Which of the innate defense mechanisms can lyse bacteria and mark cells for phagocytosis?
-interferons
-complement proteins
-cytokines
-natural killer (NK) cells
complement proteins
Which of the following can act as opsonins on bacteria, thus enhancing phagocytosis?
-interferons
-antibodies and complement proteins
-T cells
-natural killer (NK) cells
antibodies and complement proteins
What constitutes the body’s first line of defense against disease?
-antimicrobial proteins and various phagocytic cells
-the adaptive defense system
-intact skin and mucous membranes
-inflammation
intact skin and mucous membranes
How do interferons protect against infection in healthy cells?
-Interferons block viral reproduction in healthy cells through the production of antiviral proteins.
-Interferons perform complement activation.
-Interferons perform opsonization to coat microorganisms.
-Interferons promote fever, or an abnormally high body temperature.
Interferons block viral reproduction in healthy cells through the production of antiviral proteins
What is the specific target of interferons?
-infected cells
-antibodies
-specific viruses
-nearby healthy cells
nearby healthy cells
Which of the following is an effect of complement activation?
-tissue repair
-opsonization
-T cell activation
-fever
opsonization
What types of antigen are recognized by T cells?
-free antigens
-processed fragments of protein antigens displayed on surfaces of body cells
-bacterial antigens only
-cancer antigens only
processed fragments of protein antigens displayed on surfaces of body cells
Which of the following is not characteristic of the adaptive immune system?
-It is antigen-specific.
-It has memory.
-It is specific for a given organ.
-It is systemic.
It is specific for a given organ
How does a lymphocyte become immunocompetent?
-An antigen binds to a particular lymphocyte that has a receptor for it.
-Lymphocytes must be able to recognize their one specific antigen by binding to it.
-Lymphocytes must be relatively unresponsive to self-antigens so that they do not attack the body’s own cells.
-Lymphocytes rapidly proliferate to form an army of cells exactly like themselves and bearing the same antigen-specific receptors.
Lymphocytes must be able to recognize their one specific antigen by binding to it
Which of the following statements does NOT describe the adaptive immune response?
-It is systemic.
-It is specific.
-It has memory.
-It occurs immediately after the body is challenged by foreign material.
It occurs immediately after the body is challenged by foreign material
Which of the following exemplifies passive immunity?
-vaccine
-infection
-antitoxin
-vaccine booster shots
antitoxin
Which of the following best illustrates artificially acquired active humoral immunity?
-antivenoms
-infection
-vaccines
-antibodies received in breast milk
Vaccines
Select the correct statement about the function of antibodies.
-Complement fixation is the main mechanism by which antibodies provide protection.
-The most potent agglutinating agent is IgG.
-Neutralization is the process by which antibodies cause invading cells to clump together.
-Antibodies may directly destroy “invaders.”
Complement fixation is the main mechanism by which antibodies provide protection.
What type of cell is the precursor to the helper T cell?
-memory T cell
-CD8 cell
-regulatory T cell
-CD4 cell
CD4 cell
What type of cell is a precursor to the cytotoxic T cell?
-activated T cell
-CD4 cell
-CD8 cell
-regulatory T cell
CD8 cell
x

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