The purpose of this essay is to identify and discuss two models of heath, which are the Western and Pacific models of heath, three similarities and differences between the two health models. It will be described my traditional ethnic belief and value system of well being, it will also be explained about to impacts that colonisation has made on our traditional ethnic value and belief system and another two impacts of migration and settlement in Aotearoa for Colombians ethnic health and well being. This essay will be followed by a conclusion.

The Western Model health

The western model of heath that will be discussed in this essay is the biomedical model of medicine that was developed in the nineteenth century as a response to the medical knowledge of that time (The Biomedical Model, n.d.). According to this model, good health is the freedom from pain or defects. The biomedical model focuses on the physical progresses and biological factors, it does not include psychological, social diagnose or environmental. For instance most care professionals do not ask first for a psychological or social history of the patient or health consumer; instead they just tend to analyse the human body as parts of a machine and when a person is ill. It means something is not working properly and it needs to be fixed due to be healthy again.

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According to (Definitions of heath models, 2005). One of the features of this model is that illnesses can always be able to be dealt with by using medication, for example, a patient presenting with symptoms of depression, extreme tiredness, difficulty in sleeping and lack of interest in life. It would be diagnosed as having a problem resulting from an imbalance of brain chemicals. This could be corrected by prescribing drugs to restore the balance, or in severe cases ECT, which mean electro convulsive therapy (Biological and Psychological Models of Abnormality, 2006). There are 5 significant assumptions of this model and the first one is that all diseases are caused by a specific agent such as germ, virus, or parasite. The second assumption is that diseases universal biological or psychophysiological entities, resulting from somatic lesions or dysfunctions. The third one is that from biomedical perspective is the only valuable knowledge is the scientific one. The forth one is that since the body is regarded as a machine, so it needs repairing when is sick and the last one is restoring health requires the use of medical technology and advance specific procedures (Biological and Psychological Models of Abnormality, 2006).

The pacific model of health

The pacific model of heath that will be discussed is this essay is the fonofale, fono means meeting and fale means house. This model demonstrates the values and beliefs that many Colombians have. The fonofale model was created by fuimano Karl polotu endemann as a pacific island model of health for the use in the New Zealand context. This model can help to understand and treat people in a more holistic, safe and affective manner. The fonofale model consists of a Samoan house with the foundation or the floor, posts and roof encapsulate in a circle to promote the philosophy of holism and continuity (Fuimaono K, 2001).

The roof of the fonofale represents culture. In a Colombian perspective culture tends to revolve the four f’s: festivals, food, fun and family because this nation loves to party. It also represents values, beliefs and tradition that have been passed on from our ancestors, such as religion, language and the way that children are brought up. Colombia has 5 regions, which are the Caribbean, Pacific, Andean, Orinoquia and Amazonian. Each region has its own culture, dances, food and accents, but in general all the regions are joined together with the traditional music. An example is that Colombians always try to maintain our folklore or traditional dances alive everywhere in the world.

The foundation of the fonofale represents the family. In a Colombian perspective the family is very significant for everybody and it tends to be really close with each other. Colombians families are composed of nuclear families as well extended families. For instance with many Colombian families when the children get married they remain living with the parents or when people shear time or have a really close relationship with the family, they become part of the family as well.

The four posts of the fonofale connect the family and the culture that are the most important things for Colombians as well as for pacific islanders. Each post represents a different aspect, which are spiritual, physical, mental and other.

Spiritual, in a Colombia perspective is everything that maintains and helps people to be healthy not only mentally, but physically as well. For instance Colombians always tend to think positively to be in harmony and have a good life. It also relates several beliefs, which include attitude, Christianity or traditional spirituality relating to nature, language, beliefs and history.

Physical, in a Colombian perspective is more the appearance of the person; an example is how Colombians dressed, the way they act show how well they are and the food they eat because people eat healthy food. Being fit is something very important for Colombians that is the reason why Colombians like dancing, sports and walking and exercise; those also include being able to do the normal actives for themselves. Physical also compromises anatomy and physiology, which are the studies of the body as well as physical and organic substances, such as medications that can have impacts on the physical wellbeing.

Mental, in a Colombian perspective is the wellbeing of the mind, which involves thinking, emotions and behaviours expressed. One example that it is believed that how people think could not only affect the physical but mental health as well and it is also believed that mind and body are inseparable.

Other, In a Colombian perspective this dimension relates to various variables that can directly or indirectly affect health such as, gender, sexual orientation, age, social class, employment and educational status.

Time and environment this dimensions relate to the change from one city to another, the weather of different cities in Colombia.

Similarities between the western model and the pacific model

The first similarity is that people who are able to do the normal actives for themselves shows that they body is healthy, but if they cannot healthy is similar to the assumption 4 of the medical model of health which says that The patient is the passive target of medical intervention, since the body is regarded as a machine, and it is the body that needs repairing.

Three similarities between the biomedical model and the fonofale model of heath are

The second similarity is that Physical compromises anatomy and physiology. Anatomy is the study of the structure of living organisms and the study of microscopic anatomical structures. Physical is a branch of biology that deals with the normal function of living organism and their parts. Anatomy and physiology is similar to the third assumptions of the biomedical model, which is the biomedical perspective the reality should be seen through the glasses of sciences and that the only valuable knowledge is the scientific one.

The third similarity is the physical and organic which is similar to the assumption 5 that is restoring health requires only the use of medical technology and advanced scientific procedures.

Differences between the western model and the pacific model of heath

There are a lot of differences between the fonofale model and the biomedical model of health.

The first difference is that the biomedical model of health only focuses on the biological

Traditional ethnic belief and value system of wellbeing

Impacts that colonisation has made on Colombian ethnic value and belief system

Two impacts that colonisation has made to Colombia ethnic values and beliefs system are the language and social economic factors. The language was a significant impact because when people from Spain migrated to Colombia in 1492, there were indigenous people living in the country already and they were divided into approximately 80 tribes, each tribe had its own culture, believes, values and language (Colombian colonization, n.d.). Spanish people decided to call the native people in Colombia as Indians because they thought that they had arrived to India. Spanish people wanted the Indians to learn the language to communicate and be able to have the power beyond them. They introduced the religion and weapons to make Indians learn the language, but the best way was through the religion, if Indians didn’t want to learn they would be punished or even killed. A lot of the Indians languages were fading away because people and tribes were killed and the Spanish crown prohibited some other languages to be spoken. However, there are still several autochthonous languages spoken by the Indians, some of those languages are coreguaje, wayyu and batu (Institute of languages, 2005).

The second impact is on social economic factors When Spanish people reached the country they were looking for a city called El Dorado, It was a gold city. It was located in Bacatan Valley in the middle of Colombia. All they wanted was gold and when they saw that people was already living in the country, The crown forced the Indigenous people in Colombia to buy products, but the entrance of products was restricted and they could not sell anything to any other country, but Spain. The crown killed numerous numbers of people because they were cannibals, which means they used to eat people and they would eat Spanish people when they were asleep. When the crown started constructing houses, the Indians would attack and destroy the houses that were constructed because they wanted to have the power of the country back.

And to the Indians who wanted independence, the Spanish crown would put very high taxes, so that they would abandon their property (Garcia, C,. 2012). The crown killed numerous numbers of people because they used to reveal or fight themselves to show the crown their powers because they did not want to pay the taxes or to be colonised. The Spanish crown enslaved many of the natives to work building things that the Spanish wanted. They were treated like animal and beaten if they did not obey what they were asked to do. Others Indians that revealed to do the things that they were told to do, would be killed. They also used to exchange gold for things that they had never seen before, such as mirrors, coloured stones, food and other things that they thought were amazing (Garcia, C, . 2012).

Impacts of migration and settlement in Aotearoa for Colombian ethnic wellbeing.

Two impacts that migration and settlement in Aotearoa for the Colombian ethnic wellbeing. The first impact is the language because as it is known in Colombia the language spoken is Spanish and not many people speak English, the ones they can comprehend a little bit more, cannot speak

The second impact is on social economic factors

Reference list

Garcia, C. (2012). Colombian colonisation. Retrieved from:

Institute of languages. (2005). Introduction to indigenous language of Colombia. Retrieved from:

Colombian colonization. (n.d.). Retrieved from:

Fuimaono, K. (2001). Fonofale Model of Health. Retrieved from:

The Biomedical Model. (n.d.). Retrieved from:

Definitions of heath models. (2005). Retrieved from:

Biological and Psychological Models of Abnormality. (2006). Retrieved from:

Fundamental Assumptions of the Biomedical Model. (n.d.). Retrieved from:


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