It is my statement that the current deadlock in the Doha Round trade negotiations reflects many different immediate grounds why the WTO members have non been able or even wanted to get at an understanding on a assortment of agricultural trade issues. Much like in the Uruguay Round, failure to make an understanding on agricultural issues prevent traveling frontward on other issues and reasoning the negotiations. However, the current dead end besides reflects a assortment of political-economic developments that began in the Uruguay Round and that are now being played out in the Doha Round. These tendencies include the hardening of a turning alliance of developing and developed state involvements that support continued agricultural protection of one signifier or another. Another tendency is a noticeable addition in unfavorable judgment of globalisation and economic broad trade constabularies by faculty members and province functionaries likewise whose neoliberal trade theories and policies have guided most of the WTO members until now. These tendencies make it hard for WTO members to interrupt the current deadlock and arrive at an understanding that is both politically fulfilling to WTO members, but that besides does non go on to sabotage the authorization and importance of the WTO

Sandra Polaski welcomed participants to the Carnegie Endowment and noted that the seminar was designed to broaden the scope of treatment of agricultural trade by including experts, negotiants and direct stakeholders, such as husbandman organisations from developing states. Mr. Rouille D’Orfeuil noted that the recent dislocation of the Doha Round of WTO dialogues has created an chance for negotiants and stakeholders to step back and reevaluate the precedences and way of the negotiations. Mr. Rouille D’Orfeuil reminded everyone that trade liberalisation necessarily creates victors and also-rans ; without appropriate policies to pacify negative dazes to the also-rans, a Doha understanding could really decline rural poorness and inequality. Mr. Rouille D’Orfeuil besides applauded Ms. Polaski ‘s parts to the trade argument, peculiarly her advanced attack to patterning unemployment and underemployment in rural labour markets in developing states.


  • better understand the current commissariats of the Agreement on Agriculture, including the execution of committednesss ;
  • go more familiar with the procedure, every bit good as with the demands and formats for presentments to the Committee on Agriculture ;
  • heighten their cognition of the cardinal issues in the Doha Round agribusiness dialogues ; and,
  • better their capacity to analyze different proposals made in these dialogues.


The end of the plan ‘s first panel was to reexamine the findings of Carnegie ‘s recent survey with respect to the agricultural sector and compare it with other taking theoretical accounts. The panel was chaired by Antoine Bouet and panellists included Ms. Polaski, Mr. Jean-Marc Boussard and Mr. Dominique Van der Mensbrugghe. Mr. Bouet began the session by indicating out that theoretical accounts have been meeting in happening progressively smaller, but still positive additions from trade liberalisation. Slides exemplifying Mr. Bouet ‘s point can be viewed by snaping here.

Ms. Polaski concurred that the additions from a Doha trade are likely to be little. These little bets can assist explicate the deficiency of urgency shown by negotiants: making an understanding that would give merely modest economic additions could still enforce accommodation costs in losing sectors. The Carnegie theoretical account ‘s anticipations of modest additions are consistent with consequences from the taking World Bank and CEPII theoretical accounts. Most additions that accrue to developing states can be traced to fabricating liberalisation, which is consistent with findings from other theoretical accounts when comparable scenarios are simulated.

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This determination challenges the conventional wisdom that agricultural liberalisation would let hapless states to cut down poorness and promote growing through agricultural exports. Ms. Polaski enumerated three grounds why agricultural liberalisation could really harm many developing states. First, many hapless states are net nutrient importers. Extinguishing agricultural subsidies would cut down production and increase the monetary value of agricultural goods to the hurt of net nutrient importers. Second, many rich states apply lower duties to exports from developing states. Reducing overall duty degrees would contract the borders of these penchants. Finally, due to the little graduated table of agricultural production in most underdeveloped states, the chances for viing on planetary markets are hapless. However lower duties could take to cheaper imports of viing merchandises, taking to a decrease of husbandmans ‘ incomes. The Carnegie theoretical account showed that developing states could screen certain harvests indispensable to husbandmans ‘ incomes without significantly decreasing the benefits to other states of agricultural liberalisation. Most market additions for husbandmans in affluent states will come from exports to other affluent states.

Ms. Polaski concluded that for the benefits of liberalisation to be realized, more must be done to suit the defensive demands of developing states. Specifically, she recommended leting freedoms for cardinal particular merchandises, sequencing liberalisation such that hapless states are given entree to rich state markets before being required to open their markets and widening responsibility free-quota free intervention to exports from least developed states ( LDCs ) and other penchants to states merely above the LDC threshold. The slideshow that accompanied Ms. Polaski ‘s presentation can be viewed here.

Mr. Boussard challenged the premises that underlie the Carnegie and other econometric theoretical accounts of international trade. He pointed out that hazard and uncertainness characterize agricultural markets, with peculiarly negative effects in developing states where the hapless can non borrow or see themselves against such hazards. This impedes capital accretion that is necessary for husbandmans to go more productive. As a consequence, he stated, the theoretical accounts are excessively optimistic. Furthermore, he argued that theoretical accounts such as Carnegie ‘s are ill-equipped to pattern the consequence of stabilising authorities intercessions, such as supply or monetary value direction, which he described as necessary in agricultural markets. Mr. Boussard ‘s presentation can be viewed here.

Mr. Van der Mensbrugghe pointed out that modellers are cognizant of the restrictions of theoretical accounts, peculiarly the restraints created by hapless informations coverage in hapless states. He emphasized that theoretical accounts built to reply specific inquiries normally generate robust findings, but cautioned against seeking to construct general equilibrium theoretical accounts comprehensive plenty to turn to all trade-related policy inquiries. Furthermore, what more state and sector-specific theoretical accounts reveal, he argued, is that liberalisation policies should be tailored to suit single states and sectors.

Q & A ; A

In response to a inquiry on the impact on consumers of higher protective agricultural duties in developing states, Ms. Polaski argued that where husbandmans constitute a big portion of the population, the consequence on manufacturers will outweigh the consequence on consumers. Mr. Van der Mensbrugghe, on the other manus, contended that in many states, such as Nicaragua, the rural sector consumes more nutrient than it produces and higher agricultural monetary values would cut down national public assistance.

Asked if agricultural manufacturers in affluent states are so productive relation to their opposite numbers in the development universe because of the big subsidies they receive, Ms. Polaski pointed out that subsidies are portion of the job but that a host of other jobs hamper agricultural production in developing states. These include the little size of land retention, deficiency of irrigation, deficiency of substructure and hapless capital accretion. Extinguishing agricultural subsidies in affluent states would non equalise the productiveness of husbandmans in rich and hapless states.

A figure of inquiries directed at the panellists asked whether the turning consensus that trade liberalisation must be approached otherwise in each developing state challenges the cogency of the many-sided trading system. Panelists by and large agreed that the WTO continues to play an indispensable function. Mr. Boussard argued that the WTO should let for more authorities ordinance and intercession to complement economic liberalisation and compensate parties negatively affected by liberalisation. He besides encouraged modellers to spread out their steps of development beyond simple GDP indexs to besides include steps of homo and societal capital. Ms. Polaski argued that planetary many-sided dialogues should go on but that extra flexibleness should be built into a Doha understanding so that developing states can move with sovereignty to set to liberalisation and promote development.


The plan ‘s 2nd panel explored some of the proposals on the tabular array in the Doha Round for extenuating the negative impact of agricultural liberalisation. Sherman Katz chaired a panel consisting of Jason Hafemeister, Jean-Marc Trarieux, Alexandra Strickner, Anne Wagner, and Anil Singh.

Mr. Hafemeister began his comments by saying that the foundation of the US negociating stance is a desire for an unfastened and competitory system for universe agricultural trade. After depicting advancement on the issues of export subsidies and trade falsifying domestic subsidies he asserted that the Doha unit of ammunition collapsed due to a failure to procure market entree betterments. He characterized the G-20 and G-33 duty cut offers as insufficient and insisted that duty cuts must cut down applied, non merely bound rates. Mr. Hafemeister conceded that in a few instances liberalisation might coerce husbandmans in hapless states to vie with inexpensive imports of agricultural goods that are cardinal to their incomes. However, instead than relieve those goods from import competition by denominating them as particular merchandises, he suggested that enforcing little quotas for those goods would shelter domestic manufacturers while still leting foreign manufacturers to vie for a little piece of market portion. Harmonizing to Mr. Hafemeister, big per centums of US agricultural exports to identify developing states autumn under merely a few duty lines, doing any proposal that reduces market entree for even a smattering of those tariff lines unacceptable to US negotiants.

Mr. Trarieux opened his presentation on the European position on Doha with confidences that the EU regrets the suspension of the negotiations and has non given up on the unit of ammunition. Harmonizing to Mr. Trarieux, the EU is taking stairss to cut down agricultural production and withdraw from engagement in universe export markets. He explained how these policy alterations, which include subsidy and duty decreases, would make chances for developing states to spread out their agricultural exports.

After a brief description of the particular merchandise and particular precaution mechanisms, Ms. Strickner devoted the majority of her presentation to measuring the likely efficiency of these proposals. She questioned the viability of the bing precaution mechanism, indicating out that observing an import rush and energizing such a mechanism would necessitate informations and institutional substructures beyond the capacities of many developing states. She besides highlighted the centrality of the long term diminution in agricultural monetary values to the jobs confronting husbandmans in hapless states. Though riddance of subsidies might hike agricultural monetary values by cut downing planetary production in the short tally, there is no warrant that glut will non reemerge. Ms. Strickner described increased policy flexibleness for developing states as necessary. She mentioned that the African group at the WTO had proposed a re-examination of trade good understandings as a manner to pull off monetary values over the long term.

Mr. Trarieux posed a figure of inquiries to Mr. Hafemeister examining the differences between the US and EU stances on particular and differential intervention for LDCs. Specifically, Mr. Trarieux asked why the United states decided to scale back its Duty Free-Quota Free proposal to cover merely 97 % alternatively of 100 % of imports from LDCs. Mr. Hafemeister responded that the US market is already really friendly to foreign imports, observing the size of the US trade shortage. Mr. Katz suggested that it would be hard for the US to convert merchandising spouses to predate the particular merchandise or safeguard mechanisms while still keeping its ain barriers to LDC exports. Ms. Strickner pointed out the analogues between the US statement that the particular merchandise regulation would let developing states to screen big parts of their markets in pattern, and the underdeveloped state statement that widening DFQF intervention to merely 97 % of LDC exports would badly restrict the benefits of the plan.

Ms. Wagner rejected the particular merchandise and safeguard mechanisms under treatment as neglecting to protect equal crowned head policy infinite for developing states. She argued that an export-based theoretical account for development leads developing states to overlook issues of rural development, nutrient security and poorness. Merely by making infinite for authorities ordinance and intercession in markets can these issues be addressed, harmonizing to Ms. Wagner. She besides refuted Mr. Hafemeister ‘s statement that relieving a smattering of duty lines under the particular merchandise regulation would protect broad swaths of the agricultural market. Milk and milk merchandises, for illustration, span 37 different duty lines. Mr. Hafemeister had argued that with merely 5 exempted duty lines market entree would be dramatically limited.

A series of inquiries directed at Mr. Hafemeister from Mr. Singh and audience members focused on the interactions between US subsidies and the reluctance of developing states to take down duties. The latter took the place that developing states can non offer increased market entree every bit long as US agricultural exports receive such big subsidies. Mr. Hafemeister countered that lone betterments to market entree in developing states would do decreases to US subsidies politically toothsome. Mr. Singh opened his comments by showing concern that current trade dialogues prioritize the involvements of transnational corporations over those of provincials and husbandmans. The dramatic growing in the operations of these corporations, harmonizing to Mr. Singh, has left hapless husbandmans with few chances beyond exploitatory undertaking agreements with the same corporations. Mr. Singh closed by reasoning that agricultural goods should be exempted from trade dialogues to guarantee security and stableness for hapless husbandmans.

Audience remarks included a proposal to see advanced ways of pull offing planetary agricultural supply ; a reproof of the place that states ‘ nutrient security should be capable to commercial dialogues ; and a reminder that trade should be thought of as a tool for advancing development, non an terminal in itself.


The concluding panel of the plan dealt with alternate policies aimed at back uping agricultural manufacturers, runing from capacity and substructure development to national regulative mechanisms. The panel included Henri Rouille D’Orfeuil, Daniel Lederman, Germano Batista, Marcel Groleau, Kathy Ozer, Vore Seck, K.S. Gopal and Arlene Alpha ; the session was chaired by Cheryl Morden. Ms. Morden framed the concluding session as offering an chance to look beyond the Doha Round and believe more by and large about how to spread out trade chances for little husbandmans.

Mr. Rouille D’Orfeuil ‘s presentation focused on schemes for rethinking the planetary agricultural trade architecture to better function the 3 billion people in the universe that depend on farming for their support. He emphasized that any trade government that marginalizes half the universe ‘s population will finally endanger stableness and growing across the universe. Mr. Rouille D’Orfeuil identified two questionable premises upon which the current system has been built: markets are self-acting and increasing trade thrusts increased development. Alternatively of this market-based model, Mr. Rouille D’Orfeuil proposed a many-sided trading system that would prioritise the sovereignty of states and monetary value stableness in agricultural markets. The presentation was accompanied by a slideshow, which can be viewed here.

Mr. Lederman offered four new thoughts to advance public assistance in developing states. First, he posited that authorities resources should be invested in sectors based on the sectors ‘ parts to national public assistance, loosely defined to include steps of equality and sustainability in add-on to income. Sectors that expeditiously leverage public resources to advance national public assistance should bask more support from the authorities. Second, he argued that traditional national income accounting consistently underestimates the agricultural sector ‘s true part because it overlooks the linkages between agribusiness and other constituents of national public assistance. For illustration, growing in the agricultural sector has a disproportionately big impact on cut downing poorness and bettering rural security and stableness. Besides, because agricultural goods constitute such a big per centum of developing state exports, a competitory agricultural sector helps relax balance of payments restraints on development. Third, he explained that whereas the proviso of public goods can rectify market failures in rural countries dependent on agribusiness, subsidies to the private sector can really cut down efficiency because they cut down house ‘s inducements to put. Finally, Mr. Lederman pointed out that despite the empirical grounds back uping greater investings in transit substructure, instruction and rural wellness clinics, political worlds tend to prefer the attempts of private houses to procure subsidies for themselves. Developing states must prosecute policies that enhance the ability of their citizens to supervise political determinations by bettering transparence and entree to information.

The presentation of Mr. Batista dealt with the specific instance of Brazil ‘s experience with agricultural liberalisation. Agricultural corporations have played an progressively influential function in determining the class of agricultural development in the state, using big parts of the agrarian population and consolidating control over production. However, successful theoretical accounts of household farming do be in Brazil. Mr. Batista argued that authorities policy should concentrate on edifice commercialisation channels for these household husbandmans.

In response to a remark that unreasonably low agricultural monetary values trap husbandmans in poorness, Mr. Lederman argued that the greater challenge to husbandmans is posed by the volatility of agricultural monetary values. The restraints of biological science and the turning and reaping rhythms make it hard to set the supply of agribusiness in response to alterations in demand ; the consequence is higher monetary value volatility. Mr. Lederman agreed that more monetary value stableness would be desirable but returned to his earlier point that authorities expenditures on public goods addition public assistance more expeditiously than outgos on private subsidies such as monetary value support subsidies.

Mr. Groleau and Ms. Ozer ‘s presentations introduced the positions of husbandmans ‘ organisations to the treatment. Mr. Groleau described the supply direction system that governs the Canadian milk industry. In this system, husbandmans work with the authorities to fit production degrees with demand degrees. Mr. Groleau pointed out that instead than making a market deformation, this type of intercession really enhances efficiency by avoiding overrun. Ms. Ozer stated that dairy husbandmans in the US need a supply direction system similar to Canada ‘s. The concentration of industry power in the custodies of a few big agribusiness houses has created jobs in the developed universe every bit good as the development universe, harmonizing to Ms. Ozer. Small household farms in the US, unable to fit the efficiency of more capital-intensive operations, have seen incomes fall due to the relentless diminution in agricultural monetary values.

Ms. Seck, Mr. Gopal and Ms. Alpha discussed the province of agribusiness in the underdeveloped universe from their points of position as leaders of national NGO platforms. Ms. Seck highlighted some of the specific jobs facing African husbandmans. These include foreign duties that incentivize production of low-value added goods, eroding of penchants, and the spread of farming techniques that place turning emphasis on land and other factors of production. She proposed that integrating more participatory mechanisms into trade policy dialogues could assist to turn to of these jobs. Mr. Gopal suggested that those who study trade policy and dialogues keep in head the aggression with which concerns pursue net income maximization. He questioned whether economic analyses of these issues sufficiently grasp this moral force. Ms. Alpha called on little husbandmans to make a better occupation of forming, pass oning and raising their corporate voices to prosecute policy shapers on these inquiries.


In her shutting comments Ms. Polaski reminded the audience that the planetary environment has changed well since the Doha unit of ammunition was launched in 2001. The declared development aims of the negotiations have given manner to traditional mercantilist bargaining. Foreign assistance to rural development is at the lowest degree in 30 old ages. As a consequence, we risk worsening instead than cut downing planetary poorness.

Looking in front, Ms. Polaski flagged the demand for better analysis to understand the heterogeneousness that exists across states. She besides suggested that higher degrees of both national and international aid to agricultural development are needed. Matter-of-fact new thoughts for agricultural policy are required based on the alone challenges and market failures in the sector and its concentration of poorness. In his shutting comments, Mr. Rouille D’Orfeuil encouraged attenders to go on to make out across national and regional boundary lines to pool cognition and resources in the attempt to assist hapless husbandmans in developing states


At the terminal of the twenty-four hours, an of import staying inquiry is one that circles back to the US – how serious is Washington about these dialogues? Can the Doha dialogues be reconciled with the 2007 US Farm Bill? Whilst those in Washington are best placed to do this appraisal, two points are deserving bearing in head:

1 ) First, the subjects on domestic supports presently being negotiated at the WTO are highly weak – to the extent they are uneffective in footings of truly training US domestic supports, hence it is likely that Washington will hold leeway to implement their 2007 Farm Bill ( See Kwa “WTO ‘s July 2007 Agriculture Negotiations – Potsdam Multilateralised? ” , 3 August 2007, ) . The exact contours of the Bill are still to be determined. However, US Agriculture Secretary Mike Johanns is endeavoring to force for higher sums of direct payments to be endorsed in the Bill i.e. higher sums of Green Box payments that will non be disciplined in the WTO. ( See Transcript of Remarks by Agriculture Secretary Mike Johanns to the Tennessee Farm Bureau Federation Sing the 2007 Farm Bill and Beef Trade – Nashville, Tennessee, Aug 9 2007, 2 ) Second, the projections are that the Amber Box type payments ( loan lack payments and antagonistic cyclical payments that are gross and priced based ) are improbable to kick in, at least for the life of the 2007 Farm Bill due to high trade good monetary values. Harmonizing to Secretary Johanns, “Projections that everybody is utilizing would bespeak it looks to us that you may non acquire a loan lack payment or a antagonistic cyclical payment over the life of the following farm measure… It looks to me like you ‘re traveling to be above the mark monetary value on the commodities” ( ibid Johanns, 2007 ) . There is hence no hazard that the US will travel beyond its WTO edge OTDS.The gimmick is whether or non the United states wants to for good adhere its Amber Box and other “trade falsifying supports” in the WTO. There is a good opportunity that with increased production in biofuels and high trade good monetary values, they may besides non be a job beyond the 2007 Farm Bill. Besides, increased supports can besides be provided in the signifier of direct payments ( Green Box ) , as Secretary Johanns is strongly recommending. Agring to Doha ( in footings of what is presently on the tabular array ) could be more of a public dealingss catastrophe for American politicians confronting really defensive farm anterooms, instead than a existent menace to US farm programmes.


Professor Dubey concluded that the issue of bilateral agreements had been discussed a figure of times. He was of the sentiment that there was great virtue in such agreements. Bilaterals, nevertheless, should non affect merely discriminatory trading agreements but besides elements of deeper integrating like joint development of substructure, cooperation in criterions, etc. Such a win-win state of affairs, he believes, is to the full economically justified.

Sing the present province of personal businesss, he told the floor that it was being reported that a note had gone from the Ministry of Food and Agriculture to the Ministry of Commerce stating that India could ne’er be self-sufficing in foodgrain production and that we should import nutrient to the melody of 1.5-5 million metric tons yearly. Keeping this in head, the note said, India should wholly alter its stance in the trade dialogues. This note, if it had so been sent, said Dubey, spelt complete catastrophe for the Indian economic system. He added that to undertake the job of nutrient deficits, come ining into regional understandings would be much better than traveling to the WTO with a beggary bowl.

Muchkund Dubey ended by stating that it was clip India formed a new development docket wherein there would be a convergence of S & A ; DT and execution issues. For there to be any headroom in the dialogues, Professor Majumdar said, the bing coherence among developing states should ever be maintained.

Activities in the Year 2009

In continuance of its WTO-related Technical Aid and Capacity Building Program for the OIC member states, the IDB organized activities runing from issue-specific Seminars and Workshops for experts to Trade Policy Courses aimed at fiting the donees with basic cognition about the rules and regulations underlying the operation of the many-sided trading system.

In add-on to the above, the Bank besides organized activities aimed at heightening the trade negociating accomplishments of the member states through particular plans designed for such specific intent. Under this faculty of developing accent is laid on practical exercisings and simulations. The thought behind such simulations is to fix possible negotiant for existent life many-sided trade dialogues.

In the execution of its TAP, the IDB as stated above is guided by the Key Thrust 8 in the IDB Vision 1440H Document that stipulates “Significantly heighten the capacity of the IDB Group to supply preparation, proficient expertness and policy advice to the LDMCs to help them in World Trade Organization ( WTO ) dialogues and accession” .


India ‘s attempts to take a breath fresh life into stalled planetary trade negotiations with a meeting of cardinal trade curates this hebdomad is yet another effort by New Delhi to stomp its authorization on the planetary economic phase, analysts say.

It is besides being viewed as an effort by India to do serious attempts to interrupt the dead end after earlier negotiations failed over crisp dissension between the United States, New Delhi and China on the footings of a “special precaution mechanism” to screen hapless husbandmans against a price-depressing rush in imports.

Cynics say the negotiations, called by commercialism curate Anand Sharma, are an effort to debar incrimination for a possible prostration of the World Trade Organisation ‘s Doha unit of ammunition, after old ages of being pilloried in the Western media over dead ends.

But India ‘s globalising economic system gives it a turning involvement in seeing a trade, excessively.

“India now has a topographic point in the planetary economic system because of the size of its economic system and its population and that fact can non be ignored. It must hold a say, ” said D.H. Pai Panandikar, president of private economic think armored combat vehicle RPG Foundation.

Robust economic growing of around 7 % against the background of a planetary lag has enabled India to pull fresh attending and clout.

New Delhi made its voice heard on planetary trade and clime alteration at a G-8 acme in Italy in July, a mark of turning diplomatic musculus and a new push from Asia ‘s third-largest economic system to play a bigger function in planetary administration.

Ambition, growing

Backed by a trillion-dollar economic system and impressive economic growing, India has been take parting in several high-profile international forums such as the G-20 group of industrialised and developing states and the Bric ( Brazil, Russia, India and China ) assemblage of the universe ‘s biggest emerging markets.

Analysts say now it wants to project its influence wider.

“Well there is ambition – we did hold economic growing which made us experience that we have at least arrived in Asia, ” said Sudha Pai, professor of political scientific discipline at Jawaharlal Nehru University.

US President Barack Obama has said undertaking planetary challenges “in the absence of major powers like China, India and Brazil seems to be wrongheaded.”

India has besides been a prima negotiant for emerging states in the fighting Doha unit of ammunition of negotiations and its attempt to protect hapless husbandmans has been one of the faltering blocks to understanding.

Analysts say they see some alteration in attitude after a new authorities was sworn in with a wider-than-expected border in May and Sharma was named as the new commercialism curate.

“I think for the first clip India is taking a slightly proactive function and is now acute to see decision of the Doha unit of ammunition, ” said T.K. Bhaumik, a trade observer and economic advisor from the JK Organisation.

“India willing, some discovery is possible at this meeting, ” Bhaumik said, mentioning to the meeting which includes the five biggest participants in the Doha unit of ammunition – the United States, the EU, Brazil, India, China – every bit good as other cardinal WTO members.

This hebdomad ‘s assemblage is the first major meeting of trade curates on the Doha unit of ammunition since July 2008, when nine yearss of intense dialogues ended in failure.

“This meeting is a clear signal to the whole universe that India is really acute to restart battle in Doha dialogues and India is besides lament on an early decision of the Doha unit of ammunition, ” said Amit Mitra, secretary-general of the influential anteroom group the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry.


  • hypertext transfer protocol: //focusweb.org/is-doha-dead.html? Itemid=132
  • hypertext transfer protocol: //www.allacademic.com/meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/2/5/3/6/9/p253691_index.html
  • hypertext transfer protocol: //trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2007/june/tradoc_135062.pdf
  • hypertext transfer protocol: //www.monstersandcritics.com/news/business/news/article_1499287.php/With-deadlock-broken-Doha-talks-to-resume-India-says-1st-Lead # ixzz0YEDQEPIv
  • hypertext transfer protocol: //www.economywatch.com/world-trade-organization/doha-summit.html
  • hypertext transfer protocol: //opencrs.com/document/RL32060/2008-01-18/
  • hypertext transfer protocol: //www.docstoc.com/docs/4386156/World-Trade-Organization-Negotiations-The-Doha-Development-Agenda
  • hypertext transfer protocol: //taiwan.wtocenter.org.tw/issue/issueMA_intro.asp? id=8

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