Events play a critical function in human society. The least alibi could be found for good signifiers of jubilations. Events are planned Acts of the Apostless and public presentations, which originates from ancient history. Events and festivals are good documented in the historical epoch before the autumn of the Western Roman Empire ( A.D 476 ) . They serve of import map for the society, supplying participants with the chance to asseverate their individualities and to portion rites and jubilations with each other. Events have its root from cultural and historical values. In the in-between ages, events and ceremonials played a major function in guaranting that a dull day-to-day being was enlivened and that people was entertained. Since at that clip there was no Television or Internet for amusement. Peoples have traditionally celebrated spiritual festivals, Christmas, Easter, Cavadee, Maha Shivratree. They have besides participated in other major events staged by swayers of ancient clip. In the 17 and 18 century, Kings have organized events in a manner to hold control on the populace.
In modern societies, traditional spiritual and national festivals are no longer a cardinal focal point for jubilations and assemblages. They focus on originative events like nuptialss, day of remembrances, award ceremonials, and so on. ( Shone and Parry, 2004 )
An event is any assemblage that occurs at a given clip in a given topographic point. It is an happening, a important assemblage that takes topographic point in a societal scene. However, there are no standardised definitions of what is an event. An event is “ a alone minute in clip celebrated with ceremonial and ritual to fulfill specific demands ” . ( Goldblatt 1997 p. 2 )
The Accepted Practices Exchange ( APEX ) industry glossary of footings ( CIC,2003 ) defines an event as, an organized juncture such as a meeting, convention, exhibition, particular event, jamboree dinner, etc. an event comprises of many different yet related maps. Getz ( 2005, p. 16 ) argues that a rule using to events is that they are impermanent and that ‘ Every such event is alone streaming from the blend of direction, plan, puting and people. ‘
Modern events vary in footings of their graduated table, complexness and figure of stakeholders involved.
Small Event Massive Event
Few stakeholders Many stakeholders
Clear aims Complex aims
Figure 1 ; fluctuation of events
Typology of Events
Personal/ Private Events
Figure 2 ; types of events
There are different types of events that have been developed around the universe to accommodate the demands of everyone. It ranges from single to concern events that bring together people around the universe.
2.1.1 The importance of events
It is important for event organisers to turn to the demands of the stakeholders, the direct and indirect participants. Event organisers have to maintain in head his patronage. If for them it is the n-th event they are forming, they should maintain in head that this same event may be the first one, the dream and chance of a life-time for its participants and witnesss. Bearing this in head, event organisers must form each event with the same ardor, motive and bang as they organized the first 1. Organizers have to turn to the precise nature of their undertakings as each event has different features and demands. Furthermore all events and their clients are of import. They deserve the best intervention every clip an event occurs. It is of import for event organisers to offer the best intervention possible as a hapless service will ensue in client dissatisfaction and loss of concern in the long tally. ( Watt, 1998 )
Events have a figure of functions in a finish ( Yeoman, Robertson, et Al, 2004 ) . Getz, 1997, identifies these as ‘attractions, image shapers, energizers of inactive attractive forces and accelerator for farther development. They have the possible to cut down negative impacts of mass trial and surrogate better host-guest dealingss. Events can spread out tourers season, extend extremum season or even convey in new season into the life of a community ‘ . The community development position on event touristry acknowledges the elements of community spirit and pride, corporation, leading, betterment of community traditions, capacity to command development, betterment to societal and wellness services and environmental quality.
2.1.2 Features of the best events
The elements that make best events are:
A clear vision and an expressed ground for everyone ‘s work.
Smart aims to which everyone is committed.
An adequate, flexible organisational construction competent to carry through precise undertakings, but retaining a big integrity of intent.
Staffs that is committed and ready to ‘go the measure beyond ‘ .
Strong leading to be able to pull off the event.
Exact thorough planning carried out and documented within an suited timescale.
A co-ordinated squad attempt that operates within fiscal programs, pulling on all accessible resources.
Well-organized lines of communications.
An first-class public image.
Successful advertisement and presentation, and built in eventuality tactics.
Full committedness towards clients.
Efficient ongoing control and monitoring systems.
An atmosphere of harmoniousness, focal point and difficult work, wit and involvement.
Good station event appraisal.
( Adapted from Watt, 1998 )
2.2 Event Concept
All events start with an thought. The thought describes the event in its simplest signifiers. Concepts are clear statements that give significance and parametric quantities to an event thought. Specifying an event construct is a originative procedure. The 5 W ‘s: World health organization, WHAT, WHY, WHEN and WHERE, are tools used for transforming an thought into a construct. The W ‘s aid to cognize if an event thought is executable, feasible and sustainable. Those inquiries are important as they shape the event design and reflect the event intent ( Goldblatt. 2001 ) .
WHO: events convey together people who deliver the event experience. Those people include providers, stakeholders, audience, planing machines and so on. For events to be successful it is of import to find who is responsible for what. Besides communicating should flux swimmingly among all people involved as events have impacts on wider communities.
WHAT: Events experiences includes organisational squads that designs the contents of the event. This procedure is clip devouring. By making a mission statement specific ends and demands are set up. The mission statement defines the aim and aids in set uping the event in the wider external context.
WHY: It is of import to see why an event is go oning. See the intent of the event. All events have a intent, whether it is an inaugural ceremonial, cultural festival or a political meeting.
WHEN: Timing of events is a critical factor for its success. In the design and development phase, be aftering procedure, including research, support, selling and design has to be considered. In the event bringing procedure locale handiness, production timelines, performing artists, clients, viing events and supplier handiness needs to be taken into history.
WHERE: the location of the event needs to be considered. The pick of locales depends on type of events, organisations budget and handiness to the populace.
( Beginning: Robinson, Wale and Dickson, 2010 )
2.3 Event categorization
Events are by and large classified harmonizing to their size and type. Firstly we will look at the event categorization by size ; which is chiefly of three classs:
2.3.1 Mega Events
Mega Events are really big events with crowded audience and a good direction squad behind its organisation. Allen et Al. ( 2005 ) defines mega events as ‘those that are so big they affect whole economic systems and reverberate in the planetary media. They include Olympic Games and World Fairs. ‘ Mega events require many old ages of organisation and it targets tourers every bit good as the host population forming the event. Mega Events look into every facet of life at the finish during the event ; conveyance, medical services in instance of hurts, retail mercantile establishments. ( Getz 1997 ) suggests that mega events should hold more than one million visitants and capital cost amounting to at least 500 million. It should hold a repute of a must see event. Additionally he argues, ‘Mega events, by manner of their size or significance, are those that yield inordinately high degrees of touristry, media coverage, prestigiousness or economic impact for a host finish ‘ .
Till now, in Mauritius has non yet organized such mega events.
2.3.2 Hallmark Events
Hallmark Events are non on such immense graduated table. Such events take topographic point repeatedly in the same finish. The term trademark event refers to ‘ a repeating event that possesses such significance, in footings of tradition, attraction, image, or promotion, that the event provide the host locale, a community, or finish with a competitory advantage ‘ . ( Getz, 1997 )
‘Those events that become so identified with the spirit or ethos of a town, metropolis or part, that they become synonymous with the name of the topographic point, and addition widespread acknowledgment, and consciousness ‘ . ( Allen et al. , 2005 ) .
The benefits of such hallmark events are the creative activity of new installations, betterments to the substructure, an addition in touristry grosss.
In Mauritius, the spiritual festivals, viz. , Maha Shivratree and cavadee which are celebrated by the Hindus, pull many tourers and there is besides media coverage.
2.3.3 Major Events
Major Events can affect more people than a hallmark event. Such events have great drawing power in footings of visitants, media and performers/competitors. They besides generate important economic impact in the host finish. Major events are a beginning of impermanent employment for some people ( for illustration, to work on nutrient stables, cleaning services, etc. ) . It besides attracts a figure of voluntaries and media coverage.
Many top international featuring championships tantrums into this class, and are progressively being sought after, and command for by national sporting organisations and authoritiess in the competitory universe of international major events. ( Allen et al. 2002 )
It can be said that, in Mauritius there has been major events. One of them being lupus erythematosuss Jeux diethylstilbestrols Iles de l’Ocean Indien held in 2003 where a games small town was constructed at ebene for the adjustment of the jocks. Now the authorities has sold those flats. There has besides been international media coverage of the event and medical installations, retail mercantile establishments, transit of jocks, etc were provided.
2.4 Particular Events and Festivals
In recent old ages particular events have become one of the fastest turning sectors of the touristry industry. As stated by G. Bowdin, I. McDonnell et Al, 2001, the term particular events enclose specific rites, presentations, public presentations and jubilations. Particular events are staged to tag or observe a particular juncture. The specifying feature of a particular event is its transiency ; ( Gilbert and Lizotte, 1998: 73 ) . This suggest it would be impossible to allure and keep the same sense of bang if a peculiar particular event were to be held more frequently ( Yeoman, Robertson, et Al, 2004 ) . Particular events include national twenty-four hours jubilation, featuring events, and of import civic occasions. An illustration could be, the Maha Shivratree festival celebrated by the Hindus in Mauritius.
Getz ( 2005, p. 16 ) Defines particular events from two positions. One from the point of position of the event organiser and the 2nd from the oculus of the invitee.
‘A particular event is a 1 clip or often happening event outside normal programmes or activities of the sponsoring or forming organic structure ‘
To the guest the ‘event is an chance for a leisure, societal or cultural experience outside the normal scope of picks or beyond mundane experience ‘ .
Getz added that the features of particular events are specialness, it creates a temper of celebration among the invitees, they are alone and reliable. They have specific subjects.
The word festival is derived from banquet and implies a alone clip for jubilation. Festivals connect landscape to lifestyle and complex ways by presenting the human dimension. Those events entertain locals and offer recreational activity in and out season for visitants. Media coverage generated by events helps finishs build confidence and a positive image in the touristry market topographic point.
Festivals are striking to communities looking to undertake issues of civic design, local pride and individuality, heritage, urban reclamation, employment chances and economic growing. The more an event is seen by its host community as emerging from within instead than enforcing on them, the greater that community ‘s blessing of the event will be. Festivals and events by and large represent the host community ‘s sense of itself and sense of topographic point.
Among the properties that Getz believes makes an event particular and alone are its gay spirit, singularity, quality, genuineness, tradition, cordial reception, theming and symbolism.
Conferences autumn under the generic umbrella of the term event. Therefore, it is of import to see the MICE industry when speaking about events.
2.5 The MICE Industry
The Meetings, Incentives, Conventions and Exhibitions ( MICE ) Industry is known as a service industry that combines trade, transit, travel and finance. It is besides known as concern touristry whereby people come to go to conferences, for illustration. MICE Tourism attracts priceless concern to a part and in return brings high returns to local economic systems in the sense that concern tourers spend more, non merely on hotels and eating houses but even on leisure activities such as visits to retails and local attractive forces such as museums and theatres ‘ ( Clark, 2004 ) . Attendants of MICE activities are known as ‘high spend ‘ travellers that meet the demands of output goaded touristry schemes ( Braun, 1992 ) . The MICE industry is characterized by the 3 Highs – High growing potency, high added values and extremely good inventions ” . ; The “ three larges – big end product, Large chances for employment and big industry associations ” ; and the “ three advantages – advantages over industries in human resources, technological knowhow and the efficient use of resources ” .
It has been cited that within touristry, meetings and conventions are one of the fastest turning sections ( Weber & A ; Ladkin, 2003 ; Oppermann, 1996 ; Oppermann & A ; Conn, 1997 ) . The MICE sector is considered to be the bluish bit of the touristry industry. The stakeholders in Mauritius are puting particular involvement and puting extremely in this moneymaking concern of conferences to pull MICE concerns from peculiarly high profile finishs.
Meetings are structured events which bring people jointly to reason a subject of common involvement, may be commercial or non commercial, may be attended by 6 or more people and may last a few hours or a hebdomad. What makes a meeting qualify as portion of the touristry concern is that it engages some of the service of the touristry industry, and is by and large held off from the location of the administration running it ( Davidson, 1994 ) . There are assorted types of meeting that occurs in different scenes and many ends or aims for carry oning a meeting ( Boehme, 1999 ) .
Incentive travel is a cosmopolitan direction instrument that uses an outstanding travel experience to promote and/or recognise participants for improved degrees of public presentation in support of the organisational ends. ( SITE, 1998 )
Conferences are participatory meetings that are designed chiefly for the intent of treatments, to happen about a peculiar topic, to work out jobs and audience. Conferences are normally on a smaller graduated table and the flow of information is less complex. Conferences are normally limited in clip and have specific aims. The Meetings Industry Association ( 1996 ) defines a conference as ‘ An event affecting 10 or more people for a lower limit of four hours during one twenty-four hours or more, often held outside the company ‘s ain premises ‘ .
Exhibitions ‘ . ‘Exhibitions bring providers of goods and services together with purchasers, normally in a peculiar industry sector ‘ . ( Allen et al. 2002:15 )
Recently there has been an enterprise to non utilize the “ MICE Market ” label but alternatively “ The Meetings Industry ” as it encompasses every facet of the MICE label.
2.6 Selling of events and conferences
Selling is seen as an incorporate procedure of bring forthing, administering and selling goods and services. Lyndsey Taylor sums up the cardinal features and messages that genuine selling contains:
Meeting client demands
Attracting new clients
Reacting to market tendencies
Keeping up with rivals
Promoting client trueness
Targeting specific clients
Identifying market chances
Noting client feedback
Geting it right every clip
The event industry is seen as a service industry. Events have the same features as services ( Watt, 1998 ) . They are:
Intangible – clients enjoy the benefits and enjoyment of the event, but they ca n’t touch the event
Perishable- the benefits and enjoyment can non be stored and carried frontward to a future clip. It has to be enjoyed on the topographic point.
Inseparable- it takes event organisers and clients to do an event happen
Consistent- it is of import to offer consistent merchandises an services as today ‘s clients are looking for consistence
Lack of ownership- events do non belong to any one. They are temporarily enjoyed by many.
Since events are the same as services it becomes of import to market them. Selling is a persuasive tool to pull people to an event. Event selling is defined by:
“ The selling construct holds that the key to accomplishing organisational ends consists of finding the demands and wants of mark markets ( defined as the set of existent and possible purchasers of merchandises ) and presenting the coveted satisfactions more efficaciously and expeditiously than rivals ” . ( Kotler, 2000 )
“ The maps of event direction that can maintain in touch the event ‘s participants and visitants ( consumers ) , read their demands and motive, develop merchandises that meet those demands, and construct a communicating programme which expresses the event ‘s intent and aims. ( Hall, 2000 )
2.6.1 Factors in selling
Selling can be affected by a scope of factors, some governable and some non ( Watt, 1998 ) . He farther stated companies must be cognizant of them:
Location ; attraction and handiness of the topographic point every bit good as environmental factors like traffic and scenery.
Social factors ; the attitudes of those involved in doing an event or conference to go on affects people ‘s attitudes to what is appropriate.
Cultural influences ; different groups in society ; cultural groups, societal groups, will see events from different angles.
Manner ; at certain period certain events will be in fad and will pull big attendants.
Political factors ; authorities will be in favour of those events that fits their beliefs.
Economic factors ; how much money is available to keep an event or conference. Is there a demand for sponsorship?
Doctrine ; the beliefs and attitudes of people will impact the scope of events provided.
2.6.2 Marketing Concept ; the Marketing Mix
The selling mix is a combination of selling tools that are used to fulfill clients. It is the parametric quantities that are within the control of selling directors. The selling mix is dependent upon environmental scanning, market research, understanding users and offering quality merchandises and services. The selling mix can be adjusted on a frequent footing to run into the altering demands of mark population and other kineticss of the selling environment. In the events industry, event organisers take into consideration the altering demands of its clients to develop their selling mix. Jerome McCarthy ( 1960 ) , a celebrated seller provinces that marketing determinations fall under four classs:
This is the terminal consequence – the event ; exhibition, show or conference. It besides involves all accessory parts like programmes, presentations, quality production and client attention.
Can the event be provided at an low-cost monetary value? Can monetary value bundles be assembled to back up group attending or tourer rates?
Topographic point has several facets. These include:
Venue, conveyance, adjustment, exigency entree, auto parking, geographic location, host town, providing location, environmental conditions, signposting, state, maps, part.
Promotion besides has several facets, including:
Ad, logo, booklets, shows, promotion, postings, trading. Appendix K elaborates on the function of publicity in the selling mix
An first-class event director will equilibrate these facets to bring forth a all right selling mix. The taking idea must be for people and their quality concern ; all operations at each stage and at any degree demand to admit the elements of the selling mix.
For some services, including events, another 4Ps demands to be considered. These include ;
Peoples ; they are the critical image in presenting events and conferences, particularly proper client attention and effectual teamwork.
Packaging ; is concerned with the manner events and conferences are being presented ; whether as portion of a holiday/ concern bundle. Any selling is dependent upon the packaging, e.g, a household bundle.
Partnership ; the aid of others and their selling presence is really good to do the event or conference successful.
Programing ; when an event or conference is scheduled will be a chief tool in its selling. It should elicit wonder and make involvement by utilizing excess undertakings around it.
( Adapted from: Watt, 1998 )
2.7 Impacts of particular events and conventions
Impacts of events encompass a big figure of positive benefits and negative impacts which arises because of an event taking topographic point. Impacts can be positive every bit good as negative. It is the undertaking of the event director to place and foretell these impacts and pull off them in order to accomplish the best balance. Those impacts may be seeable before the events really take topographic point, during the event and after the event and impact the stakeholders and the host population. Therefore, it can be argued that there is unfairness in the distribution of the impacts and benefits of events. ( Hall. 1989 ) typically impacts from events fall under four classs, viz. :
Physical and Environmental Impacts
Socio cultural Impacts
2.7.1 Economic Impacts
Research workers and industry professionals agree that particular events and conventions contribute to regional and national economic systems ( Rutherford & A ; Kreck, 1994 ) . Harmonizing to Crompton et Al. ( 2001 ) , economic impacts of events addendums the traditional fiscal balance sheets that do non turn to the issue of what the host population gets in return of those events.
The economic benefits that events bring to host finish are diverse. They bring an addition in employment and high income among the community, increased revenue enhancement grosss and substructure. Hosting events demand work force, hence, the host state ‘s population benefit from impermanent every bit good as lasting occupations. It can be said that it is more good to use people shacking in the part the event is held because there is no conveyance cost incurred. But even if labour is non available in the part the event is being held this is non such a major issue. As Mauritius is a little island, one can make the farthest distance from one topographic point to another in one hr. Tourists and locals come to events to pass ; they purchase the tickets to go to to amusements shows, they spend on nutrient and drink and so on. Money spent is injected in the local economic system. Hence, events enhance the quality of life of people since the positive alterations brought to the vicinity will stay even after the event has been held.
The costs associated with the economic impacts of events are the development of resources, inflated monetary values and chance costs. Sellers choose to augment their monetary values, doing more net income to the hurt of the host population Customers of events make inefficient usage of the resources. For illustration, in a clean event, in a minute of exhilaration, they can damage the lightings. Once the substructure is damaged, people will no longer be attracted to the event. There will be negative word of oral cavity and they may take to halt coming at that place. For a local economic system that depends wholly on hosting events, its economic system suffers. Besides, tourers have high disbursement powers.
2.7.2 Physical and Environmental impacts
Events are first-class manner to showcase the alone characteristics of hosts ‘ environments. In the involvement of sustainability, sound strategic direction, cost effectivity and maximising sponsorship/funding, it becomes progressively of import to see environmental impacts of events. Today ‘s clients are looking for eco friendly merchandises. Events market the environment in which it is held. Hall ( 1989 ) states that selling the image of an event comprises of the selling of intrinsic belongingss of the finish. The impacts will be reasonably seeable for events that are held in suited intent built locales, e.g, bowl, athleticss land or conference and exhibition Centres. Impacts will be much greater if the event is to be held in public countries non ordinary reserved for event intents. An event requires an environmental impact appraisal before permission is given by authorities governments to continue
Events have positive effects on the natural and physical environments. The substructure at the finish is re organized, proper route web, illuming and scavenging installations are set up to suit events. There is an improved conveyance and communicating installation in the part. Many of London ‘s landmark locales have been the bequest of major events, including Crystal Palace ( 1851 Freat Exhibition )
Negative environmental and physical impacts of events occur when the degree of visitant usage is higher than the transporting capacity of the part. Aspects such as crowd motion and control, noise degrees, entree and parking are important elements. Other of import issues include wear and tear of the physical and natural environment, heritage protection and break of the local community. Events cause possible menaces to natural and reinforced countries. This put tremendous force per unit area on the country and leads to impacts such as land debasement ( eroding ) , increased pollution, discharges into the dirt, loss of natural home ground. It frequently put a strain on H2O resources and in the long tally can coerce locals to vie for the usage of critical resources. The different signifiers of travel used by the delegates, attendants ‘ performing artists and organisers of events impacts on traffic congestion.
Good communicating and audience with local governments can assist decide of these issues. In add-on, careful direction planning is required to modify impacts.
2.7.3 Socio cultural impacts
Hall and Getz ( 1997 ) points out that all events have direct socio cultural impacts on participants every bit good as host community.
Events increase pride of its occupants, which consequences from some community events, national twenty-four hours ‘s jubilations, and the proof of specific groups in the parts. Some events leave a bequest of greater consciousness and engagement in featuring and cultural activities. Other ‘s widens people cultural skylines and bring out them to new and ambitious people, traditions and values. For illustration, the melas held in Leeds every summer have brought about the powerful spiritual Asiatic traditions and cultural associations before wider audiences. Events have the art to dispute the imaginativeness and research new avenues. For illustration the installing of the Ice Cubes outdoor ice-skating rink at millenary square in Leeds. Furthermore, events have the power to organize the basis of cultural schemes. Newham Council have developed its local cultural scheme, ‘Reasons to Be Cheerful ‘ at the Centre of which is the vision that people taking to populate in Newham by 2010. In kernel, events can go an chance to better societal relationships, for beef uping peoples abilities to understand one another and for peoples wellbeing ( Kurtzman and Zauhar, 1997 ) .
The bigger and more high profile an event is, greater possibilities exists for things to travel incorrect, therefore making negative impacts. Major events can give rise to unintended societal effects like, substance maltreatment, unacceptable crowd behaviour and an addition in condemnable activity ( Getz, 1997 ) . If non managed good, these unintended effects can commandeer the docket and find the public perceptual experience of the event. English football nines have successfully implemented schemes to cover with intoxicant related bad crowd behaviour in order to protect their repute. Badly managed events can besides hold broader impacts on societal life and community constructions. These can include loss of agreeableness because of noise or crowds, bitterness of unjust distribution of costs and benefits as stated by ( Getz 1997 ) . Furthermore, commodification, staged genuineness and standardisation are classified as negative impacts.
2.7.4 Political Impacts
Politicss every bit good as politicians play an of import portion in the equation that is modern-day event direction. Politicians believe that events will maintain its population in good wellness and themselves in power. This is because politicians use events as an indirect means to construct their personal profile and derive political advantage. Arnold et Al. ( 1989, pp 191-2 ) argued that ‘Governments in power will go on to utilize events to mark the terminals of their periods in office, to elicit patriotism, enthusiasm and eventually, ballots. Governments are cognizant of the ability of events to raise the profiles of politicians and the countries that they lead.