Chapter One

Concept Of Information System

An Information system is an organized combination of people, hardware, package, communicating webs and informations resources that collects, transforms and disseminate information in an administration. It is a set of interconnected elements or constituents that collect ( inputs ) , manipulate ( procedures ) , and disseminates ( end product ) information and information and supply a feedback mechanism to run into an aim.

As I.T forces, this undertaking is a undertaking, therefore a undertaking can be defined as a alone effort to bring forth a set of deliverables within a specific clip, restraints and this undertaking must be cost effectual.

In undertaken this undertaking the IT forces will hold to look at three ( 3 ) things viz:

Agenda of the undertaking, Budgeting ( cost ) and the quality.

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He/She must affect undertaking direction in undertaken the undertaking in order to be successfully implemented ; this will include the accomplishments, tools and series of procedures.

He must besides pull out the undertaking life rhythm, organize the undertaking squad and undertaking programs.

Besides holding an overview of information engineering scheme as stated below will truly assist in accomplishing the end of the undertaking, whilst developing an information system for the school.

Besides before any administration can do effectual Information investing, the senior direction must a clear vision of where the alteration will take them and be ready to finance the undertaking to the fullest by collaborating with the information system squad, every bit good as the staff must besides be ready to alter their height in welcoming the new system.

Overview of information engineering scheme procedure.

Understanding Business scheme

Business Aims IT objectives

( what do you desire to make? ) ( how can IT aid to accomplish the concern )


Business Strategy program

( what is the administration ‘s hereafter? )

Identify IT Vision

IT Vision

( What sort of administration will it go in the following 3 to 5years? )

Determine IT

Strategic Aims

IT Strategic enterprises

( what major enterprises will acquire one to where to be? )

Analyze PoRtfolio of IT aims

Fiscal Returns Internal Attempts

( what do we make? )

( what are the costs/benefits? ) IT Activities Portfolio External Attempts

Hazard appraisal ( what do we outsource? )

( what are the undertaking hazards? )

Resource demands Analysis of the

( What are the accomplishments demand undertaking timing

Gabs ) ( what to prioritize? )



IT Strategic Plan

Road map Capital budget FY1

( What are the undertaking timings Operating budget FY1 Are mutualities )

Chapter Two

Stairss In Implementation Of Information System

The stairss involved in developing an Information system for the school could be referred to as System development methodological analysis and the undertaking life rhythm, i.e. the standard procedure to be followed viz:

  • Analysis
  • Feasibility survey
  • System Design
  • Testing
  • Execution
  • Documentation.

However, there are some preliminary stairss to be taken which frequently embedded in the analysis phase ;

The Project Identification and selection- this involve in the designation of demands and prioritization & A ; Translation of demand into development agenda.

Undertaking Initiation and planning.-Formal preliminary probe of the jobs of the administration, and the presentation of grounds why system should or should non be developed by the administration.


This stage describes the current processs and information system ; it determines the construction demands, generates alternative designs, comparisons and recommends best options.

This is really of import portion in the development of an information system, it involves analyzing the administration ( the school ) , and construction of the school system, the organogam, and the manner information are being handled before debut of the

information system. What is needed, word processor spread sheets, computing machine pressman, database, etc

If there is no computing machine so the first undertaking is to look at the bing systems. It is possible to happen out about bing systems in a no of ways:

  • Talking to people who work with the system
  • Questionnaires to bing users
  • Detecting how people use the system
  • Reading the bing manuals.

If the purpose is to better on bing computing machine system the method analysis antecedently mentioned above are still of import.

Therefore at the terminal of this stage a determination needs to be made as to what package to utilize, and type of Information system that will be necessary.

The findings can besides be based on the undermentioned Requirement Analysis

  • Knowing the primary and secondary users
  • Determining user demands
  • Primary and secondary beginning of information
  • Design, development and execution

Information system can be divided into two

( a ) Operational support system ( OSS ) – this procedure informations generated by concern operations and can be classified as ( I ) Transaction processing system which involves recording, categorization, screening, computation, summarization, storage show of consequence.

( two ) Process control system: proctors and command industrial procedures. ( three ) Office mechanization system ; which combine word processing, telecommunication and informations processing to automatize office information. It draws on stored informations as a consequence of informations treating including handling of correspondence, study and papers.

( B ) Management support system ( MSS ) : Supply information and support needed for effectual determination devising by directors, and can be categorised as

( I ) Management information system-this provides information for determination support where information demand that can be identified in progress

( two ) Decision support system ( DSS ) -this assist with alone and non-recurring determination which are comparatively unstructured, chiefly what factors to see and what information are needed. , it is designed to assist determination shapers.

( three ) Executive information systems-this provide demand of the executives.

Feasibility Surveies

This stage can besides be called preliminary probe. Here the Information Technology ( IT ) personnel/Manager will necessitate to critically measure its current system in order to warrant the cost and clip involved before make up one’s minding on the information system

This stage is to see whether it is possible to develop a system that is sensible and cost effectual. A determination will be taken at the terminal of the surveies whether to continue or non.

The critical factor is determining the Information system demands of primary and secondary users. Some of the basic findings are

Preliminary probes

  • The job
  • Magnitude and range
  • Options
  • Viability & A ; cost effectivity

Feasibility survey will incorporate the general demands of the proposed system. In this scenario it is how Information engineering can assist the school to accomplish its ends. i.e how Information Technology can assist run it more expeditiously.

The survey will place the following general demands for the system:

  • To be simple and easy to utilize.
  • To hive away all relevant inside informations of the members.
  • To bring forth rank lists rank cards and get offing labels.
  • To bring forth postings, circulars and similar stuff advertisement the nursery/school.

System Design

Design is a method used by administration to make and keep systems that perform basic concern maps.

The chief end is to better employee efficiency by using package solutions to identify concern undertakings.

This stage is a complex procedure where computer- based information systems are developed and maintained.

Here we talk of

( I ) Application package, this is the consequence of system analysis which is designed to back up specific organizational maps or procedures.

( two ) Software technology procedures will be designed to help in analysis and design method.

Methodologies – is a comprehensive, multi-step attack to system development

Techniques – this are processes that are followed to guarantee that work is good laid-out, complete and comprehensively to others on the undertaking squad.

Tools – these are computing machine plans to help in application of techniques to the analysis and design procedure.

A structured attack must be used by the InformationTechnology director in order to guarantee success.

It is the duty of the IT personnel/manager to use those that will be working with him/her, like the System Analyst, coder, Network decision maker etc depending on the magnitude of the contract.

Some of the maps of the IT director include direct function in system development, particularly if the undertaking is little ; by besides typically involved in apportioning resources and supervising the system development undertaking. MIS co-ordinator should besides be appointed in the execution of the information system ;

Some of the map of the MIS co-ordinator includes

  • Interact with user groups
  • Identify the demands of users of MIS
  • Planing of describing formats
  • Identify systems of information flow
  • Ensure smooth flow of information within and outside the


  • Time direction – trailing inputs/reports
  • Act as interface among subdivisions and direction grades
  • Identify developing demands of staff in MIS jointly with application


  • Organize monthly/periodic meetings to measure public presentation, maintain proceedingss and followup on the determinations
  • Interface with the assorted divisions/units in the organisation for information sharing
  • System Analyst

System Analyst performs and design based upon ;

( I ) Understanding the administration ( the school ) aim ; construction and procedure

( two ) Knowledge of how to work information engineering for advantage.

Some of the accomplishments and qualities of a System analyst include

( I ) Analytical

He/she must understand the construction of the administration, must hold job work outing accomplishments, System believing and ability to see the administration and information system as a system.

( two ) Technical

He/she must hold apprehension of possible and restrictions of engineering,

( three ) Management

He must be able to pull off Undertakings, resources, hazard and alteration

( four ) Interpersonal

He/she must hold effectual written and unwritten communicating accomplishments.

The Programmer

Some of the maps of the coder include

( I ) Convert specifications into direction that the computing machine can understands

( two ) Write certification and Testing plans etc

Other technician that will be involved in the undertakings are,

( a ) Database Administrator

Involve in design development and care of database.

( B ) Network and Telecommunication experts

Develop Systems affecting informations and/ or voice communicating

©Human factors Specialist

Involved in developing users and composing certification

( vitamin D ) Internal Hearers

Ensure that required controls are built into the system

The Database Management

For a complete organizational system to map, a common database and formal information are indispensable decently through the medium of computing machine engineering

‘Database attack ‘ and its development

Information systems development involved the development of base entirely systems for separate applications each with their ain set of maestro files. This meant that informations such as references could be duplicated in many separate systems, e.g. an employee ‘s reference could be held one time in the paysheet system and once more in the forces system. This causes two jobs ; waste of infinite and incompatibility, waste because the reference is held twice when it merely truly needs to be held one time and incompatibility because it is possible for the reference to be updated in one system but non in the other.

The jobs above led to the development of the database attack. The database attack is an attack in which an administration efforts to construct an incorporate corporate database to back up all the information demands of the administration.This can besides be referred to as all the informations held by the administration, whether in computerised database applications, file systems, spreadsheets or any other medium. ( )

The jobs involved with the execution of the database attack are concerned with the people /staff non proficient issues. The challenge for the analyst is to acquire people from different backgrounds with different cognition of the administration to hold on common informations definitions

Corporate Database

Many Organisations depend on the accurate and timely presentation of information to employees, clients, providers, stockholders and the authorities for their endurance. In many instances computing machine systems are the lone feasible mechanism for hive awaying and treating the informations necessary to supply this information, given the volume of informations and the complexness of the processing involved.

The informations can be stored in a assortment of ways, e.g.

  • Simple Sequential Files.
  • Network Database Management Systems ( IDMS ) .
  • spreadsheets ( EXCEL, QUATTRO PRO ) etc

The entire Collection of informations held by an administration is known as – ‘The Corporate Database ‘ can be its most valuable plus. See how much it would be to replace a big administration such as a bank ( where the figure of clients is measured in 1000000s and the size of the database measured in Gs ) to replace information on all their clients… .names, references, telephone Numberss, current balance, account history, overdraft bound etc.

A valuable resource such as a corporate database has to be managed efficaciously on a twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours footing and over the longer term.

Corporate database environment is going more and more technically complex, in order to back up terminal users who are progressively sophisticated in their apprehension of the engineering and in footings of their demands. Users expect a user – friendly interface to entree whatever corporate informations they require from many different locations or sections, on held in different database direction systems or so spreadsheet informations.

Data inputs can best be appreciated by first understanding the beginning of informations and the constituents of information, Data flows and Process logic.

Data attacks to system development can be explained through:

Process – Oriented attack: this focuses on flow, usage, and transmutation of informations in information system

  • It involve making graphical representation such as informations flow diagrams and chart
  • Dates are tracked from beginnings, through intermediate stairss and to concluding finish.
  • Natural construction of informations is non specified

( two ) Data- Oriented Approach: This depicts ideal administration of informations, mugwumps of where and how informations are used.

Data theoretical accounts describe sorts of informations and concern relationships among the informations

All the information about informations must be understood before the designing procedure for the school utilizing available informations.

Planing For The School

The countries that need to be considered in the design procedure for the School are

  • End products,
  • Input signals,
  • File Design
  • Hardware
  • Software

Design- Input

To work out the inputs required for a system several inquiries need to be addressed:

  • What data demands to be entered into the computing machine system?
  • How much informations demands to be input, and how frequently?
  • Where does the informations come from?
  • How will the informations be entered into the system?

Design: File Design For The School

How many files are needed and what will the construction expression like be? A nursery rank file might hold the undermentioned construction:

Design: Hardware

This subdivision covers the types of computing machines and pressmans thought suited for the system being analysed.

If the system needs to be on a web, inside informations would be specified here.

It is the duty of the IT personnel/manager to develop new computing machine web system and the usage of latest computing machine hardwares ( CPU, RAM, Secondary storage, Peripherals ) and major networking hardware equipments ( overseas telegrams, switches, Routers, Bridges, Server machines parametric quantities ) .

He/she will besides be responsible for the market study and happening out the company that offers good after gross revenues service and guarantees on the hardware. He will besides look at Resource sharing, the hardware scalability, if you have to purchase new hardware to run the latest operating systems or applications you need, it will add well to the cost of deploying the new package.

All these depend on the magnitude of the undertaking and should be giving precedence when doing his determinations in Acquisition/procurement of hardware and package.

  • Compatibility
  • Cost effectivity
  • Performance Standards
  • After gross revenues service
  • Configuration
  • Portability

Design: Software

A determination will hold to be made as to what package to utilize.

The most common package bundles are databases, spreadsheets and word processing bundles for administration such as school.

It is the duty of the IT director to cognize the best Operating System ( OS ) , the package for the undertaking by making the market study, and besides place the best web security package.

AnOperating System ( OS ) takes attention for all input and end product in a computing machine system. It manages users, procedures, memory direction, printing, telecommunication, networking etc.

It sends informations to a disc, the pressman, the screen and other peripherals connected to the computing machine and because every machine is built otherwise, bids for input or end product will hold to be treated otherwise excessively. In about all instances an Operating System is non that big or large but consists of many little system plans governed by the nucleus or meat of the OS. Because of the concentration of these little supporting plans it is easier to rewrite parts or bundles of the OS than to redesign an full plan.

Operating system has four basic interfaces:

( I ) Interface to the underlying hardware

( two ) Interface to application plans

( three ) Interface to the user

( four ) Interface to the system director

Each of these interfaces provides the appropriate position for different groups of persons:

Hardware developers who want their hardware to be supported by a peculiar operating system are chiefly interested in the OS-hardware interface.

Application coders are chiefly interested in the OS-application interface.

Ordinary users are interested in the user interface.

System directors are evidently interested in the system direction interface.

Most runing systems in usage today are composed of two distinguishable parts: the meat and the system plans.

The meat is chiefly responsible for interfaces to the underlying hardware and application plans while the system plans are chiefly responsible for the user and system director interface.

Operating System design:

The IT director must cognize the OS design to the used and identifies good design qualities for the undertaking

Below are some of the qualities of Operating system design

( I ) User interface: should the interface be easy to larn by a novice user, or should it be designed for the convenience of an experient user? ( Multiple user interfaces? ) ( two ) Efficient system resource direction: the more complete the resource direction, the more overhead.

( three ) Security: The more secure a system is the less efficient it is.

( V ) Flexibility: Most runing systems come preconfigured for many different devices. Part of the procedure of puting up a peculiar machine is to build a version of the operating system that is tuned for the local installing.

This tuning frequently involves puting certain bounds, such as the maximal figure of procedures. It besides involves stipulating the attached hardware so that merely the necessary drivers will be loaded. Some runing systems can lade and unload drivers automatically at run-time.

( four ) Portability: Will the operating system be portable to widely changing types of hardware, or merely different theoretical accounts of a peculiar category of hardware?

( V ) Backwards compatibility and emulation. Is it of import that package that ran under old runing system versions or under different runing systems be supported?


Any new system needs to be exhaustively tested before being introduced.

First of all the system should be tested with normal informations to see if it works right.

Second, the system is tested with informations incorporating known mistakes to seek and do it neglect ( ‘crash ‘ ) .

Third, the system is tested with really big sums of informations to see how it can get by.

It is of import that treating clip and response rates remain acceptable with changing sums of informations.



With this method of execution the users stop utilizing the manual system and get down utilizing the computing machine system from a given day of the month.

The advantage of this method is that it is less dearly-won in attempt and clip than any other method of execution. The disadvantage of this method is that if jobs occur the users do non hold any alternate apart from returning to a manual system which may turn out hard if it has been discontinued.

Parallel Runing

With parallel running, the new system is introduced alongside the bing system. With parallel running both systems ( manual and computing machine, or old computing machine and new computing machine system ) will be in operation at the same clip. This has the advantage that the consequences from the new system can be compared with those of the old system.

However, it has the major disadvantage that each occupation is done twice and therefore it means a batch of excess work for the users

Documentation / Maintenance

A figure of paperss are produced during the development of a new computing machine application.

Basically there are two types:

User Guides

User ushers are written in field and simple English instead than proficient linguistic communication.

The usher should cover how to run the system, how to come in informations, how to modify informations and how to salvage and publish studies.

The usher should include a list of mistake messages and advice on what to make if something goes incorrect

Technical Documentation

Technical certification is used to explicate a system to a specializer i.e. an analyst/programmer.

This papers will be used if any alterations have to be made to the system.

It is a really of import papers which needs to be to the full up-to-date


This is a typical stairss or procedure to take in introducing and execution of an Information system in an Administration ( The School ) .

In decision information system is a method used by organizations/companies to make and keep systems that perform basic concern maps with the purpose of bettering efficiency of the employee by using necessary package solution to identify concern undertaking. In order to accomplish administration end.


1. Lutchen D. grade: Pull offing IT as a concern, pp ( 41 ) 2004

2. Handouts on Project direction given by Mr shazar.

3. assessed on 24th January 2010

4 assessed on 21st January 2010

5 hypertext transfer protocol: // assessed on 15th December 2009

6. assessed on 22nd January 2010.


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