Sun Tzu, in the 2500-year-old authoritative The Art Of War, declares that “ there is no invariable strategic advantage ( shih ) , no invariable place ( hsing ) , which can be relied upon at all times. ” Harmonizing to him, warfare is an utmost illustration of human turbulency. As in warfare, there is no cookery book method for covering with alteration, no fixed and dependable scheme — and yet there are certain cardinal thoughts that can assist us believe about our state of affairss.

Those cardinal thoughts are the 1s I will be using as I attempt to measure Moran and Avergun ‘s statement.

First, I will offer a few definitions of alteration as recorded by expert in alteration direction. Second, the statement by Moran and Avergun will be evaluated by uncovering the implied significances of the statement and supplying points in support and against each of the implied significance identified. Attempt will besides be made to offer some sort of illustration utilizing some industrial experiences and acquired cognition.

I will subsequently propose ways alter can be managed to avoid members of an organisation feeling powerless and overwhelmed.

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Change defined:

A batch of alteration direction experts have offered a batch of definition of alteration, but I will restrict myself to the following two that simplify alteration for me:

Fresh and Bell ( 1999, P2 ) defines alteration as ‘the new province of things is different from the old province of things. While:

Van de Van and Pole ( 1995 ) see alteration as ‘an empirical observation of difference in signifier, quality or province over clip in an organisational entity or in the overall organisation.

Part A. Evaluating Moran and Avergun ‘s Statement:

First, the statement that ‘Change is a series of closer and closer estimate of progressively ambitious ends which are embraced by more and more members of an organisation ‘ seems to connote that:

Change in one portion of the organisation will ensue to alter in other parts of an organisation.

Effective alteration is one that is embraced by every member of the organisation.

Change is non additive.

Second, the statement, ‘For this ground, alteration frequently seems eternal and confounding. Often those involved in the alteration procedure feel powerless and overwhelmed ‘ can be seen to besides hold the undermentioned implicit in significances:

That alteration is dynamic

That the really nature of alteration ( non-linear and dynamic, etc ) can do those involved in the alteration procedure feel powerless and overwhelmed.

In measuring these implicit in significances, the pros and cons of each of them will be examined.

Change in one portion of the organisation will ensue to alter in other parts of the organisation:


When a certain map has undergone successful alteration, it frequently exposes the demand to cascade the alteration down the other maps of the organisation. In most successful organisations, where functional attempt are in synergism, alteration in one of the functional unit ( e.g. the selling map ) will most decidedly trigger a alteration in another functional unit ( say the production section ) and may go on until alteration occurs organisation broad. This is what Moran and Avagun ‘s statement seem to be proposing when it says that ‘change is embraced by more and more members of the organisation ‘ .

Laurie J. Mullins ( P818 ) agrees with this when it says that:

‘Change is a permeant influence. We are all topic to cultural alteration of one signifier or another, alteration is an in escapable portion of societal organisational life. Because of its permeant nature, alteration at any one degree is interrelated with alterations at other degrees, and it is hard to analyze one country of alteration in isolation ‘

The permeant nature of alteration is besides being highlighted by the fact that Moran and Avergun suggest that alteration has ‘increasingly ambitious ends which are embraced by more and more members of an organisation ‘


Salminen ( 2000 ) categorizes alteration on the graduated table of how extended the organisation is affected by alteration. It is little graduated table when it involves occupation restructuring at the workplace degree and big graduated table when the organisational construction of a whole endeavor would alter.

In position of above categorization by Salminen, little graduated table alterations such as inter/intra group squad physique schemes, restructuring of work squads and work procedure redesign are alterations that may non needfully impact other parts of the organisation and as such would take topographic point in isolation. They may non needfully do alteration at other parts of the organisation one time started. So to reason that alteration is permeant is to except this signifier of alteration.

Effective alteration is one that is embraced by every member of the organisation:


Effective alteration is one that gets the buy-in of more and more members of the organisation particularly those members who are likely to be adversely affected.

This can be done by accommodating some or all of the behavior alteration theoretical accounts being postulated by alteration direction experts like Lewin.

Harmonizing to Lewin, the first measure in a -three -step behavior alteration procedure is ‘unfreezing ‘ procedure. ‘During this clip those defending alteration attempts to cut down those forces which tend to keep behaviour in its present signifier and acknowledgment of the demand for alteration and betterment to happen ‘ . In the 2nd phase the alteration occurs. This is typically a period of confusion. We are cognizant that the old ways are being challenged but we do non hold a clear image to replace them with yet. The 3rd and concluding phase he called “ refreezing ” . The new head set is crystallising and one ‘s comfort degree is returning back to old degrees.

Change attempts that do non seek the buy-in of bulk of staff members frequently are frequently stalled by those whose governments are being challenged ; who would prefer the old ways and those whose personal involvements are threatened by the alteration.

One of the most recent successful of high-profile organisational alteration is the turnaround affected by Lou Gerstner, Jr. at IBM.A For decennaries, IBM employees accepted that a sales-and-marketing orientation, as opposed to a customer-needs and merchandise focal point, was what propelled growth.A IBM achieved its transmutation by jettisoning its internally protective civilization and going externally focused on clients and rivals – in consequence by systemically confronting up to, and get the better ofing, the corporation ‘s corporate frights

– culled a Journal of leading and Organizational surveies ( 2004 )


Well, by stating that effectual alteration is one that is embraced by members of the organisation, Moran and Avergun seem to connote an evolutionary alteration – 1 that progresses at the velocity in which the organisation is comfy with, and which allows it to acquire the engagement of everyone affected by the alteration. The statement did non look to see Revolutionary alterations – those in which the alteration can non be accomplished bit by bit. Because such alterations occur in state of affairs of crisis, the leader has no clip to beg the buy-in of members of the organisation. The leader, under this status, uses the bossy attack and practically imposes the alteration on members of the organisation

Change is non-linear:


The averment by Moran and Avergun that ‘Change consists of a series of closer and closer estimates of progressively equivocal ends ‘ suggest that organisational alteration is non-linear.

‘Organizations are complex adaptative systems ‘ – Joe Fowler ( 1996 ) as such, their results or reactions are non-linear. Their reactions or actions ( alterations ) are every bit non-linear.

The non-linear nature of alteration go even more apparent in this statement by Strickland, Francis ( 1998 ) –

‘Experienced alteration direction practicians will be cognizant nevertheless that point B is either continually traveling and therefore harder to make with stiff predetermined alteration program, or the environment alterations significantly in clip it takes to make B ‘ .

Changes can be sudden, self-contradictory, and helter-skelter. For case, addition works capacity a little sum, and production doubles or falls drastically or somersaults from one to the other.

An organisation desirous of altering from its current province A to its coveted province B may non needfully acquire at that place by following a stiffly defined way. – it might happen out in the center of the alteration procedure that point B might switch before the terminal of the alteration procedure. This is chiefly because of the altering nature of the organisation ‘s environment and the demand to accommodate the alterations to the changing environmental alterations ( The eventuality position of alteration ) .


There are other organisations such as the armed forces where the construction is based on concatenation of bid. Change in this sort of organisations can be said to be additive because alteration in this sort of organisation is ordered and their results can be really accurately predicted. This type of organisation was non likely considered by Moran and Avergun.

By carefully analyzing behaviours change can be made every bit predictable as possible. For case, by analyzing the behaviour of members of an organisation, a leader can accurately foretell and pull strings the result of a alteration procedure by utilizing the right stimulation to do a coveted alteration. The undermentioned motivational theories lend acceptance to this:

The Victor Vroom anticipation Theory – which states that an person will move in a certain manner based on the outlook that the act will be followed by a given result and on the attraction of that result to the person

Herzberg ‘s hygiene factor theory, which states that the presence of certain factor ( hygiene factors – working status, work environment etc ) can do occupation satisfaction while its absence can ensue to occupation dissatisfaction.

Both theories clearly support the fact that some alterations are predictable and their result can be manipulated to a really big extent.

Change is Dynamic:


By depicting alteration as ‘consisting of a series of closer and closer estimates of progressively ambitious end ‘ Moran and Avagun imply that alteration is dynamic. The dynamic nature of alteration is portrayed by the fact that one time alteration is started, an organisation continues to alter throughout its life clip. This is because ‘success with one type of betterment frequently triggers the demand to jump-start a alteration attempt in another country ‘ – ULMC Module 3 ( 2002, P1.8 ) .

Like persons, organisations change continuously, responding to developments in their markets and to the reaching and going of cardinal people. In a big company, these alterations go on more or less unnoticed. But sometimes a company must alter more rapidly than this gradual development allows ; it needs a interruption with the yesteryear, an accelerated gait of change-a transmutation.

One other statement that seems to back up the dynamic nature of alteration is the impression that ‘success strain ‘s failure ‘ and organisation trying to invariably win in their markets, industry and sector, must invariably introduce ( alteration ) .


Moran and Avergun ‘s statement is hinged on the Darwinian gradualism which is based on incremental cumulative and uninterrupted alteration.

However, there is the Punctuated Equilibrium theoretical account put frontward by Eldredge and Gould ( 1972 ) which considers development ( alteration ) as ‘relatively long periods of stableness punctuated by compact periods of qualitative metaphoric alteration ‘ . Here alteration is non seen to be continuous- as suggested by Moran and Avergun, but distinct phases of stableness and alteration.

Dumphy and Stace ( 1988 ) besides distinguish between Evolutionary alteration which is characterized to be uninterrupted and little, and a Transformational ( radical ) alteration which is discontinuous and large-scale in nature. For case, the acquisition or sale of a unit of a corporation is a discontinuous alteration event which happens merely one time.

The very Nature of alteration ( non-linear, dynamic, etc ) can do those involved in the alteration procedure feel powerless and overwhelmed:


If an organisation positions change as a additive non dynamic procedure of acquiring signifier an unwanted province A to a desired province B and discovers that point B has shifted independently ( as suggested by the eventuality position ) , the full organisation will decidedly experience overwhelmed by the portion rate of alteration.

Again, the fact that ‘success with one type of betterment frequently triggers the demand to jump-start a alteration attempt in another country ‘ means that every bit shortly as one alteration procedure is completed, another demand will originate someplace else in the organisation. As this happens, the organisation members will experience that the alteration might be in sempiternity and as such will be overwhelmed by the unknown volume of work that needs to be done.

Members of an organisation will experience powerless when the alteration type of alteration is radical. Revolutionary alterations are normally explosive and in a manner that impacts the organisation and the impact challenge the basic premises, patterns and the bing civilizations which seek to retain the position quo. Since the alteration enterprise is practically being shoved down the pharynx of members of the organisation, coupled with the fact that they lack the power to offer opposition, members of the organisation will experience powerless.


Peter Senge was one of the chief designers of the ‘learning organisation ‘ . He describes the ‘learning organisation ‘ as a topographic point where ‘people continuously expand their capacity to make the consequence they truly desire, where new and expansive forms of thought are nurtured, where corporate aspirations are set free and where people are continually larning to larn together ‘ – ULMC Module 3 ( 2002, P2.2 ) .

When people are making the consequence they truly desire, there is no manner that people will experience overwhelmed by alteration irrespective of its gait and volume. In this sort of organisation alteration is a portion of the organisations civilization as they ‘constantly improve through cognition and understanding ‘ – ( Fiol )

It is hence obvious that Moran and Avergun were non mentioning to this type of organisation in their statement.

Experts in Organizational alteration direction have successfully developed alteration direction tools that have reduced the ‘side effects ‘ of alteration. Tools such as Training and Development and Organizational Development ( OD ) are widely available and have recorded mensurable successes where they have been strictly applied.

Part B.

How alteration can be managed to avoid people experiencing overwhelmed and powerless

In trying to reply this inquiry, it will be proper to foreground the things that can do members of an organisation feel powerless and overwhelmed during an organisational alteration and so proffer solution or ways to pull off it.

Members of an organisation will experience powerless and overwhelmed when:

They feel they can non make anything about a alteration enterprise that has merely started in their organisation

Defying forces are subdued.

Staff members are non involved in the alteration attempt

The gait of alteration is fast – particularly in radical alteration when alteration takes topographic point at a really fast gait.

Cultural alterations – which challenges the position quo

All these issues can ensue partially from the natural opposition that manifest when alteration is being initiated in an organisation and from a alteration that has been ill managed.

Interestingly, harmonizing to Jonathan D. Day and Michael Jung

‘The art of taking deep corporate alteration can be learned. The fast one is to assist each member of the company detect a new world ‘

So through proper and good articulated alteration direction processes, organisational alteration can be managed in a manner that members of the organisation do non experience powerless and overwhelmed. The undermentioned stairss can be taken to implement and pull off alteration:

Force Field Analysis:

Kurt Lewin is the advocate of the force field theory which states that the equilibrium between those factors that create a force per unit area of alteration ( driving Forces ) and the factors that create a force per unit area against alteration ( Restraining Forces ) determines the current province of the organisation.

First, a force field analysis is of import to place driving forces and possible opposition to the alteration procedure. The consequence of this analysis will uncover the comparative strength of the restraining and the drive forces. The scheme will be to reenforce those impulsive forces while seeking to change over the restraining forces to driving forces when and where possible.

One illustration of how non to implement alteration is the type that happened at the former Network Group ( NWG ) in 2004. The Capital Programs Group ( CPG ) , with an executive as the caput, was carved out of the old NWG to manage web rollout while NWG was left to pull off web operations.

The split diluted the powers of the Chief Technical Officer ( CTO ) and other senior directors who, before the alteration wielded a batch of powers because of the immense rollout budgets they controlled under the old NWG. The alteration was implemented, irrespective of the concerns of the CTO and some senior directors who before so managed this budget. The CPG now control the immense rollout budget much to the humiliation of the CTO and the senior directors who are left with a thin Operations budget. The attendant consequence of this alteration is the fact that up boulder clay day of the month, the two divisions work at crosses intents. The expected synergism required to increase rollout Numberss and remain in front of competition ( the ultimate end of the alteration ) was lost.

One of the ways to get the better of opposition such as this would be through instruction and communicating.

Communicating Change:

The transmutation of a company requires its employees to follow a new position of its hereafter, a hereafter they must see as indispensable. Before employees can get at this deep strong belief, three things must be perfectly clear to them.

First, the “ why ” of the transmutation plan, every bit good as the “ why now, ” must carry them ; the benefits of success and the punishments for neglecting to move must be every bit obvious. Second, the company ‘s new future-the “ where to ” -must be clear and exciting to everyone. Third, each employee must understand the personal benefits of the plan: the leading must hold believable replies to that natural inquiry, “ What ‘s in it for me? ” To animate echt strong belief, the plans principle and end must defy the toughest examination from the most misanthropic perceiver right from the start.

An person ‘s attitude toward a alteration tends to germinate as they become more familiar with it. The phases a individual goes through can dwell of: apprehensiveness, denial, choler, bitterness, depression, cognitive disagreement, conformity, credence, and internalisation. It is direction ‘s occupation to make an environment in which people can travel through these phases every bit rapidly as possible and even jump some of them. Communicating alteration in this mode reduces the feeling of hopelessness that engulfs members of an organisation when alteration is imposed on them.

Take Small Stairss:

Change attempt can detain or even fail if it tries to turn to every issue or undertaking at one time. To avoid acquiring organisation members feel overwhelmed by the alteration attempt, and in other to construct assurance and credibleness for the program, alteration should be implemented in incremental phases so that success can be demonstrated along the manner. Peoples should be given specific public presentation demands which make the alteration more touchable in footings of single and organisational public presentation. This manner, there will non be confusion down the line.

Alan G. Lafley the CEO of Procter and Gamble ( P & A ; G ) is one individual who has successfully implemented alteration at P & A ; G by taking the company goals down to 4 to 6 per centum top-line growing, which still required them to introduce to the melody of one to two points of new gross revenues growing a twelvemonth, every bit good as some market portion growing and, on norm, a point of growing from acquisitions. He still committed to stretching but accomplishable double-digit earnings-per-share growing. Expectedly, the portion monetary value went down because the first thing he did was to put lower, more realistic ends.

Well his scheme paid away because, five old ages subsequently, the markets are looking at Lafley and P & A ; G really otherwise. From financial old ages 2000 to 2004, the elephantine company ‘s net incomes jumped by about 70 per centum, to $ 9.8 billion, and grosss increased by about 30 per centum, to $ 51 billion. Investors have embraced P & A ; G ‘s hereafter once more.

Training and Organizational Development:

The two tools for altering people and civilization are the Training and Development ( TD ) and Organizational Development ( OD ) tools. Peoples and civilization alteration pertains to the accomplishments, behaviour and attitude of employees. The selling Division of MTN Nigeria is one success narrative in this respects. In the twelvemonth 2000 65 % or clients interviewed said that MTN Nigeria had the one of the worst client service.

In order to alter the company from its present place of supplying clients random experience to a province where every client is left with a predictable ( MTN- Y’hello ) experience, MTN – the taking nomadic GSM telecommunication operator in Nigeria introduced a preparation and development plan called the ‘six stairss to Y’hello. Six stairss to y’hello is a preparation programme, which has been developed for front line staff of MTN Nigeria. The focal point of the preparation is to change their attitude to clients, and learn effectual ways of winning the conflict for emotional heads. The preparation programme is based on a narrative, FISH! This focuses on the undermentioned rules:

Have merriment – where staff is expected to love the work they do even if they ca n’t make the work they love.

Choose your attitude – encourages staff to take and ever convey a positive attitude to the workplace and utilize it to the benefit of the client.

Be present – encourages staff to tap into the emotions of their clients through empathy and sharing their joyous minutes.

Make their twenty-four hours – to finally make that MTN experience that wows the client and go forth a permanent feeling in his head at the terminal of the dealing.

This alteration attempt is already giving positive consequence traveling by the favorable client satisfaction study carried out by a selling adviser by terminal of 2005. The study shows that client satisfaction has improved from 35 % in 2004 to 47 % .

This shows the effectivity of preparation in altering the civilization of members of an organisation. Effective alteration direction plans are often consecutive, with early steps directed at get the better ofing the initial apprehensiveness, choler, and bitterness, but bit by bit germinating into a plan that supports conformity, credence, and internalisation.


Change is a changeless factor in the personal businesss of adult male that is why, in the words of a Nipponese adage, ‘one can stand still in a streamlined watercourse and non in the universe of work forces ‘

Change leading is a shared duty of everyone in the organisation so change directors must seek the buy-in of most if non all organisational members. Change that is literally forced down the pharynx of organisation members is barely sustainable.

To accomplish sustainable alteration, alteration directors must clearly pass on alteration and utilize all alteration direction tools and theoretical accounts to convey about behavioural alteration. This is because, harmonizing to Anatole France ‘all alterations, even the most longed for, have their melancholy ; for what we leave behind us is a portion of ourselves ; we must decease to one life before we can come in another ‘ . Change directors must guarantee that the full organisation has shed their past life of ‘the manner we have ever done it ‘ to encompass new manner that will take it to the ‘promised land ‘

Finally the best manner, in my ain sentiment, to pull off alteration in a manner that will non do organisation members feel powerless and overwhelmed is through persuasion good articulated communicating vision of alteration leader. After all it was Abraham Lincoln who one time said that ‘If you would win a adult male to your cause, first convince him that you are his friend ‘


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