In this paper, WHD (Wireless Hole Detection) algorithm has
been presented to detect and calculate the holes area in the wireless sensor
networks ROI, while the network nodes operate on limited battery energy. One of
the main challenges of these networks is the reduction of their consumed
communication time and computational power. The WHD offers the advantage of
small transmission distances for most of the sensor nodes. This concept leads
to increase the network lifetime, decrease communication overheads and improve
the quality of the network. The basic concept of the proposed WHD algorithm depends
on dividing the WSN into a number of similar cells by using the grid algorithm,
then WHD works on each cell individually by storing each cell’s coordinates positions
and finds the nearest number sensor nodes (depends on the application) to each
coordinate, then begins to cut each cell into number of triangles by drawing
lines between each coordinate and the selected number of sensor nodes. Then WHD
algorithm calculates the area of the formed triangles in each cell to get the
holes area in this cell. Then collects the total holes areas in every cell to calculate
the total holes area in the ROI.


Since the energy consumption
is mainly caused by communication, so less sensor nodes are used to calculate
the holes area, this leads to the minimal communication cost for neighborhood
discovery and control information exchange between sensor nodes and base
station node. Also the amount of aggregated data by the HN are the minimal due
to the minimal use of sensor nodes in each cell. For the above achievements the
average energy consumption, Communication overhead and average holes discovery
time decreases, so the network life time increases accordingly.

In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed WHD algorithm,
we compare its performance results with those obtained from PD and VCHDA algorithms
in terms of average energy consumption and average time discovery time. Based
on these comparisons, we found that the results of the WHD algorithm is more
efficient and increases the network life time. In the future work, we will try to
recover these holes with less mobile nodes.

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