In the first chapter of organizational behavior we
learn that what is organization and how they work first of all the most
important thing in organization is to work in coordination because it is the
most effective way of achieving organizational goals and objectives.
Organizational behavior describes our behavior in organization with employee’s
leaders and with managers. In organization work is managed through management functions
like planning, organizing, leading and controlling through these functions the
work is managed by managers in all this process every employee have to create a
good behavior with all other employees because this can help them to share
ideas with each other and done work with creativity which leads them to

Organization is powerful when everyone in treated
equally and good understanding with all. 
This course teaches us that everyone in organization has different
skills and they use their own skills in work some individual use their
technical skills in which they work with their knowledge and logical ideas. Some
use their human skills in which they develop understanding through emotions,
and motivate others and they can analyze and observe other’s behavior and the
conceptual skills in which a person deal with complex situation and try to
solve the various conflicts between individual and organization. In an organization
work is assigned to employees according to their skills and to achieve
organizational goals employees and employers have to work with coordination.

The behavior of one individual can affect the
behavior of others. Behavior has a big impact on organization. Good behavior
can create healthy environment, on the contrary bad behavior can create
conflicts and because of it organization can bear loss.  It’s important to show good behavior within
the organization as well as outside the organization and make sure one’s
behavior cannot harm others psychologically. For th is reason organization
arrange meetings and give consultation time also give task to train them for
how to work in coordination,  how to
behave with others, work in effective way, which can help them to attain their
goals and get success.

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1.      Diversity

In organizational behavior the second lecture is ‘diversity’
it gives the knowledge that in an organization people have different age,
gender, ethnicity they comes from different cultures. Everyone have its own
beliefs and values and management has to be aware of these different
characteristics. By handling it managers can remove the misunderstanding,
conflicts and problem and develop trust and good relationship within the
employees. In workplace there are different level of diversity one is surface
level in which the person are with different age (some are young and some are
old the employees) working for many years, they have different skills and
knowledge according to their experience. Gender also influences the performance
of employees. Men and women both are skillful, knowledgeable but their working
ability is different because women want flexible hours for working, while men
can work for extra hours. Marital status is also a diversity the married
employees have to manage the time for professional and personal life. Married people
have fewer turnovers than the single person because of responsibilities. People
from different culture they have own beliefs and values and they are sensitive
to their values. That’s why they respect other people’s culture so that
organization can maintain healthy environment. In deep level diversity is a
capacity to perform various task in a job through intellectual abilities.

2.      Attitude, job satisfaction,
emotions and moods’

In the third chapter ‘Attitude, job satisfaction,
emotions and moods’ we have learned that one’s behavior can influence others
attitude. Job satisfaction is also our attitude at workplace because we get it when
we feel comfortable and get respect from coworkers. The employees who are satisfied
from their jobs are motivated and increases performance at workplace. The moods
and emotion came from affective part of attitude, emotion are not remain for
longer period it occurs in any event but moods are cognitive in nature and
remain for longer period of time. Moods can be positive and negative in nature.
And in this chapter we learn emotional intelligence which is playing a vital
role in organization persons who have emotional intelligence have ability to
create artificial emotion to show others like showing sympathy to someone or to
make others comfortable so they can share their problems to managers.

3.      Personality and values

“Personality” which mean sum of ways in which person
interacts and reacts with others. Here we learned how heredity factors,
dominant personality characteristic and different theories and models makes,
distinguish and influence personality. After knowing personality in this aspect
we actually came to know what are human being and their behavior.

4.      Perception

The lecture “Perception” which means individuals
organizes and interprets their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to
their environment. Perception has three aspects perceiver side, situational
side and target’s side which affects perception of individual. This perception
power makes us able to make decisions which can be rational decision making, bounded
rationality, intuition. These all areas of perception increase ability of
decision making while perceiving individual.

5.      Motivation

The “Motivation” means driving force behind actions
and behaviors. In this lecture we study number of theories which tells us
multiple aspects of motivation in their own way of research on motivation the
researchers had done. And our objective is done of getting motivation from the
knowledge of these powerful motivational theories.

6.      Applications of motivation

The lecture “Application of motivation”, motivation
without its applications is not much effective. If we are motivated we design
our job and JCM model tells us about what is job and its characteristics. If
any lacking a person’s pervious job the application helps in redesigning of new
job, and we also came to know how to manage our job in different situation personal
as well as organizational concerns.

7.       Groups and Teams

In “Groups and Teams” lecture, we first learned the
difference between groups and teams. We have learned different types of groups,
and the group development process (forming, storming, norming, performing,
adjourning). In group different people come together and meet for the first
time, from different cultural, status and they have their own norms. First they
set their ground rules and leader starts to lead them towards achievement of
the goals. To make group member comfortable towards work leader have to cancel
all the negative powers in their group. Negative power might be status
differences, culture differences, ethnic problems, leader and members try to
avoid all these negativities and to give full attention towards the work. In
group size matters, in large group (many group members) there is the problem of
social loafing. Other than social loafing there are conformity pressures too.
In punctuated equilibrium model we came to know the different working behavior
of group members, they work according to the deadline of their work.

8.       Leadership

In ” Leadership” lecture, we learned about the
leadership. A leader is the one who influence their followers towards the
achievement of goals. From different theories like, trait theory, behavioral
theory and contingency theory we came to know how people differentiate leader
from the non-leaders. In trait theory they differentiate through the personal
characteristics. Behavioral theory differentiates on the basis of special
unique behaviors. In contingency theory, Effective leader adopt different
behaviors according to the situations. An effective leader not always shows the
directive behavior, but also supportive and participative behavior to make his
followers comfortable even in the stressful situation.

9.      Conflict and negotiation

In “Conflict” lecture, we first knew two different
views, first the traditional view, in which people describes conflict as a
negative, distractive, and origin of fights and wars. Other view is
interactionist view in which people view conflict as positive, and it gives a
positive push in group members towards accomplishment of tasks. But in this
case intensity of conflict matters a lot, in task and process conflict if the
intensity of conflict is low to medium than the conflict is functional if
intensity goes higher the conflict will be dysfunctional. In process conflict we
learn how the conflict creates, there are the conflict handling intentions
(competing, collaborating, compromising, avoiding, accommodating), b ehavior of
parties and their reactions and then outcomes. If the conflict is functional
then it will increases group performance otherwise, it will decrease the group

In “Negotiation” lecture, we have learned that
negotiation is the process in which two are more parties come together to reach
on a beneficial agreement. In negotiation each party has its own target point,
on which they get maximum profit and each party also set their resistance point
which is the least favorable point below which they cancel the negotiation
rather than accept the least benefit. From target to resistance point there is
aspiration range. Both parties will accept an agreement when they are on the
aspiration range.

10.  Power and politics

In “Power and Politics” lecture we have learned about
the power which is the capacity of ‘A’ person to influence the behavior of the
‘B’ person, so that B works accordance to the A’s wishes. There are two powers,
formal power and personal power. In formal power we have learned about the
coercive power, reward power, and legitimate power, formal power refers to
those people who have a position in an organization. Other is personal power
which consists of expert power and referent power. Personal power is people’s
own skills, experience of work and ability to influence others. The main key to
power is dependency. More ‘B’ depends on ‘A’ person the more ‘A’ has the power
over ‘B’. The dependency creates by the important resource person hold and
nonsubstitutabilitity. The preferred powers for upward, downward, and lateral
influencers are rational persuasion, inspirational appeal, pressure,
legitimacy, consultation, integration, exchange.

 Politics is
activities associated with the governance of an organization. Political
behavior can be influence by the both individual and organizational factors.  Politics can be positive as well as negative.
Employees job performance decreases and work stress increases in the political
environment, because the feel politics as threat and unfair. But, it depends on
the trust of employees with employers. When the trust between them is high the
take politics as positive and increases their work performance and when low
level of trust is found between employees and employers, employees take
politics as negative and anxiety will lead them to quite the job.



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