*Ms. Shailja Saxena **Abhishek Kumar Harmonizing to Oxford lexicon. Caste means “any category or group of people who inherit sole privileges or are perceived as socially distinguishable “or” each of the familial categories of Hindu society. distinguished by comparative grades of ritual pureness or pollution and of societal status” Inter caste dealingss have ever been an country of involvement for an intellectually able society and these dealingss have undergone a sea alteration station independency. With liberalisation and globalisation as the current tendencies. speaking about caste differences appears to be a jeer in the name of modernisation. But the fact of the affair is that caste differences still exist and caste consciousness still remains. Caste has permeated every section of the society and it is non now that caste has gained importance ; it had become an built-in portion of our societal construction even before independency. peculiarly in peninsular India. Economic mutuality of the caste system has weakened station independency.

But it is still apparent that members of different castes traditionally perform undertakings for one another in Nevertheless. it is clear that members of different castes customarily execute a figure of maps for one another in arcadian India that stresses on cooperation instead than competition. There has been a ritual resistance of holiness and pollution which since times immemorial has been a basis of the hierarchal model of caste. The norms of holiness and pollution worked to indicate out the difference and classifications of castes and bomber castes.

Outstanding amongst them were those concerned with mixing between different castes. They determined who could dine together at a mean and with whom. Not merely this. the regulations besides determined who could accept H2O and nutrient and from whom1. Merely people belonging to be castes could dine together. Largely. people accepted cooked nutrient and H2O from the custodies of people belonging to the upper caste but non from people belonging to the subsidiary castes. Professor. Symbiosis Law School

Student. BBA. LLB. Symbiosis Law School. 2011-2016

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Andre Beteille. “India’s destiny non caste in rock. ” The Hindu. February. 21. 2011. Section D. Final edition. Besides. at that place continues to be a general nexus between castes and business. The nexus exists to the point that lowest castes are majorly concentrated in low paying and boring occupations whereas the higher castes explore well-paid and esteemed occupations. The association was dominant in our traditional economic system of grain and land. Economic growing and handiness of chances have loosened the nexus between business and caste but the nexus still remains unbroken.

2. Saraswata. Swami Sahajanand. Swami Sahajanand Saraswati Rachnawali in Six volumes. ( Delhi: Prakashan Sansthan 2003. pp. 519 ( Volume 1 ) .

Lower caste
4. Lowest Caste

Above is the list of 4 classs in which the castes of the small town can be divided. The upper caste and in-between category people enjoy good dealingss with each other. They readily take part in each other’s ceremonials. But the lower and lowest castes do non portion the same chumminess with each other though they play an of import function in the rites and ceremonials of upper caste families which has been discussed later in the paper. Inter caste dealingss on the economic platform

The Bhumihar. Kormi and Yadav are land proprietors while most of the untouchable castes are fringy landholders and landless laborers. Even though battle in agribusiness is common to all castes from Bhumihar to Harijans. certain businesss are punctually performed by certain caste merely. Certain sorts of business are considered as better suited to people of the upper caste. The economic disparity and specific businesss of different castes have resulted in mutuality of the assorted castes in small town Bihta. All high caste. in-between caste and low caste groups come into contact with the Lohar ( Blacksmith ) . Thakur ( Barber ) . Dhobi ( Washer adult male ) . Chamaar ( Shoe shaper ) and Dom ( Toilet cleansing agent ) .

Their services are considered indispensable in the small town. All these groups come into contact with other high category groups normally in an economic context but there is an exclusion excessively. Few castes of the small town render their services in Traditional Jajmani system. Brahamans serve their Jajmaan ( a class comprising of people from the upper. center and lower caste ) executing spiritual rites for them. They restrain themselves from providing to the people belonging to the lowest castes like Dom. Dusadh and Chamaar. Under the Jajmani system. other lower and lowest castes besides serve the upper castes. The upper castes give them two pieces of land for adjustment and agribusiness severally. The upper castes sometimes besides manus over rice and wheat to the people of the lower castes.


In small town Bihta. there are a few hajaams who impart their services to different houses on a regular footing and they get rice. wheat and other cereals as consideration of their work from the people of the upper castes. The adult females of the hajaam families besides make visits to the houses of upper castes during times of bringing. matrimony and the last rites. In Bihta. merely 4 Hajaams soon exist and each hajaam caters to 60 upper category families which gives them adequate agencies for a nice support. This manner they are economically related to all the members of society. However. they do non provide to the people of the lowest castes ( Dom ) .


The Chamaars are cobbler by profession but they besides work for upper caste people for discharge and disposal of dead animate beings like cattles and American bison. They charge a definite measure of rice and wheat yearly whether animate beings die or non. Their services are. nevertheless. readily available whenever required. Over the past few old ages. the scenario has undergone a alteration and now. the Shoe shapers charge for their services in hard currency but non on one-year footing but on work footing. The shoe shapers perform the work which many abhor so their importance can non be undermined in the society. The people of this caste besides play musical sets at nuptialss and on other gay occasions. Foe playing musical instruments. they get compensated through hard currency and grains. They remain affiliated to the people of the upper castes because of their indispensableness in times of dire demand.


The Brahmins serve the upper. center. lower castes by executing religious occupations for them at a fixed monetary value. The religious occupations they render are non charged on an one-year footing. It is a caste which specializes in rites and rites and its function in the society is of critical importance excessively. Professionally. they cater to other castes for consideration but Brahmans are still considered as superior because they perform religious activity on all occasions. It is believed that they stand above in the hierarchal construction of the society as they are cognizing the ways to make out to God and pacify the psyche of our ascendants. The priests work on rewards footing but they are of import members of the small town organisation and keep good societal every bit good as economic sciences relation with the other members of the small town.


This caste fundamentally indulges in selling of family goods from people of different castes purchase family trade goods. Many a times. during periods of inundation or dearth. they sell trade goods on recognition footing to the husbandmans of all communities like Bhumihar and Yadav. It is merely when conditions return to normal. that the husbandmans repay the baniyas for the merchandises purchased by them on recognition footing earlier. The husbandmans return their dues to the baniyas by giving them farm merchandises like rice. wheat and sometimes. money besides. In this mode. people are dependent and closely connected to Baniyas for economic grounds. Though they are mutualist on each other for economic concerns. yet few castes like Rajputs and Bhumihars avoid ask foring them in maps because they think that they consider baniyas as inferior to them in caste and societal stature. However. their interaction for trade intents till remains.

Inter- caste dealingss on societal evidences.

Caste is most of import societal division in Bihar. Casteism is profoundly embedded in their ideas. Peoples mingle with each other at dining and other societal events. Inter caste matrimonies are still non a regular occurrence in the province. However. there are a few instances of inter caste matrimonies wherein the bride and the groom belong to divide castes. Marriage between a Baniya and a Brahman is non accepted by small town even though both the households might non see any job in such a brotherhood. The society still discriminates between the two castes. Choice of nutrient is mostly different in assorted castes. For illustration. few caste including Dom and Dusadh prefer eating porc.

The nature of their work and their penchant for nutrient besides makes them susceptible for detest from the upper castes. They are considered as Harijans and even though our society might be come oning at a fast gait. such favoritism on the footing of caste still persistes and the so called ‘untouchables’4 are non permitted to come in the premises of the upper caste people. The societal chumminess is confined to turn toing each other on occasions like nuptialss and deceases. Economic mutuality far exceeds societal mutuality. The hierarchal construction still weighs to a great extent on the heads of people of Bihta. Inter caste dealingss due to rites and faith.

Though the caste differences exist mostly in the small town Bihta. yet there are many factors that are common amongst the assorted castes. The commonalty arises because they all portion a common faith and to be precise. ‘one God’ . Their mutuality is apparent at all events. The services of the Barber are considered necessary because he is considered a ritual purifier on assorted occasions. Shaving is an of import rite on many occasions such as decease of any member in small town that are from same gotiya5.

Brahamans are treated with respect societal circuits even though he might be hapless. In every ritual such as birth. matrimonies. building of house. even on purchase of vehicle. Supreme beings are worshipped and whenever Supreme beings have to idolize ceremonially. the function of the Brahmin additions paramount importance. All castes respect Brahmans and seek religious enlightenment from him. It is believed that contemptuous Brahmans would amount to perpetrating a wickedness and the salvation of the wickedness would merely be in decease. or perchance beyond decease. It is their fright of God and the decease that the regard for Brahmins stands undaunted.

4. Tom O’Neill. ” Discrimination against India’s lowest Hindu castes is technically illegal” . National Geographic Magazine. ( 2003 ) . 5. Peoples of same Bhumihar gotras within seven coevals.

However. inspite all the fear that Brahmins seek and acquire. there remains a commonalty between them and the lower and lowest castes. The commonalty is the language- the address they converse in and it is this linguistic communication that binds them together. For illustration. the Brahmins and the Harijans speak the same linguistic communication and they besides have certain civilization signifiers in common. though they gait themselves in two extremes in the hierarchal theoretical account of the Hindu caste. It is besides hard to insulate a peculiar cultural trait as societal. economic or spiritual as one trait compliments the other in an organic. functional character of the society. However. the other most of import binding factor is the economic system of the people itself. Historically. the economic system of the Bihta is governed by two groups of people. the Bhumihars who are landholders at larger extent and Baniya who runs stores. This economic theoretical account is runing up to now. Similarly. certain caste groups are permitted to make merely certain type of caste specific business. In other words. the economic disparity and caste specific businesss force people to line together for endurance. Religious celebrations in small town are an of import medium to minimise the struggles among groups.

Bihta Village has a more homogeneous community construction. If we analyze the socially defined boundaries of affinity. Caste. ethnicity. linguistic communication. economic status. continuance of stay and spiritual values. this small town portions many of these characteristics in common. Most of the caste groups in the small town are Hindus. They celebrate Hindu festivals. worship Hindu Gods and goddesses. They speak Hindi and Magahi. Their matrimony and affinity forms are similar and they are closely related to each other. Though the caste solidarity is more marked among the caste groups. political relations is controlled more by the Bhumihars. The Bhumihars are economically good off due to their immense ownership of land in the small town which are of high value. All the caste groups in the survey country have harmonious societal relationship. They participate in banquets with each other. worship small town divinities. and attend matrimony ceremonials and decease rites.

The societal solidarity is seen on the juncture of Holika dahan festival in which all the caste groups irrespective of political political orientation and local personal differences gather at a public topographic point. On one manus. where there is chumminess. howsoever small it might be. there are towns and metropoliss where castes differences lead to bloody wars. Caste related force or hatred offenses are often informants in assorted parts of the state despite diminishing caste consciousness in the urban parts of our state. One such topographic point is Gwalior- the 4th largest metropolis of Madhya Pradesh. Gwalior was considered to be the precedence urban part of Madhya Pradesh. Low cost of production. inexpensive handiness of land. easy supply of natural stuff. handiness of labors at low costs and strategically located on the Delhi- Agra-Bombay main road. with an Airport to self-praise of. Gwalior could easy be one of the first precedences of any Industrial House but it is flooring to observe that out of more than 200 companies that were set up around 20 old ages back in the metropolis. merely 3 have survived. Caste differences have resulted in forcing back the development of the province by two decennaries.

Amongst the outstanding castes. Gurjars. Thakurs and Pandits are most dominant. Though their traditions and imposts are rather similar. yet the differences are rampart. It is their family name that marks the beginning of differences amongst themselves over about every issue. The locals of this part are known to be ill-famed. Chambal part has had a history of Caste based struggles and dakoities. It is ill-famed as the place for dakoits and other societal perverts. As a consequence. the local work force is different from the work force in remainder of the state and this difference is non desirable. The labourer’s attitude towards work is really abhorrent. This country lags behind remainder of the state by many old ages owing to these differences. This is one of the chief grounds why the companies in this part could non vie with companies in other provinces.

They can’t even think of International competition when even local competition is beyond their range. Where hatred has over awed the metropolis and tarnished its image. there are model provinces which excel in keeping amity amongst different castes. An illustration of such amity can be witnessed in Karnataka where in the one-year emanation of a certain small town. temple cart which bears images of the graven images to whom the public assistance of the small town can be attributed. is made to travel frontward with the combined attempts of representatives of different castes- be it upper or lower. It is a belief amongst the villagers that the cart would non travel frontward unless diverse castes toil together to travel it. It is a rare illustration of brotherhood and solidarity amongst people of different castes.

Castes remain profoundly embedded in the bosom and heads of all citizens. On being born. the baby is gifted his caste foremost and his name subsequently. We might hold progressed well post independency but have non yet reached a phase where caste differences would discontinue to be. Feeling ashamed of being born into a peculiar caste and feeling proud for being born into another is traditional human nature. Removing these differences will emancipate the society from bonds of orthodoxy and will stifle the liquors of all timeserving politicians who really tactfully encash on such regressive head sets of the citizens of our state.

The decision remains that in malice of all socio-political differences. the yarn of economic mutuality supports people of different castes in one cringle. It would be better if the society realizes this common dependance of castes and values each caste on the footing of the part made by them towards the patterned advance of our economic system instead than take downing or degrading each other on the footing of the so called God given inferior position. Casteism is racism- the Oklahoman we realize that. the better it would be for our country’s societal. political and economic wellness.


Andre Beteille. “India’s destiny non caste in rock. ” The Hindu. February. 21. 2012. Section D. Final edition. Saraswata. Swami Sahajanand. Swami Sahajanand Saraswati Rachnawali. Prakashan Sansthan. 2003. Ghurye. Features of the Caste System. caste in India. Popular Prakashan. Bombay. 1969

Thorat Sukhadeo. Newman. and Katherine. Blocked by caste: Economic Discrimination and Social Exclusion in Modern India. 2010

Srinivas. M. N. . “An Obituary of Caste as a System. ” The Economic and Political. February 2003.

Cordaux. Richard. . “Independent Origins of Indian Caste and Tribal paternal Lineages. ”Current Biology. 2004-02-03.

Tom O’Neill. ” Discrimination against India’s lowest Hindu castes is technically illegal” . National Geopraphic Magazine. ( 2003 ) .


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