B00624673 Discuss the various aspects of intimate partner violence and outline what needs to be taken into account in responding to the victim and the offender As the definition written by Sandra (2006, p. 6),” Intimate partner violence is a pervasive social problem that has devastating effects on all family members as well as on the larger community”.

Intimate partner violence, or domestic violence is more well-known to the public written by Donnellan in 1999 based on the report of Women’s Aid Federation of England, is the physical, emotional, sexual or mental abuse of one person (usually a woman) by another, with whom they have or had an intimate relationship. In recent years, the problem of domestic violence is becoming more and more serious.

From the figures researched by the NCH Action for Children (cited in Donnellan, 1999), the second most widespread reported violent crime belongs to Domestic violence. As early as in 1992, the British survey estimates that there are 530,000 assaults on women by male in the home annually and Department of Justice Statistics also shows that the incidence of intimate partner violence is about 1 million cases per year for women and 150,000 cases per year for men (Rennison and Welchans, 2000 cited in Sandra 2006 ).

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Although domestic violence is very complex crime including different family members play different kinds of victim or perpetrator, however, according to these figures showed which highlight the fact that women are more vulnerable to be the victims in this kind of crime, this essay will mainly focus on domestic violence against female. The essay will be fundamentally divided into four sections.

To begin with, the first section will discuss the history about domestic violence against women from the factors of gender, race, and culture and announce the severity of the crime in the modern period. Secondly, the essay will primarily enumerate and analyse the other various aspects including facts, reasons et al on domestic violence against women. Furthermore, the response to both victim and offender from multi-agency will be commented and finally some good and effective solutions towards the problems will be outlined in the rest papers of this essay.

As Phillips and Bowling (2002) indicate, during the Enlightenment European period, authorities think that ‘the age of reason’ and ‘civilization’ are unique characteristics of ‘white people’ and northern Europe, while other racial and cultural origins may be put the label of less rational, moral, and evolutionary potential, so the white supremacy and the dehumanization of racial others legitimized during this slavery time.

Although the slavery was ended in 1807 in Britain, the term ‘raciology’ (Gilroy, 2000 cited in Philips and Bowling, 2002) became embedded in British imperialism and colonial policies against parts of Africa, Asia, and the West Indies, and also including the white working class in Ireland and England (Solomos and Back, 1996 cited in Philips and Bowling, 2002 ) and to be more specific, the PSI report (Reed, 1994), Black and White Britain (Brown), found that numerous black people prefer a hostile response from the courts.

Culture also plays a very important role in human society, “For centuries there has been widespread violence and abuse of wives by husbands, policemen, landowners and in-laws arising out of a ‘hierarchical gender’ relationship, where men are dominant and women are subordinate”(Adams, 1998, p. 12) and “On top of what most feminists regard as the dehumanizing aspects of a capitalist system, there is a century-old domination by masculine values. In feminist theory, as Donnelly (1986, p. 37 cited in Adams, 1998, p. 7 ) wrote ‘many of problem that women experience may be attributed to the social context rather than to internal inadequacies…’failure to cope’ might be reinterpreted as an understandable reaction to an unhealthy situation. A survey conducted by women Acting in today’s Society with interviewing the survivors of DV in both Asian and European areas (Adams, 1998, p. 37) illustrates that ‘Asian women are more likely to stay in violent relationships for a longer period than White Europeans’.

Furthermore, in most situations, race is closely linked to culture, as Adams (1998) concludes the female experience from the ethnic minority groups proves that they undergo added cultural pressures. In addition, The trouble of domestic violence is a complex term that it is agreed that 30 years of violent conflict in the civil and political arena is reflected in the whole society and a research evidence supports the view that, “in conflict and war situations, domestic violence escalates, the problems are compounded and there is a higher incidence”(Northern Ireland Women’s Aid Federation, cited in Donnellan , 1994, p. 8).

At the modern time, the result of domestic violence against women is extremely tragic. The number of recording DV has extremely raised in the last twenty years, with a significant rise in the last decade (Labour, 1995). According to the key Statistics collected by Northern Ireland Office (1996), it indicates 90% of domestic violence incidents are reported by females and some researches made by McWilliams and Spence HMSO in 1996 suggests that common assault, peace breaching, and factors of criminal damage may contain increasing numbers of “hidden” domestic violence incidents.

As the labour (1995) reported that the Department of Social Policy and Social Work (1991, cited in Labour, 1995) survey suggest that nearly one in four women have experienced rape or attempted rape and approximately half of a rapes are by husbands or partners, where is often a repeated experience. As many as 1 in 3 marriages that end in divorce involve domestic violence (Borkowski et al, 1983, cited in Donnellan, 1999).

Furthermore, in extreme cases domestic violence may contribute to death, Barnardo (1998, cited in Dollennan, 1999) figures out that more than 40% females murdered in 1995 in England and Wales by a current or former partner or lover. Theoretical perspectives on intimate partner violence (Sandra, 2006, p. 4-5) “have shifted from single factor to multi-factor frameworks. These multi-factor frameworks suggest that Domestic violence is not simply caused by any one factor, such as an individual’s psychological dysfunction, but rather results from the interaction between various characteristics of individuals and their environment”.

Domestic violence against women takes various forms, as the Labour Party (1995) mentions that “ Physical violence is the most obvious and includes threats, punishing and shoving, hitting, beating, torture and ultimately murder. Sexual violence ranges from flashing and touching through to various forms of rape. These crimes generally have nothing to do with desire, but are a means of dominating and humiliating women in order to exercise control. Psychological abuse can similarly be used to threaten and undermine women’s confidence and sense of worth. Domestic assault is a very serious crime, however, it is different than any other.

In the Criminal Law (Home Affairs Committee, 1992), one of the purposes of Criminal Justice Act is to control the use of custodial sentences for serious crimes, and DV which is more often seen, wrongly, as less serious than other forms of violence will result even less often than at present in a custodial sentence. In addition, Barron (1990, cited in Home Affairs Committee, 1992, p. 9) argues that” It is generally accepted in the civil law by those working in this field that injunctions and personal protection orders aimed at protecting a woman from her partner’s violence are often ‘not worth the paper they are written on’. ” which made many female become frustrated and exhausted by the process. Risk factors for domestic violence including Exosystem Risk Factors, Microsystem Risk Factors Ontogenetic Risk Factors should also be taken into account. Large numbers of research has proved that risk factors are more likely linked to violent behaviour will happen.

On the basis of a report written by Li (2008), the reason why domestic violence happens can be differentiated into four general aspects, and in order to be more specific, the situation of domestic violence in China will be discussed in this part. Firstly, Ideological reasons, China has experienced a long feudal society, the patriarchal and husband the concept of the right to rule throughout the history of thousands of years, breeding a special atmosphere of domestic violence.

Secondly, legal reasons, when a violation of residents from within the family, the law enforcement tends to blank and blind. Moreover, economic reasons, if the wife was laid off, consequently reduced income, re-employment difficulties will force women to temporarily rely on their partner with the cold shoulder and discrimination. Finally, social reasons, a considerable number of people, including judicial officers that domestic violence is not a law and order problem in general, but also related to emotional factors, which let the perpetrators cynical violence with less constraints and sanctions.

From the research done by Women’s Aid Federation of England (Donnellan, 1999), it is clear that a considerable part of female victims stay in a violent relationship mixed with love and terror. The reason of this kind of situation has been shown in the research can be divided into: the fear of repercussion if they escape; the worry of losing children; and affright of poverty and isolation as a result of feeling no confident to leave. Women will be more vulnerable during the violence in the position of mother with consideration towards children.

In order to minimize or avoid the problem of domestic violence, as Humphreys (2000, p. 14) states,” a range of strategies were identified through which domestic violence could be avoided by child protection workers at any stage within the process of referral, investigation and assessment. These traps can render practice ineffectual as core issues which affect the family functions are ignored ” which is a tricky excuse to make the problem invisible. Adult mental health issue is another important factor appearing in domestic violence.

When mental health problems occurred in connection with the mother’s alcohol abuse, the mental problems will be ignored (Humphreys, 2000). Nevertheless, the statistics cannot be given no attention. Jacobson and Richardson (1987, cited in Humphreys, 2000) argue that about 60% female has been abused with mental health problems, and a quarter of women admitted for emergency psychiatric care have the memory of domestic violence (Stark, 1984 cited in Humphreys, 2000).

Apart from the mental health problems, the alcohol abuse is a brewing problem with domestic violence. Rather than named domestic violence, by considering children protection issues, it appears to turn to alcohol abuse. It is reasonable to explain that “in our society when people drink or believe they are drunk, they are given ‘time out’ from the normal rules of social behaviour. ” With this kind of conception, the perpetrators tend to shirk the responsibility of violence by announcing they were drunk.

During the past 20 years, research on offenders and victims, risk factors for intimate partner violence, and on treatment of intimate partner violence has flourished. However, as Sandra (2006) claims that research on the prevention of intimate partner violence is still in its infancy. However, a “growing frustration with the limitations of therapeutic interventions, and a clearer articulation of the costs that violence imposes on the wider society have all contributed to more robust prevention policies” (Daro et al , 2004, p. 89, cited in Sandra 2006, p. 3). “Domestic violence is an abuse of human rights. It is a serious and pervasive problem that cannot be tolerated in a civilized society (Department of Health and Social Services and the Northern Ireland Office, 1995, p. 4). ” Similar to other European countries, the Chinese government has tried to raise the awareness of harm to female of domestic violence in the National Action plan (2012-2015), a lot of work should be done by drawing the experience of western countries in this field.

The next part of the essay will mainly focus on the response to victims and offenders by multi-agency. For the reason to establish the responses of corresponding professionals to domestic violence, as McWilliams and McKiernan identified, it fundamentally needs training for pre- and post- qualification and in-service training for professionals, single or multi-disciplinary training for relevant personnel also be considered. Some Labour local authorities are already leading the way in promoting this kind of strategy.

For example. (Labour, 1995, p. 12), “a number of authorities have set up successful multi-agency forums on DV to bring together council officers with relevant agencies such as the police, Women’s Aid, Law Centers and Victim Support to develop council wide strategies. Substantial work has already been undertaken by multi-agency groups established by Leeds City Council, Nottinghamshire County Council and Wolverhampton Borough Council, among others.

Many Labour councils have also joined the Zero Tolerance campaign started by Edinburgh City Council. ” This trend is not just on the one hand , the government realised (Department of Health and Social Services and Northern Ireland Office, 1995, p. 11) that it will be a long term process to raise the awareness of domestic violence and it should be carried out through publicity and education by accepting the recommendations of McWilliams’ and McKiernan’s.

For instance ,“The Department of Health and Social Services, the Northern Ireland Women’s Aid Federation have recently joined forces for a combined publicity campaign to raise public awareness about domestic violence and the support available to women and their children,” (Department of Health and Social Services and the Northern Ireland Office, 1995, p. 11) And “The Education Service in Northern Ireland has an important role in helping, both formally and informally, to instil from an early age positive attitudes to the rights of others: in society, in the family and in other relationship. Other measures like A 24-hour Helpline launched in March 1995 was supported by the Department of Health and Social Services and Northern Ireland Women’s Aid Federation with confidential advice and counselling support. Among the various approaches to support women and their families, refuges are crucial resources for women fleeing domestic violence (Department of Health and Social Services and Northern Ireland Office, 1995).

In this process, the Department of Environment provides funding to manage housing as hostels, and Northern Ireland Housing Executive acts a substantial role in the housing provision for victims of domestic violence. Furthermore, the role of court in this process cannot be ignore,“In the Courts’ Charter for Northern Ireland the Court Service has undertaken, whenever possible, to provide separate waiting facilities at court for all victims of violence.

Victims who are called to court as witnesses will be given the opportunity to familiarize themselves with the courtroom surroundings before they appear in court. Victims will also receive a leaflet which will explain that happens in court. ” (Department of Health and Social Services and the Northern Ireland Office, 1995, p. 14). The role of police not only protect the victims but also address the offending behaviour of perpetrators in which criminal offences are disclosed including a clear emphasis on the exercise of arrest powers and initiation of prosecution with sufficient evidence in courts.

On the other hand, the Probation Board for Northern Ireland tends to found community and prison based services which help perpetrators extricate from violent behaviour. Like what police should be done , all probation Board staff will be trained in handling domestic violence and a programme Men Against Domestic Violence will be applied throughout Northern Ireland To sum up, as has written above, domestic violence is a very serious and complex social problem with the statistics given in current time.

From the review of some factors in the Domestic violence about gender, race and culture especially the patriarchal influence , it seems to appear that female victims are more likely influenced by risk factors, as Exosystem Risk Factors, Microsystem Risk Factors and Ontogenetic Risk Factors which can be more specifically reflect as Ideological reasons, legal reasons, economic reasons and social reasons. Furthermore, the mental health issues and alcohol abuse have a huge negative effect on the problems of domestic violence.

Due to the female’s factor, the perpetrator seems to minimize or avoid the problem from the police and the Justice System which led to no effective control of Domestic violence . As a consequence, the awareness of society is aroused by the government and multi-agency such as Department of Health and Social Services and the Northern Ireland Office, Northern Ireland Women’s Aid Federation and et al has made approaches of help victim and challenge the offenders which involved the protection from the refuges, 24-hour Helpline, Courts Services,and police and Justice System response.

More accomplished, there are increasingly numbers of staff in different agency trained to acquire to deal with the problem of domestic violence which may welcome a dawn of control of domestic violence against women. Reference Adams, E. (1998). Asian Survivors of Domestic Violence. Norwich: Social Work Monographs China National Action plan (2012-2015). Central Research Unit (1995). An Evaluation of The Scottish Office Domestic Violence Media Campaign. Department of Health and Social Services and Northern Ireland Office (1995). Tackling domestic Violence. Department of Health and Social Services and Northern Ireland Office (UK). (1995).

Tackling domestic violence. Humphreys, C. (2000). Social work, domestic violence and child protection. Bristol: The Policy Press House of Commons (UK). (1992). Domestic Violence. Hague, G. , Malos, E. and Dear, W. (1996). Multi-agency work and domestic violence. Bristol: The policy Press. Home Affairs Committee (1992). Domestic violence. Northern Ireland Office (UK). (1997). Gender and the Northern Ireland Criminal justice System. National Society for the Prevention of Cruely to Children (1999). Protection children from family violence. Journal of Dealing with Domestic Violence, 44, 27 Northern Ireland Women’s Aid Federation (1999).

Domestic violence-the don not stand for it. Journal of Dealing with Domestic Violence, 44,37-38 Northern Ireland Women’s Aid Federation (1999). Domestic violence in northern Ireland. Journal of Dealing with Domestic Violence, 44,38 Northern Ireland Office Statistics and Research Branch (1997). Gender and the Northern Ireland Criminal Justice System Office for Labour (UK). (1995). Peace at Home. Reed, J. (1994). Race, Gender and Equal Opportunities. Review of Health and Social Services for Mentally Disordered Offenders and others requiring similar services, 6. South Glamorgan County Council (1999).

Domestic violence. Journal of Dealing with Domestic Violence, 44,5 Sandra, M. (2006). Co-published simultaneously in Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma (The Haworth Maltreatment & Trauma Press, an imprint of The Haworth Press, Inc. ) Vol. 13, No. 3/4, 2006, pp. 1-12; Women’s Aid Federation (1999). Domestic violence-the myths. Journal of Dealing with Domestic Violence, 44, 6 Women’s Aid Federation (1999). Domestic violence-the facts. Journal of Dealing with Domestic Violence, 44, 7-9 Women’s Aid Federation (1999). Domestic violence-who can help. Journal of Dealing with Domestic Violence, 44,24-26

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