To utilize an electronics lab. it is necessary to go familiar with some typical equipments and constituents. to cut down the accident and damaging the equipments. So the experiment will be accomplished with the right consequence and everything still in one peace.

• To be familiar and understandings the operation of the basic constituents and equipments in electronics lab. • To cognize the colour codification of the resistance.

Resistor is a common constituents use in electronics lab. Resistors come in assorted forms and sizes. The larger the physical size. the greater the electrical power informing. Therefore. it is of import to cognize the precisely value for each resistance by its codification colour before utilizing it.

Analogue Multimeter. every electronic lab has different types of metres. However. there are some basic metres that are common and may look to be different merely because they are made by different makers. linear Multimeter must be able to mensurate District of Columbia and ac electromotive force. dc current and opposition.

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The CRO graphs the instantaneous value of electromotive force versus clip on the screen. The chief use of CRO is to see the jumping current or ac wave form. so that wave form measuring can be made. The screen of the range is divided by reticules into 10 horizontal divisions and eight perpendicular divisions. Each major division is divided into 5 minor divisions. The perpendicular axis on the screen is the electromotive force graduated table and horizontal axis is the clip graduated table. The CRO in the labs is dual-channel. This means that you can expose two wave forms from two different inputs on the screen at the same clip. The CRO is the lone device that permits direct measuring of peak-to-peak values on any form of wave form. It is of import to recognize that the CRO can non alter the wave form ; it merely changes the position of the wave form.

• Resistor: 330. 680. 3K. 5. 1K. 10K. 15K. 30K. 100K.
• Multitester.
• Oscilloscope.
• Power supply.
• Bread board.
• BNC-Crocodile cartridge holders.

PART A. Resistor Color Code:
The resistance colour codification in Table 1 must be used. the per centum tolerance value must be determined of each 8 resistances. from the smallest to the largest of which had been chosen. Then the consequence must be recorded in table 2. Part B. Measuring resistances utilizing an linear Multimeter: The ? scope must be settled. it will be noticed that the instrument will work as an ohmmeter. The provided resistance must be used. each resistance must be selected for measuring and the coded value must be used as usher. an appropriate multiplier graduated table must be selected on the ohmmeter. The ohmmeter must be zero on this graduated table by shorting the terminuss together with a trial lead and the nothing adjust control must be used to put the needle to zero. The value of the resistance must be measured and recorded in table 3. PART C. Oscilloscope:

BNC is normally used on Coaxial Cable. they are easy can be damaged so its mustn’t be forced onto a terminus. the BNC must be connected terminal of the trial lead to the INPUT-CH1 doodly-squat and the RED alligator cartridge holder to the CAL. 2Vpp square moving ridge hook. The BLACK alligator cartridge holder shouldn’t be connected. The big perpendicular volts/div switch must be rotated for CH1 to 5v ( for 0. 5v/division ) the perpendicular volts/div is controlled over the graduated table of the Y-axis. The big expanse time/div switch must be rotated to 2ms ( for 2msec/division ) . The expanse time/div is tour controlled over the size of the x-axis. Now there is a square moving ridge form on the CRT. That is the particular standardization electromotive force end product. There should be two complete rhythms ( 5 divisions long ) as measured on the horizontal axis.

The moving ridges should be about 4 divisions tall. When the square moving ridges are on the screen. the horizontal place control must be adjusted so that the wave form starts on the first perpendicular gratitude. This must be done if the period measuring is required. Then. the perpendicular place must be adjusted so that the wave form starts on the X-axis or halfway gratitude. This must be done if the electromotive force measuring is required. The wave form must be drowned to the graduated table on the chart in the consequence page. The time/div and the volts/div from the CRO must be filled ( step 3 and step 4 ) . A uninterrupted wave form must be seen by increasing the strength. The strength must be decreased when the drawing is completed. The CH1 volts/div control must be changed to 1v. The electromotive force must be measured and recorded in table 4. The sweep time/div should be changed to 5ms. The period must be measured and the consequence should be recorded in table 4. Table 4 must be completed.


The resistance tolerance can be measured by utilizing the colour codification and the resistance colour codification tabular array. for illustration:
A resistance coded: red-yellow-orange-gold
First digit= 2 ( RED )
Second digit= 4 ( YELLOW )
Multiplier= x10^3 ( ORANGE )
Tolerance= 5 % ( GOLD )
The resistance value is 24 ten 10^3? = 24 000? = 24k ?± 5 %
And the per centum of mistake can be measured by utilizing the expression:

% Error = { [ coded value- measured value ] /coded value } x 100 %

The electromotive force can be calculated from the CRO by utilizing the following expression: Vpp = ( # of division tall ) *Volts/Div

The period can be calculated from the CRO by utilizing the following expression: T = ( # of division long ) * Sec/Div

The frequence expression:
F = 1/T

As a decision. the experiment provided tonss of information about the basic lab equipment and constituent. which had been collected during the lab category. so the experiment had been finished successfully. and accomplished its objects.

• LAB 1 ( KES 1181 ) . Experiment 1 ( debut to basic lab equipment and constituents ) .


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