Chapter 2


Introduction to Travel and Tourism

Tourism is travel for leisure, recreational and concern intent. Tourists can be defined as people who travel and stay in topographic points outside their usual milieus for more than 24 hours and non more than one back-to-back twelvemonth for leisure, concern and other intents by the World Tourism Organization. Tourism is a known matter in human life. Tourism has been an industry of huge dimensions and supports economic and societal growing. Tourism worldwide has experienced phenomenal growing. With more than 600 million people going yearly, touristry is the universe ‘s largest industry, with grosss of about half a trillion dollars a twelvemonth, and averaging five percent one-year growing.

India, being a huge and diverse state has ever something to offer, its rich traditions and cultural heritage are linked with the development of touristry. Its brilliant memorials pull big Numberss of tourers from all over the universe. Tourism is the largest service industry in India, which contributes to 5.68 % of the national GDP and 8.78 % of the entire employment. More than 13.72 million one-year foreign tourer reachings and 650 million domestic tourer visits are witnessed by India. The touristry industry in India generated about US $ 100 billion in 2008 and is expected to increase to US $ 275.5 billion by 2018 at a 9.4 % one-year growing rate.

Booming IT industry and outsourcing industry has led to turning figure of concern trips made by aliens to India, who frequently add a weekend interruption or longer vacation to their trip. Tourist reachings are projected to increase by over 22 % per twelvemonth through boulder clay 2010. Tourism curate has besides played an of import function in the development of the industry, originating publicizing runs such as the ‘Incredible India ‘ run, which promotes India ‘s civilization and tourer attractive forces in a fresh and memorable manner. This run helped make a colorful image of India in the heads of tourers all over the universe and straight led to an addition in the involvement among tourers.

The touristry industry has helped growing in other sectors every bit diverse as agribusiness, building, handcraft, gardening and domestic fowl.

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Both straight and indirectly, increased touristry in India has created occupations in a assortment of related sectors. Almost 20 million people are now working in the India ‘s touristry industry.

Growth Of Hospitality Industry In India

Hotel industry is traveling through an interesting stage in India. Boom in overall economic system and growing in sectors like telecom, retail, existent estate and information engineering is one of the major grounds for the addition in demand for hotel suites in the state. International corporate travelers and foreign investors are besides pulling to look for concern chances in the state.

Harmonizing to touristry curate the industry has a capacity of 110,000 suites, 4.4 million tourers visited India 2008-2009 and at the current rate, the demand will surge to 10 million by 2010 to suit 350 million domestic travelers. The hotels of India have a deficit of 150,000 suites fuelling hotel room rates across India. With enormous pull of chance, India has become a finish for hotel ironss looking for growing.

Due to such a immense potency available in this section, several planetary hotel ironss like the Hilton, Accor, Marriott International, Berggruen Hotels, Cabana Hotels, Premier Travel Inn ( PTI ) , InterContinental Hotels group and Hampshire among others have all announced major investing programs for the state. The Government ‘s move to declare hotel and touristry industry as a high precedence sector with a proviso for 100 per cent foreign direct investing ( FDI ) has besides provided a farther drift in pulling investings in to this industry.

It is estimated that the cordial reception sector is likely to see US $ 11.41 billion rise in the following two old ages, with around 40 international hotel trade names doing their presence known in the state by 2011. Simultaneously, international hotel plus direction companies are besides likely to come in India. Already, US-based HVS International has firmed up programs to come in India, and industry participants believe others like Ashford Hospitality Trust and IFA Hotels & A ; Resorts among others are likely to follow suit.

Niche Tourism

Harmonizing to Robinson and Novelli ( 2005 ) ‘niche touristry ‘ has emerged in recent old ages in counter-point to what is normally referred as ‘mass touristry ‘ . In a globalising universe of increasing similitude, niche touristry represents diverseness and ways of doing difference. It plays on the dyslogistic connexions that have accompanied the development of mass and box touristry and their, frequently cited, negative impacts in relation to environmental debasement and socio-cultural perturbation. For finish directors and contrivers seeking to use touristry as a mechanism for economic development, the niche touristry attack appears to frequently greater chances and a touristry that is more sustainable, less detrimental and more capable of presenting high disbursement tourers.

The term niche touristry is mostly borrowed from the term niche selling, which in bend has appropriated the niche construct from the linguistic communication of the comparatively recent subject of ecology.

Tourists, as consumers have developed increasing degrees of expertness and experience of being tourers. Whilst this developmental form of tourers may non ever be additive or simplistic.

Figure 2: Niche Tourism Components

Types of Niche Tourisms

Niche touristry has loosely been divided into following constituents:

Cultural Tourism: Harmonizing to OECD ( 2009 ) it is a signifier of touristry which is concerned with a part ‘s civilization, life style of the local people in those geographical countries and the ancient history of those people, their architecture, faith, art and other elements that have helped organize their life. It besides includes touristry in urban countries, peculiarly in big or historic metropoliss and their cultural installations like museums. It can besides include touristry in rural countries showcasing the traditions of local cultural communities i.e. festivals, rites, and their values and life style.

Environmental Tourism: Environmental touristry or nature touristry provides a opportunity to see natural countries and observe workss and wildlife. It is responsible travel to fragile and normally protected countries and is frequently on a little graduated table unlike mass touristry. Main intent behind this sort of touristry is to educate travelers and to supply fund for ecological preservation. It straight benefits the economic and political development of the local communities and surrogate regard for different civilizations and human rights.

Rural Tourism: Harmonizing to Aref, F. and Gill, S. ( 2009 ) any signifier of touristry that showcases the rural civilization, art and heritage of rural locations, thereby profiting local community socially, economically, politically and enabling the interaction between the tourers and the local community for more enriching touristry experience can be termed as rural touristry.

The term “ rural touristry ” was ab initio adopted by the European Community to mention to all sort of touristry activities that are carried off in rural countries.

Figure 1: Rural Tourism Approach

Forms of Rural Tourism

Agritourism: Agritourism or farm touristry is a sort of touristry in which an administration is working on farm which is made for amusement of tourer and thereby it generates income for farm proprietors. This sort of touristry helps visitants to interact with the husbandmans thereby enriching their cognition sing agritourism.

Sports Tourism: Sports touristry involves tourers to detect and take part in the rural athleticss. It helps in learning the local people the range of games in the international scenario. It enables the people of different civilization to interact with each other and to interchange cultural activities between parties and thereby acquire culturally rich.

Pro-Poor Tourism: Pro hapless touristry is largely practiced in developing states to better economic system for local people. It improves the relation between the touristry and hapless people ; this sort of touristry helps in cut downing the poorness and increases the engagement of hapless people in touristry development. The purposes for pro-poor touristry ranges from increasing employment for local people to affecting them in the determination devising procedure.

Introduction to Rural Tourism in India

Rural touristry is a fast rising class. Majority of India is among the rural class therefore a batch of tourers get attracted to the pious environment of rural India.

Harmonizing to the National Tourism Policy 2002, rural touristry is identified as a focal point country for bring forthing employment and for advancing sustainable supports. In the 10th five twelvemonth program authorities has focused on the topic of rural touristry. With a rich diverseness in heritage, civilization, trades, tradition and nutrient, India has immense possible and chance. Government has identified certain countries across the state which can be developed as the rural finishs for advancing rural touristry.

Harmonizing to the UNDP study authorities has partnered with the United Nations development plan for a rural touristry undertaking, in which authorities has selected 30 rural sites in 20 provinces to be promoted as rural finish. The UNDP pumped in an initial sum of US $ 2.5 million. Proposals that were selected by the authorities were entitled to assistance up to US $ 100,000.

Divining Forces in Rural Tourism

As stated by Knowd, I. ( 2001 ) rural touristry experience is defined as the experience offered as a merchandise and it is responded to what is perceived as an increasing demand for experience of rural countries. This demand is driven by a scope of forces to make tourist involvement in the rural countries. These forces can be summarised as:

Maximal tourers coming to rural countries are from extremely developed countries. The emphasis of work and urban life has created a desire in them for farness, so that they can get away from the metropolis life.

Harmonizing to Mackay ( 1997 ) babe boomers are into touristry experiences that yield increased self-awareness in their thrust for “ longed for flawlessness ” that compensates for lives.

Demand fuelled by media, over-familiarity and congestion with traditional tourer resorts and increased involvement in alternate attractive forces with its rapacious appetency for content and the end point over exposure of many traditional tourer finishs.

With the green revolution and increasing environmental consciousness among tourers, green issues have raised the attraction of rural experience as ecologically sustainable touristry.

Improved communicating installations have removed the economical and political barriers to go and hold facilitated handiness to rural countries.

The addition in free independent travelers combined with the addition in the paying capacity of the tourers and greater consciousness on the scope of experiences offered, has improved the handiness and attraction of the rural finishs.

Changing work forms have increased the popularity of shorter interruptions that minimise the absence from work and the consequence of absences on work flow and engagement.

An increased involvement in heritage can be sited in rural touristry as rural countries are frequently the depositories of remnant heritage.

Harmonizing to Bartmann and Baum ( 1998 ) rural countries are perceived as fitter offering fresh air, clean H2O and the chance for out-of-door diversion. Rural countries even offer fresh and forte nutrient.

Issues with Rural Tourism

The deficiency of statistical base:

It is hard to set up volume and value of rural touristry as a specific market sector in states, even harder on an international graduated table. Many states have different definitions of ‘rural ‘ and will therefore cod different informations. Data on rural touristry are non easy gettable.

Rural communities:

These tend to be non-uniform for illustration remove versus accessible rural countries contain really different types of colony, employment chances, socio-demographic features. Different community structures with diverse responses to tourism exist.

Tourism development schemes may non profit all rural countries:

Where there is an unequal supply of attractive forces or adjustment, touristry may non boom. However selling schemes must be good to pull tourers. Likewise, development of touristry proviso by local people may non be executable in a down rural economic system.

Impact of Rural Tourism

The purpose of touristry development in rural countries is, in general footings, to supply chances for economic and societal development. In some countries, touristry provides the chief beginning of income and employment, every bit good as supplying societal and economic benefits. Inevitably, negative facets of rural touristry are apparent as good. ( Gannon 1994 )





Aids viability of bing touristry and non-tourism concern.

Encourages dependance on industry prone to unmanageable alteration

Creates new employment

Creates portion clip, seasonal employment

Attracts inward investing

Incurs development costs and public service cost


Aids in viability of local service

Creates experiencing of invasion by tourers

Creates sense of pride

Additions offense

Revitalises local civilization, traditions, events and trades

Decrease in local services


Leads in environmental betterments in colonies

Additions wear and tear on landscape characteristics

Provides income for preservation of edifices and natural environment

Creates need for new developments which may non be in maintaining with local country.

Stephen fosters consciousness of preservation as worthwhile activity

Additions pollution and affects local biodiversity

Table 1: Positive and negative impacts of rural touristry

Niche Market: A Topographic point in Rural Tourism

If the importance of the merchandises one bargain lies mostly in their possible as societal markers, touristry sellers must concentrate both on touristry ‘s societal meaning and on significances attached to infinites in which these occur. Explanations of touristry ingestion can non be derived in isolation from the societal dealingss in which they are embedded. New users of the countryside are redefining what constitutes ‘rurality ‘ , and there is a demand to take postmodernism and the building of the rural much more earnestly. Contemporary societal building frequently transcends the countryside ‘s touchable features and qualities of unfastened infinite or fresh air by stand foring it as the scene for the accomplishment of a scope of personal ends. The demand for a wider sociological attack to touristry surveies has been emphasised by Sharpley, who argues for the acknowledgment of broader societal and cultural influences that shape consumer behavior as a whole and influence ingestion forms. In the involvements of the rural environment, hence, and of the little concerns seeking to run into the demands of emerging markets, it is necessary to look beyond classical selling theory to derive a utile apprehension of ‘rural touristry ‘ ingestion and to measure the being of niches for selling intents.

The increasing demand for analysts to concentrate on ingestion as an improved agencies of understanding modern-day signifiers of ‘rural touristry ‘ demand requires a dynamic model within which the analysis can be conducted. A continuum to mensurate the comparative importance of the countryside to the ingestion of touristry in rural countries is proposed to bespeak the importance of the countryside to the intent of the trip and to tourist satisfaction. The significance of the theoretical account lies in its acknowledgment of the primacy of neither touristry nor tourist types but the ways in which the countryside is consumed as a recreational resource.

Challenges and Opportunities in Rural Tourism

The major job in rural countries is that there is non much range for working. Most of the Peoples are engaged in agricultural activities, some of them in forestry and others are craftsmans. Villages are fighting with big households with one or two gaining members in the household and high ingestion outgo. Due to less range in small towns most of them started migrating to metropoliss.

There are 638,691 small towns in India as per the Census Report 2001 and the rural population is 741,660,293 with mean population of 1,161 per small town. Many of these rural communities have the potency have the possible resources, ability to pull the turning touristry industry. The scenic beauty, historical importance may appeal the urbanites, caught up in today ‘s fast gait of life style.

Challenges in Rural Tourism

The major challenges are the demand to continue the environment and natural resources and the demand for proper instruction.

Legislation Problems

Respondents have pointed out that there can be legal jobs. Tourism is a portion of amusement industry. All hotels, motels and bungalows holding license wage revenue enhancements to authorities. Rural touristry should hold a revenue enhancement vacation or it should be revenue enhancement free. The authorities should promote rural touristry to turn.

Lack Of Trained Man Power

The swayer people require to be trained for dispatching their responsibilities, adorning the bungalows and keeping them, functioning nutrient to the visitants and to understand the gustatory sensation of the costumiers, either the local culinary art or different type of Indian culinary art. The success of rural touristry wholly depends on the quality of service provided to the tourers. To develop the work force authorities has to take enterprise to open assorted short preparation classs for leaving cognition and accomplishments.

Insufficient Financial Support

To get down rural touristry, sufficient fund is required to advance it in introductory stage. Rural touristry is still uncommon to many tourers. This is because the authorities has merely started advancing rural touristry. Central and province authorities should promote rural touristry by supplying fiscal support to get down the undertaking. As it will make employment in rural countries and will assist the influx of financess from rural countries to urban countries.

Lack of Local Involvement

Since rural people do non hold cognition and accomplishments to affect hem in different activities. They may acquire the occupation of unskilled workers. The rural people need to develop the cognition and accomplishments to hold a higher engagement in rural touristry. The basic construct behind the rural touristry is the engagement of rural people. But in pattern local people are rarely involved in determination devising, planning and implementing policies. Most of rural people do non hold much cognition of touristry, and are misled by outside investors who hope to take most of the economic benefits from rural country.

Language Problem

There are 16 recognized linguistic communications and 850 idioms in India. Although ‘Hindi ‘ is an official linguistic communication, in many parts of India people do non understand it. The rural people have to upgrade themselves to pass on with the urbanites. The villagers non merely have to educate themselves but they have to understand Hindi to interact with the Indian costumiers and English to pass on with the foreign costumiers.

Opportunities in Rural Tourism

The tourers look for quality environment and meaningful experience. Selling of rural is a specialist occupation. For rural touristry, rural people have to give up themselves to professional sellers who understand the complexness of their undertaking. The concern depends on the development of webs, creative activity of trust and trueness and information system, all of which takes money and clip to develop, which is beyond the resources of most single.

Tourists have become more educated, more cognizant of installations available and more experient, their outlook has besides increased. Peoples are interested in researching new topographic points. Rural touristry in India has great hereafter, since it non merely provides natural elements of beauty but besides the autochthonal local traditions, imposts and nutrients. Direct experience with local people can be a alone merchandising proposition to pull tourers. Every province in India has alone handcraft, traditions and nutrients. The rural touristry non travel for mass selling, instead different schemes should be under taken for different section to do it successful.

Introduction To Laksh Farms, Mangar Village

Situated in Village Mangar, off the Gurgaon-Faridabad Highway, Laksh Farms is merely a 30 proceedingss drive from Chattarpur Mandir, Surajkund, Gurgaon and Faridabad.A Spread over 15 estates, Laksh is located in a picturesque vale nestled in the Aravalli Hills, on the once-famous Dhauj Jheel. A alone illustration of the Restoration of a debauched ecosystem, it offers a fulfilling experience in rural eco-tourism.A With more than a few thousand autochthonal and cosmetic fruit trees and bushs, Laksh is a naturalist ‘s delectation, propagating organic farming utilizing vermi-compost and bio waste. For carnal lovers there are Canis familiariss, dairy cowss, caprine animals, ducks, and geese, every bit good as an copiousness of Inachis ios and cervid throughout the country and besides in the ‘sacred wood ‘ around the Gudariya Baba Shrine.

All in all, Laksh offers a brilliant rural experience with activities such as stone mounting, bivouacing, organic agriculture, trekking, and nature walks, bird observation and cycling in the antediluvian and amazing Aravallis Khandavprastha of the Mahabharata.


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