Investigation ISSUES FACED BY THE AGEING AND DISABLED IN THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT IN MAURITIUS

Investigation ISSUES FACED BY THE AGEING AND DISABLED IN THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT IN MAURITIUS

Problem Specification

The population of The Republic Mauritius is increasing drastically. Harmonizing to a study,2011 Population Census( Gov.mu, 2014 ) , done by the Central Statistics Office, figures show that the population amounts to 1,192,300, and go forthing apart Rodrigues and Agalega. The study besides demonstrates that the population has aged by the median of 29 old ages to 34 old ages and another important factor is the fraction of handicapped people undergone a rise of 1.3 % , notably from 3.5 % to 4.8 % . Reports of the2011 lodging and Population Census ( Volume 4: Disability )( Gov.mu, 2014 ),by Statistics Mauritius, provides the following inside informations:

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Table 1: Age Group Vs Percentage Disability ( Gov.mu, 2014 ),

Group Of Ages

Census at 2000 %

Census at 2011 %

Below 15

1.0

1.5

15 to 59

2.7

3.6

60 and above

14.9

17.5

Entire

3.5

4.8

Highest degree of disablement is clearly among the above 60 old ages group, but was to be expected since the full aged population is ageing and comprises of the largest fraction of those acquiring older and susceptible to hold disablements. Above mentioned figures are explained besides by the fact that the figure of births and long life outlook have decreased. An in-depth interruption down shows that on one side, kids below 15 old ages diminished by 5 % , whereas on the other side, the above 60 old ages population went up by 4 % , bespeaking a widening spread between the two sides. The2011 Census,stated three common types of disablements being, Walking or mounting stepss, Eyes damage and Remembering or concentrating among others, such as, manual activities, hearing and behavior. However, disablements vary about the age groups of population, handicapped kids reported to be affected by retrieving jobs and by contrast, the seniors by ambulation upsets.

Figure 1: Number of People against Types of Disabilities ( Gov.mu, 2014 )

Sing the rise of aged and handicapped people, there is a demand to supply installations, more user friendly designs for this subdivision of our population. From the chief consequences of the 2011 Housing Census, totalled 311,500 edifices, where an addition of 43,200 was noted between the old ages 2000 to 2011. The major per centum was residential edifices but all other types of edifice experient growing, peculiarly the Hotels and Guest house class. However, the new houses, hotels and other edifices are non to the full adapted to welcome aged or handicapped individuals. Tourism being at the bosom of our economic system, installations should hold been established to promote aliens with disablements to come to Mauritius. Common facts are that, many disabled or seniors, are discouraged or happen it hard to travel around when they are on their ain and these people do non ever have support to trust on. Most of the clip, entree to edifices is instead a painful undertaking, since several stairss need to be climbed, which is non apparent for person with crutches or wheelchair. As a consequence, proper inclines need to be included at the design phase. Another trouble is when handicapped individuals need to utilize public lavatories. In edifices which were late built, commissariats were made to suit helpless individuals but unluckily to a limited extent. Large shopping Centres provide limited figure of specialized lavatories for the handicapped and one time more, accessing the lavatories is no easy undertaking.

In add-on, the Training and Employment of Disabled Persons Act 1996, requires that people with disablements are employed in an appropriate environment for them. It is the responsibility of the employer to do certain that enlisting is just and unfastened to disable individual and it is against the jurisprudence non to make so. Passed scenarios exempted companies from prosecution due to ailments of high cost of alteration and environment accommodations, therefore handicapped individuals being deprived of their necessities.

Literature reappraisal

The Ministry of Social Security, National Solidarity and Senior Citizens Welfare and Reform Institutions, launched aNational Policy Paper and Action Plan on Disabilities, ( Gov.mu 2014 ) on December 2007. The study provided the undermentioned recommendations refering the handiness to public and private edifices for the handicapped ;

  1. New buildings undertakings are to include inclines and bannisters, moderately broad lifts and entrywaies, adaptable lavatories and parking bays.
  2. Time and motive would be provided to proprietors of bing edifices to modify the layout and to line them with legal demands.
  3. A checklist should be populated, applied to edifices and monitored.
  4. Handiness should be a premier factor to include in the preparation of designers and applied scientists.
  5. Ascertain that roads, paving and public countries can be easy accessed by the handicapped.

Sing parking bays,Approved Documents Meter: Entree to and Use of Buildings( Planningportal.gov.uk, 2014 ) from The Building Regulations 2010 supply consideration that, the country environing the parking should easy allow, a wheelchair utilizing rider or driver, to entree the designated edifice without extra attempt, obstructions for wheelchair or tripping jeopardies. Besides, the surface should be stable, hard-wearing and faux pas resistant and usage of stuffs such as sand or loose crushed rock is non advised.

Figure 2: Disabled Parking Detail ( Google.mu, 2014 )

Since handicapped individuals take more clip to acquire in or acquire off conveyances, the parking country should be a peculiarly safe topographic point. One safety consideration is to utilize precast wheel Michigans on one terminal so as autos do non travel any farther and let a sensible clearance for people to utilize. Another utile design which should be incorporated is drop-off zones, with a kerb incline and sheltered siting country which allows handicapped individuals to wait and acquire into any transport easy. United Nations study indicates for edifices:

Table 2: Normal Parking against Disabled Parking Ratio

Entire NUMBER OF PARKING BAYS

Entire NUMBER OF DISABLED PARKING BAYS

LESS THAN 50

ONE

MAXIMUM OF 400

ONE AT EVERY 50 INTERVAL

MORE THAN 400

MORE THAN 8

FOR EACH 100 ADDED BEYOND 400

ONE

Another entree path for the handicapped individuals is to utilize inclines, particularly out-of-doorss since they occupy important infinite. Despite the fact that inclines are rather common, minimal demands, such as the repair of bannisters is non considered and the gradient of the incline is excessively steep. As per theHandiness for the Disabled: A Design Manual for a Barrier Free Environment( Un.org, 2014 ) , nowadayss three types of incline agreements, Straight tally, 90° bend and 180° bend and indicates the minimal breadth to be used to be 0.90m. Landings should besides be provided every 10.0m, at way alterations and at the start and terminal of inclines.

Table 3: Tolerable Ramp Gradients ( Un.org, 2014 )

Slope Ratio / %

Max. Allowed Length ( m )

Max. Allowed Rise ( m )

1:20- 9 %

1:16 – 6 %

8

0.50

1:14 – 7 %

5

0.35

1:12 – 8 %

2

0.15

1:10 – 10 %

1.25

0.12

1:08 – 12 %

0.5

0.06

The UNCRPD,United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities( Gov.mu 2014 ) states that The Building Act which considers the handiness issues to edifices to be respected as per relevant criterions and legal actions be taken to those non following. However, although Numberss of recommendations are being made, are these being enforced and have any alterations taken topographic point?

The “Le Mauricien” ( Lemauricien.com, 2012 ) published an article, promoting a better twelvemonth 2013 for vulnerable individuals with disablements, and their rights be respected punctually as per the UNCRPD, United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The paper puts frontward the item that sensible conveyance installations, is at the base to advance the entree to leisure, instruction, wellness and better societal integrating. It was besides enumerated that enterprises have been ordained by the authorities, viz. , free conveyance for the aged, the handicapped and taxi refund to third pupils. Although it was a good start to help the infirm and seniors, the type of conveyance, be it bus or auto, are still the typical and non-adapted for this peculiar division of our population. This besides limits the entree to the work environment to disenable grownups, willing to gain a life. Introduction of disable friendly transit, with incorporate lifts or inclines for wheelchairs, chair supports and infinite, air conditioning and helpers, is extremely necessitated. TheNational Policy Paper and Action Plan on Disabilities, ( Gov.mu 2014 ) states that amendments to Torahs would take topographic point to do all types of conveyances to be accessible to the handicapped and preparation plans for drivers would be set. The inquiry which arises is when would these installations be implemented?

Figure 3: Specialised Transport for Disabled ( Google.mu, 2014 )

Another job upraised is the job to derive information faced by the handicapped.Universal Periodic Review, 17th Session ( 2013 )is a study of the Federation of Disabled Peoples Organisation ( DPO ) Mauritius, ( Google.mu, 2014 ) takes the clauses from the UNCRPD, and requests the followers ;

  1. Use of Braille signage
  2. Easy to read formats
  3. Sign linguistic communication translators
  4. Training of translators
  5. Aid seeking from states already holding a well-established assistance for handicapped

Figure 4: Signage with Braille ( Google.mu, 2014 )

In bing edifices, a common instance is the deficiency of communicating towards the handicapped. Although installations such as lavatories or waies for wheelchair users are available, this convenience is non good indicated because chiefly of a deficiency of signage, the marks are non to necessitate criterions and wrongly positioned marks.Handiness for the Disabled: A Design Manual for a Barrier Free Environment( Un.org, 2014 ) , is a enchiridion produced by the United Nations which provides counsel about standards to be followed when puting marks. The manual explains that in several instances, marks are non decently lit at dark or whereby they are place behind glass, contemplation issues may happen. As per the study, the wheelchair symbol should be within a square background or boundary line and the pictogram should ever be confronting to the right, a mere item which is frequently non followed. Refering the place of marks, a current malpractice is that they are located near to the ceiling, which is excessively high and beyond oculus scope for a wheelchair user or visually impaired individual.

Figure 5: Signage Bespeaking Access ( Google.mu, 2014 )

Harmonizing to the study of the United Nations, signage can be, Wall mounted, Overhanging and Pole-mounted. Wall mounted marks, bespeaking way or Numberss should be fixed between 1.4m to 1.6m from the finish floor degree. Overhanging marks should supply clearance of 2.0m, to be seeable for a wheelchair user and let an oculus impaired individual to go through firmly. As for pole mounted marks, doing strips of contrasting and lasting coloring material and of width 0.30m should be set to warn people with ocular jobs. It is besides recommended that haptic signage are installed at a changeless tallness all around the edifice.

Figure 6: Tactile Signs Height ( Ltd, 2014 )

The 2007, National Policy Paper and Action Plan on Disabilities, ( Gov.mu 2014 ) , states that the MBC, Mauritius Broadcasting Corporation started to roll up of import information and broadcast a intelligence bulletin in Mauritanian Sign Language ( MSL ) , followed by big print formats and information in Braille. Nevertheless, the policy paper denotes the component that most of the handicappeds are non computing machine literate and can non trust on new engineerings and e-information. Bing in extremely computerised epoch, this leads to the question whether instruction to the impaired is good set and if these people are introduced to Information Technology. The Federation of Disabled Peoples Organisation ( DPO ) Mauritius, ( Google.mu, 2014 ) study besides deplores the high cost of assistive devices such as hearing AIDSs and specialised devices for the eyes and criticizes the limited, drawn-out authorities support which condemns helpless people from deriving entree to a better manner of life.

Refering the arrested development of bannisters

  1. One purpose interrupt down into ( title? ? ? )
  2. 2-3 aims – visits/ ques / interview
  3. Methodologies- how to accomplish the aims – where? Fundamental for ageing/ disabled, Ex a station office, bank

Check this nexus, from the United Nations, it might assist in your research:

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.un.org/esa/socdev/enable/designm/index.html

Another issue faced by handicapped individuals: Facilities available in some topographic points but deficiency of communicating, i.e no marks etc

Signs & A ; symbols play an of import function – Disabled people do non cognize about it

hypertext transfer protocol: //signsanddisplays.wordpress.com/2011/03/06/disability-access-sign-symbols-for-download/

Infrastructure every bit good – e.g high/uneven pavement unsafe for any single non merely handicapped, no step-free coachs, parking

Is the authorities assisting mobility of disable individual ….walking AIDSs, wheelchair etc.. ?

Extra cost for these installations

Include your Mentions at the terminal

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