Following are the different layers of the Sun’s atmosphere. Rank them based on the order in which a probe would encounter them when traveling from Earth to the Sun’s surface, from first encountered to last.
-Corona
-Photosphere
-Chromosphere
Corona
Chromosphere
Photosphere
Rank the layers of the Sun’s atmosphere based on their density, from highest to lowest.
-Corona
-Photosphere
-Chromosphere
Photosphere
Chromosphere
Corona
Rank the layers of the Sun’s atmosphere based on their temperature, from highest to lowest.
-Corona
-Photosphere
-Chromosphere
Corona
Chromosphere
Photosphere
Rank the layers of the atmosphere based on the energy of the photons that are typically emitted there, from highest to lowest
-Corona
-Photosphere
-Chromosphere
Corona
Chromosphere
Photosphere
Which of the following changes would cause the fusion rate in the Sun’s core to increase?

-An increase in the core temperature
-An increase in the core radius
-A decrease in the core temperature
-A decrease in the core radius

-An increase in the core temperature
-A decrease in the core radius
Which of the following must occur for a star’s core to reach equilibrium after an initial change in fusion rate?

-If the fusion rate initially decreases, then the core expands.
-If the fusion rate initially increases, then the core expands.
-If the fusion rate initially decreases, then the core contracts.
-If the fusion rate initially increases, then the core contracts.

-If the fusion rate initially increases, then the core expands.
-If the fusion rate initially decreases, then the core contracts.
What would happen if the fusion rate in the core of the Sun were increased but the core could not expand?
The Sun’s core would start to heat up and the rate of fusion would increase even more.
One statement about the Sun from Part A is “The corona is hotter than the photosphere.” Which of the following statements provides observational evidence for this claim?
The corona primarily emits X rays while the photosphere primarily emits visible light.
How do we know the Sun’s mass?
We can calculate it by applying Newton’s version of Kepler’s third law with Earth’s orbital period (1 year) and Earth’s average distance from the Sun (1 AU).
Which of the following observations can be used to check that we really do know the Sun’s internal fusion rate?

-Measurement of the Sun’s mass
-Observations of the total X-ray emission from the Sun’s corona
-Measurements of the Sun’s total energy output into space
-Observations of neutrinos coming from the Sun
-Measurements of the varying number of sunspots on the Sun over time

-Measurements of the Sun’s total energy output into space
-Observations of neutrinos coming from the Sun
Which of the following correctly describes how the process of gravitational contraction can make a star hot?
When a star contracts in size, gravitational potential energy is converted to thermal energy.
What two physical processes balance each other to create the condition known as gravitational equilibrium in stars?
gravitational force and outward pressure
Energy balance in the Sun refers to a balance between _________.
the rate at which fusion generates energy in the Sun’s core and the rate at which the Sun’s surface radiates energy into space
How is the sunspot cycle directly relevant to us here on Earth?
Coronal mass ejections and other activity associated with the sunspot cycle can disrupt radio communications and knock out sensitive electronic equipment.
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