is unimaginable but all of us are bombarded by at least 3000 ads a day. Yet,
the theorists that have repeatedly criticized the Frankfurt school and its theory
of mass deception claims media to be the symbol of liberation those theorists
tend to find peace in believing the fact that we are not even remotely influenced
by the content produced and telecasted. They tend to also believe in pluralist
perspective that different people perceive media in their own separate ways.
However, it has been validated that advertisements deceive us about the society
and it distorts our world view which is exactly what the popular culture stands
for. The running elite class controlling the culture industry wants to sustain
their power and to do that the popular culture products are sold to us in a way
that the passive audience starts worshipping those products and in order to
seek ownership of them we promote the hegemonic and capitalistic gain



the bourgeoisies (Gunter, 2016).  Due to
these advertisements many cultures are losing their own identity are being
invaded by the western/ American culture. John Fiske was one of the theorists
that criticized Adorno’s and Hokhiemer’s view of popular culture. He gave an
example of blue jeans being a symbol for freedom of expression (Fiske, 1989).
Since according to him blue jeans do not belong to a class or gender and is
informal, this is completely true however the way popular culture has created a
false need regarding jeans is astounding. From a religious and cultural point
of view Pakistan and Saudi Arab are the countries where it is improper to wear
jeans but due to the need created by advertisements and films. People of such
countries are going out of their way to consume the latest and the newest jeans
that is available in the market. This marks the invasion of western culture. We
live in an age of mechanical reproduction which destroys individualization and
promotes homogenous cultural products (Selbo, 2010)

                                 The best
example of homogeneity can be seen in Pakistan these days with ever growing
sales which is just another way to lure in the passive audience and to earn
capital. At the end of the day every person ends up getting similar products
which cheapens the value of the product. In this way the mass production of the
popular culture goods lead to the creation of a mass society where people are
passive, lack critical thinking and are just another passive victim of the
dominant ideology

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agreeing to the critical theorist Leo Lowenthal’s (1961) view of popular
culture and culture industry which contends that, popular culture is
depoliticizing the working class and limiting their horizon by channeling an
oppressive, exploitative and capitalistic framework. Whenever there is even a
slightest hint of counter insurgency or revolution it is always mitigated by
the fabricated lies weaved by the elite class. In simple words popular culture
or mass culture confine the masses from thinking beyond what is being told to
them through different mediums. The masses are stuck in a circle of
manipulation and there is no way out of this dark web of lies.

                                 I agree with
the points raised by Adorno and Horkheimer however solely accepting their point
of views can only result in over pessimistic approach if not negative.  Hegemony on the other hand is a negotiating
agreement by the people who agree to be governed by rules and laws which they
think are beneficial for them even if they prove not to. Popular culture brings
out a utopian world in which people forget about their worries and escape into
the fantasy of this la la land which has proven to be beneficial for the elite
class. From the research done for this specific paper it can be concluded that
the predictions made by Horkheimer and Adorno still accurately applies and
depicts the mass deception of culture industry, however the most concerning
part of it all is the fact that people are well aware of the culture industry’s
manipulation and monopoly. Even after the realization the masses are nothing
but a ‘sitting duck’ as proposed by the magic bullet theory. They are stuck in
the state of disbelief and paralysis injected by popular culture products
(Riley, 2011)ex


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