Project Management- Module 4 Midterm Exam: Part II 1. What is the difference between leadership and management? How do these two terms relate to a project manager? At first glance, the terms leadership and management may seem synonymous and the temptation to use the terms interchangeably; however, there is a difference between leadership and management. Leadership is about setting a vision for a group, team or entire business and seeing a course for a new direction.
This new direction is based on long term goals for the business and good soft skills are necessary in order to motivate people in this direction. Management is more about the day to day operations of a project. Making sure that short term goals are met and controlling situations and/or problems is crucial to being a good manager. So what happens when a project manager has one skill and not the other? If a PM has Management skills, but is not a leader, he or she may be able to manage day to day operations but lack the vision to see the big picture and may not be able to motivate people in the proper direction.
Conversely, if a PM has leadership and vision but lacks management skills, he or she may know the long term goal, but not be able to successfully control each small goal efficiently in order to get there. To be a successful Project Manager, one must posses both good leadership and management skills 2. What are the four frames of organizations? Describe each frame. Structural Frame: • Focuses on roles and responsibilities, coordination, and control. Organization charts help define this frame. • Exist to achieve goals and objectives Increase efficiency through specialization and division of labor • Have coordination and controls to align work to goals and objectives Human Resources Frame: • Focuses on providing harmony between needs of the organization and needs of people. • People and organizations need each other; people need careers; organizations need the energy of people. • Undermines the relationships Political Frame: • Assumes organizations are coalitions composed of varied individuals and interest groups. Conflict and power are key issues. • emphasis is on tactics and strategies—not conflict resolution Symbolic frame: Focuses on symbols and meanings related to events. Culture is important. • seeps into the culture • maintain image of accountability and responsiveness; negotiate a new social order 3. What is a work breakdown structure? A WBS is chart that displays the critical work elements or tasks of a project. They are illustrated to show their relationships to each other and to the whole project. The diagrams of the WBS can help a project manager predict outcomes based on many different scenarios, which can ensure that the top decisions are made about whether or not to adopt recommended procedures or changes. . What is a weighted scoring model? How is it created? A weighted scoring model is a tool that provides a systematic process for selecting projects based on many criteria: First identify criteria important to the project selection process. Then assign weights (percentages) to each criterion so they add up to 100%. Then assign scores to each criterion for each project. Multiply scores * weights = total weighted scores. The higher the weighted score, the better 5. List and briefly describe the five main processes involved in project scope management.
Scope planning: deciding how the scope will be defined, verified, and controlled Scope definition: reviewing the project charter and preliminary scope statement and adding more information as requirements are developed and change requests are approved Creating the WBS: subdividing the major project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components Scope verification: formalizing acceptance of the project scope by key project stakeholders Scope control: controlling changes to project scope which impact project cost and time goals