& # 8211 ; Crossfire Essay, Research Paper
Crossfire Jim Marrs
1. The intent of crossfire is to show all the facts of the JFK blackwash into one book. Jim Marrs has collected many pieces of information, most of which were non presented to the investigation governments, chiefly because they didn t want to hear it, or the information had been altered or misinterpreted by the governments. Marrs gets some of his information from personal interviews, but there is a broad assortment of beginnings which include a broad scope of books. The book is designed to supply an copiousness of grounds in a clear mode, so that anyone can acquire an overview necessary to understand the confederacy behind the blackwash. There is one defect though, Marrs merely has one point of position the confederacy theory. As an writer I believe he should non take sides, he should merely give the facts. The fact that Marrs strongly believes there was a confederacy theory doesn T help the grounds to be wholly indifferent.
2. Yes, I do believe that Marrs believes that Oswald was a Russian agent because of all the grounds that is presented that proves Oswald was related to the Soviets. But, fundamentally, it would non be in the involvement of the Soviets to seek and try to assassinate Kennedy. Oswald, while in Russia, is that he lived good beyond the agencies of an ordinary citizen. This lifestyle proves that there must hold been some kind of particular relationship with functionaries. Marrs has two theories that suggest Oswald was an agent but non the bravo: First, that Oswald, while in Japan, was recruited by the KGB to desert to Russia and return to the US to kill Kennedy. But, as Edward Jay Epstein ( writer of Legend ) grounds, I think the fact that Oswald hints so clearly back to the Russians makes it highly improbable that they would hold recruited him as an bravo. I besides reject this theory because I believe it is excessively obvious. And secondly, Oswald was recruited into US intelligence and was sent to Russia as a undercover agent. There, the KGB attempted to turn him into their agent and direct him back to the US, unaware that he would be blamed for Kennedy s decease. I believe, in the overall position, that Oswald was caught in the center of some intelligence work either by the US or the Russians. But I believe it is extremely improbable that the Russians would desire to kill Kennedy. Even if Oswald did assassinate Kennedy, there would be more injury in killing him than non killing him, because the Soviets would hold been put on the lining a batch. WWIII may hold been started, and an blackwash would bring forth an even bigger anti-communism President.
3. Kennedy was blamed for the failure of the Bay of hogs because of the foolish orders he gave to the defence bureaus concerned. The Cuban Brigade didn T want emptying, they wanted ammo, naval support and air screen for the invasion of the Bay of Pigs, which ne’er came. Kennedy didn T want this. He wanted emptying. He wanted the invasion to be scaled down as he had antecedently shown, when he reduced the first air onslaught from 16 bombers to 6 bombers. The consequence was a catastrophe, as Brigade work forces called for aid from the beaches, where US military work forces could merely stand mutely by their arms, and watch the Cuban Brigade being shredded. Kennedy accepted the duty of the licking and took the load of the incrimination. After this incident, it gave many people and administrations inducements and a ground to slay Kennedy. Fidel Castro was cognizant what Kennedy wanted to make with him. The CIA would be angry because of Kennedy s downscale of the whole invasion. This could hold lead to a secret secret plan to assassinate the President. The US military would hold felt betrayed and a sense of being left in the dark because they had non been allowed to assist in the planning of the invasion. But most of all, likely the group which had the strongest ground to kill Kennedy were members of the Cuban Brigade and their households. They had been betrayed by Kennedy. Of the 1600 work forces of the Cuban Brigade, 114 were killed, 1189 were captured by Castro s forces, and 150 either ne’er landed or made their manner back to safety. All these administrations and people had good ground to assassinate Kennedy.
4. Attorney General Robert Kennedy and the President waged a war against organised offense like ne’er earlier. This caused great fright and hatred amongst the ranks of offense leaders. Previously and what was still the instance, the Mafia had connexions with several US intelligence bureaus. The Kennedy s may non hold known this. To understand why the Kennedy s wanted to extinguish organized offense, you have to cognize the background to the Mafia. The Mafia had grown into a great offense administration. They used a technique called the Black Hand where they sent a missive to a powerful man of affairs and requested money. Subsequently, the Mafia so expanded into illegal chancing operations, harlotry and lotteries. They even were bankers for the hapless. They were in commitment with politicians. One pack member, named Arnold Rothstein was involved with metropolis and province functionaries. Others took this tactic up and finally the Mafia and the CIA joined together. From so on offense mobs had gained a choking coil clasp on America. That is why Kennedy wanted to extinguish the Mafia. Crime bosses issued menaces to the Kennedys. So sing the Kennedy war against the rabble every bit good as its critical involvements in Cuba lost to Castro and Kennedy s failure to militarily back up the Bay of Pigs invasion, rabble leaders had a large motivation to kill the President. The most powerful administration which supported the Mafia was the CIA. Evidence of this is in the Bay of Pigs planning. It was planned that prior to the invasion Castro should be eliminated. Ideas on extinguishing Castro included toxicant cigars and even a dumbbell trapped plunging suit. But so Sheffield Edward, manager of the CIA s Office of Security suggested to utilize the Mafia, as it would be difficult to track down any authorities engagement. The Mafia agreed, and it became a two manner trade, as the CIA besides supported the Mafia. Later in January 1963 the relationship broke up. The FBI didn T straight back up the rabble but they didn t attempt and close them down. They merely stood aside and allow the CIA manage them.
5. The CIA had grown into a really unsafe administration, which had stuck its olfactory organ into confederacy excessively much that it in no manner could it come out clean. It had, over a certain period of clip, connexions with the Mob and organised offense syndicated. They worked with these offense figures right up to Kennedy s blackwash in D
allas. James O Connell who was head of the Operational Support Division of the CIA and Robert Maheu, caput of a private fact-finding house, had regular meetings with Maheu s Mafia contacts, such as Rosselli, Giancana and Trafficante. The CIA which was a authorities administration, liked to used the rabble to make its dirty work. This is what made them so unsafe. The ability to stay undetected plus have support by powerful offense mobs made the unsafe.
6. The FBI hindered the probe of the Assassination of JFK. Evidence of this includes: Suppression of grounds, devastation of grounds, and bullying of informants. Examples of the suppression of grounds include the loss of Beverly Oliver s movie of the blackwash which she claims was taken by the FBI, an blackwash slug vanishing from under the olfactory organs of a constabulary guard by a FBI agent, the suppression of testimony, such as ED Hoffman who proved the lone bravo theory was false, and the failure of the FBI to follow of import leads, even when the Warren Commission requested. Examples of the devastation of grounds include the devastation of the Oswald note by FBI Agent Hosty, the devastation of a license home base figure on a exposure of General Edwin Walker s place found integral with some of Oswald s ownerships, and the immediate cleansing of the Presidential Limousine which destroyed critical ballistic grounds. Examples of the bullying of informants include Richard Carr who saw two work forces run from the Texas Book Depository but subsequently was told by FBI agents, If you didn t see Oswald in the Depository with a rifle, you didn t informant it. Ed Hoffman who was told by an FBI agent, You d better maintain quiet, you could acquire killed. And Jean Hill who said she was hounded by Bureau agents until she stopped giving media interviews. To me these are condemnable offenses. When a local constabulary bureau is found to be corrupt, the FBI stairss in. But when the FBI is found to be corrupt, who steps in so?
7. When JFK became president in 1961, the oil industry weren T threatened because they felt secure behind the CIA. The former CIA manager Allen Dulles had, after all, been related to oil companies. But President Kennedy had other thoughts. He wrote up The Kennedy Act which removed the differentiation between repatriated net incomes and net incomes re-invested abroad. Now both were capable to revenue enhancement. This act besides prevented nonexempt income from being hidden off in other states and foreign subordinates. But the Oil depreciation allowance remained, which permitted oil manufacturers to handle up to 27.5 % of their income as revenue enhancement exempt. Attempts by Kennedy to extinguish or cut down the allowance were turned down twelvemonth after twelvemonth as many Congressmans were in secret happy receiving systems of payoffs by oil companies. Talking of his Tax Reform Act Kennedy stated, no one industry should be permitted to obtain an undue revenue enhancement advantage over all others. Now oilmen did experience frightened by Kennedy. John W. Currington who was helper to oil billionaire H.L Hunt for 12 old ages commented, Hunt was frequently heard by top Plutos and followings to state that America would be much better off without Kennedy. He besides said that he believes that the affluent oilman inadvertently influenced rightist followings to take part in a confederacy to kill Kennedy. He added that in ulterior old ages Hunt admitted that he knew an blackwash confederacy existed. So where does Lyndon Baines Johnson ( LBJ ) fit into this? Back when Johnson was a Congressman, Brown & A ; Root, an oil/construction company needed a authorities contract as one of its buildings violated federal jurisprudence. Johnson pulled a few strings and helped this company. And this was the beginning of a strong partnership which continued right up until Johnson became President. The dry thing was that Johnson as Vice President was, purportedly, Kennedy s no. 1 protagonist, and the president of Brown & A ; Root was one who loathed Kennedy
8. The military had many grounds to dislike Kennedy and his manner of thought. When Kennedy was running for president, he promised additions in military disbursement. But so one time he was elected, and with other beginnings of information, he made a 180 grades turn in his attitudes towards the armed forces. He restrained the industry and sale of armaments the largest money-making enterprise in the U.S. And, in the Bay of Pigs invasion, he refused the usage of military power to salve the invasion. He besides didn T allow the armed forces to assist in the planning of the invasion. Then, when the U.S learned that the Soviets were fixing missile bases in Cuba, Kennedy decided to non utilize force like the armed forces had suggested fierily, but to negociate. He struck a trade with Soviet Premier Khrushcev and the Soviets backed down. Although the programs worked, this was non to the military s wishing. And on August 5, 1963, after drawn-out dialogues, The US, Great Britain and the Soviet Union signed a atomic trial prohibition pact a pact which the armed forces urged Kennedy non to subscribe. But out of all his thoughts and actions to cut down the hazard of war and bound the military s power, Kennedy s most influential determinations came when he began to re-evaluate the U.S policy in South-East Asia, peculiarly in Vietnam. Here he decided to draw military personnels out of Vietnam, and the military forces got really angry with this determination. The military were contending communism. Many people believe this determination may hold led to his decease because so many people were against it. It is for all these grounds that suggest the armed forces had a motivation to kill the President, and hence earnestly be involved in the blackwash. The military wold have preferred LBJ as president because he supported the armed forces more and his ideals matches the military s ideals more closely than Kennedy. In fact, after Kennedy s blackwash, when Johnson became President, he re-evaluated Kennedy s re-evaluation and sent the military personnels back to Vietnam to contend. There is a great cause for concern that Johnson was portion of the blackwash. If he was, so surly he would hold teamed up with the military. But this is all conjectural. If Johnson was in power during the missile crisis he would hold followed the military s advice, because, like many other Presidents before Kennedy, the military were and would hold been really powerful. But it was Kennedy who was a alteration agent, who stopped the monopolization of power by the military. Judging from what the populace can see, Johnson doesn t expression like person who would alter traditions unlike Kennedy, who besides took a base against the Mafia and the rabble.