The type of narrative structure used throughout the novel allows the reader to realize the extent to which Emir’s past affected his present life. The motifs used by Hussein connect the past events to the present, continuously emphasizing the Importance of the past throughout Emir’s life. Hussein purposely wrote the novel through flirts person narrative perspective as it gives the reader Armies personalized thoughts and feelings to early events that continuously affect his life.

Emir’s childhood is filled with events and advice that he carries and somewhat haunts him throughout his life. The most crucial event with the most severe reverberation on Emir is Hessian’s rape. During this scene the reader feels as if they are Emir witnessing the rape as the author describes the setting through Emir-s ignorant and innocent twelve-year-old perspective. The first person narrative technique allows the reader to have an in depth insight to Emir’s horrified thoughts about the event and guilty feelings about running away instead of standing up for Hosannas.

His thoughts on what action to take are exposed and the reader see’s that Emir knows he has two options. Despite that he knows Hosannas would help him if he situation were reversed, Emir chooses cowardice by running as it was easier than standing up for Hosannas and accepting that he would be hurt by Safes. This paragraph is extremely powerful through first narrative style and shows Emir’s true personality through the thought and decisions made. “l had one last chance to make a decision… Decide who I was going to be.

Stand up for Hosannas- the way he stood up for me… Accept whatever would happen to me. Or I could run. In the end, I ran. I ran because I was a coward… That’s what I made myself believe. ” (peg. 72, Am;RSI thoughts). This description of his thoughts and feelings are profound, but the reader can see that Malls youth doesn’t allow him to understand the depth and seriousness of this terrible Incident, and It Is not until later In life that Emir can understand Just how much of a difference he could have made to Hessian’s life If he had the courage to fight.

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The narrative structure used in the novel Kite Runner plays an important role in techniques of narrative structure used are flashbacks. It is obvious to the reader that Emir retains the guilt throughout his life, which is shown through him flashing back o the rape event at different times despite the fact he wants to forget it so badly. The flashbacks occur more frequently Just after the rape and at the end of the book when Emir returns to Kabul and less in between.

The flashbacks generally occur when Emir is reminded of something in the past and allow Hussein to go back to that event to show that Emir is affected by whatever occurred in the present time to remind him of the past. For example, when Sorry tells Emir of the guilt she felt towards her parents who tried to help her when she ran away with a man makes Emir flashback o the day of the rape and the guilt he still felt for not stopping it. Flashbacks are also used when Emir realizes something in the present that relates back to the past event, often making the past make sense.

The most effective occurrence of this is Just after Ihram Khan tells Emir that Hosannas was his half brother, Abs’s son. Emir flashed back to the times when Babe did father-like things for Hosannas and wonders why he never thought anything more of it before. “How could I have been so blind? The signs had been there for me to see all along; they came flying back to me now: Babe hiring Dry. Kumar to fix Hessian’s harelip. Babe never missing Hessian’s birthday. (peg. 07-208) This is a great realization scene in the book, where both Emir and the reader are in awe of the realization of what this means for the characters and Emir. Throughout the novel many symbols and motifs are used to link the past to the present. The most symbolic motif throughout the novel is the kites. At the beginning of the book kite flying was Emir and Hessian’s favorite hobby. The kite symbolized Joy and friendship, as the two spent hours on end flying and chasing kite together. As

Emir and Hosannas won the kite tournament, the kites became a symbol of glory, pride and made their bond stronger. However, soon after Hosannas ran the last blue kite, he was cornered by Safes and refused to give him the kite, resulting in Safes raping him instead. Because of this, the kite symbol dramatically changed to a symbol of trauma, anguish and violation for Hosannas and guilt, regret and uttermost shame for Emir and ultimately destroying their friendship and innocence. From then on whenever Emir sees kites he is reminded of the day that changed their lives forever.

The verbal motif “there is a way to be good again” was used by Ihram Khan and was mentioned at the beginning of the book and again nearing the end. Ihram Khan knew Emir’s past and said this to persuade him to go back to Kabul to redeem himself. The novel is essentially based on this, beginning with Emir making a terrible decision and it becomes a quest for him to make amends. It is evident from the first narrative style, the structure and motifs used throughout the novel that Emir defines himself and his life by the past, from the opening sentence to the closing sentence.

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