Tear and mucus membranes would be a part of which defense system?

adaptive defenses
innate internal defenses
innate external defenses

innate external defenses
phagocytic cells such as macrophages identify a variety of enemies by recognizing markers unique to pathogens. They would be classified as which type of defense system?

innate internal defenses
innate external defenses
adaptive defenses

innate internal defenses
what cell makes antibodies?

cytotoxic T cells
memory T cells
memory B cells
plasma B cells

Plasma B cells
what is the name of the substance that a B or T cell (lymphocyte) recognizes and bings to?

antigen
pathogen
receptor
antibody

antigen
what type of immunity can be transferred by bodily fluids from one person to another, thus conferring immunity to the recipient?

humoral immunity
cell-mediated immunity
antibody mediated immunity

humoral immunity
if a virus attacks a cell, what type of immunity would be activiated?

cell-mediated immunity
antibody-mediated immunity
humoral immunity

cell-mediated immunity (cellular immunity)
cancer cells would be attacked by which of the following cells?

Macrophages
cytotoxic T cells
B cells

cytotoxic T cells
which of the following are primary lymphoid organs?

lymph nodes and tonsils
slpeen and thymus
appendix and spleen
bone marrow and thymus

bone marrow and thymus
which immune cells are phagocytes?

macrophages and neutrophils
B and T cells
erthrocytes

macrophages and neutrophils
which part of the antibody recognizes and binds to the antigen?

heavy chain
constant region
variable region
light chain

variable region
what is the B cell receptor?

The helper T cell
CD4 and CD8
the antibody
the anitgen

the antibody
what must happen to activate a B cell?

binding of antigen and help from a T cell
binding of antigen to the B cell receptor
antibodies must be produced

binding of antigen and help from a T cell
what happens after B cells are activated?

plasma cells and memory cells are formed
clones of helper T cells are formed
clones of cytotoxic T cells are formed

plasma cells and memory cells are formed
what is the role of plasma cells?

they kill cells that carry antibodies on their surface
they phagocytize antigen-antibody complexes
they produce antibodies

they produce antibodies
what type of cell makes it possible to mount a faster and more powerful immune response if an antigen is encountered at a later date?

plasma cells
memory cells
macrophages
cytotoxic T cells

memory cells
What is the most common type of T cell?

CD8 cells
plasma cells
cytotoxic T cells
CD4 cells

CD4 cells

CD4 cells become helper T cells when they are activated

CD8 cells become _____ when they are activated?

cytotoxic T cells
helper T cells
CD4 cells
plasma cells

Cytotoxic T cells

that destroy cells in the body that harbor anything foriegn

Activated CD4 cells become____

Helper T cells
plasma cells
Cytotoxic T cells
Macrophages

Helper T cells

Helper T cells help to activate B cells, other T cells, and macrophages, and direct the adaptive immune response

T cells can recognize and respond to only processed fragments of antigens that are displayed on the surface of cells on one of two types of MHC proteins, either class I MHC proteins or class II proteins. What class of MHC proteins do CD8 cells recognize
Class I MHC proteins

naive CD8 and cytotoxic T cells can recognize antigens that are displayed on Class I MHC proteins.

which class of MHC protein do CD4 cells recognize
MHC II
how do cytotoxic T cells kill infected cells?

by phagocytosis
through programmed cell death, or apoptosis
with antibodies

through programmed cell death, or apoptosis
how is cell death caused by cytotoxic T cells

perforin and granzymes are released by cytotoxic T cells
infected cells are tagged with antibodies

perforin and granzymes are released by cytotoxic T cells
what is the role of the helper T cells?

They help in the activation of NK cells
They help in the activation of both B cells and cytotoxic T cells
They help in the activation of only cytotoxic T cells

They help in the activation of both B cells and cytotoxic T cells
Helper T cells and cytotoxic T cells are involved in which type of adaptive immunity?

innate external defense
cellular or cell-mediated immunity
innate internal defense
humoral immunity

cellular or cell-mediated immunity
which type of cell is deficient in AIDS?

cytotoxic T cells
Helper T cells
B cells
CD8 cells

Helper T Cells
Class II MHC proteins are found on which of the following cell types?

all nucleated cells
antigen-presenting cells

antigen-presenting cells
which class of MHC proteins presents exogenous antigens (antigens that orginate from outside the cell)?
Class II MHC proteins
Class I MHC proteins are recognized by which type of cell?
CD8 cells
what major class of lymphocytes become cytotoxic T cells?
CD8 cells
Which major class of lymphocytes become helper T cells?
CD4 cells
excess interstitial fluid is collected by the ____

veins
lymph nodes
blood capillaries
lymphatic capillaries
phagocytes

lymphatic capillaries
a special set of lymphatic vessels called lacteals transports absorbed fats from the small intestine to the blood stream
true
an abnormal buildup of fluid in the tissues due to failure or blockage of the lymphatic vessels is called__________
lymphedema
what is the main function of the lymphatic system?

the lymphatic system returns leaked fluid and plasma proteins that escape from the bloodstream to the blood
the lymphatic system makes blood cells through hematopoiesis
transports blood and lymph throughout the body
produces high fluid pressures

the lymphatic system returns leaked fluid and plasma proteins that escape from the bloodstream back to the blood
adjacent cells in lymphatic capillaries overlap each other loosely, what is the unique structural modification that increases their permeability?

fibroblasts
minivalves
trabeculae
lacteals

minivalves
which of the following promotes closure of the minivalves associated with lymph capillaries?

increasing pressure of the interstitial space
inflammation of tissues surrounding lymphatic capillaries
anchoring of endothelial cells to adjacent structures by collagen fibers
increasing pressure inside the lymph capillary

increasing pressure inside the lymph capillary
lymph from the right leg is ulitmately delivered to which duct in the thoracic region?
thoracic duct

lymph from the entire body below the diaphram, right and left, enters the venous circulation via the thoracic duct

lymph from what region of the body is drained into the right lymphatic duct?
the right upper limb, the right side of the head, and the right side of the thorax
lymph from the left hand must travel through which cluster of lymph nodes?

the cervical, axillar and inguinal nodes
inguinal nodes
cervical nodes
axillary nodes

axillary nodes
which is true about the flow of lymph through a lymph node?
lymph enters the node through the afferent lymph vessels and leaves through the efferent lymph vessels
which type of immune cells are found in the lymph nodes?

only B lymphocytes and plasma cells
macrophages and dendritic cells
B cells, plasma cells, and T cells
All of the listed cell types

all of the listed cell types
The lighter stained areas within the centers of lymphoid follicles are formed by B cells proliferating in response to antigen. These lighter stained regions are called ___________.

tonsils
peyer’s patches
sinuses
germinal centers

germinal centers
All of the following are functions of the spleen Execpt:

is a site for interaction of lymphocytes with their antigens
removes pathogens, aged erythrocytes, and platelets from the blood
stores platelets
filters lymph

filters lymph
where does filtering and processing for RBCs and pathogens in the blood occur?

red pulp of the spleen
white pulp of the spleen
splenic artery
lymph node

red pulp of the spleen
in the spleen, what is the site of immune interactions between antigens and lymphocytes?

white pulp of the spleen
lymph nodes
splenic artery
red pulp of the spleen

white pulp of the spleen
which mucosa -associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is also known as the adenoids?

peyers patches
pharyngeal tonsils
palatine tonsils
lingual tonsils

pharyngeal tonsils
which of the MALT is a blind sac hanging from the first part of the large intestine?

tonsils
appendix
peyer’s patches

appendix
why is a ruptured appendix a medical emergency?
because pathogens are spilled into the sterile peritoneal cavity
What is occuring in the germinal centers?
B cells are activated in response to antigen
which lympoid organ is primaryly active during the early years of life
the thymus (responsible for the maturation of T lymphocytes)
which of these lymphoid organs is part of a collegtion of tissues called the MALT and removes pathogens entering the pharynx?
tonsils

function to protect the throat and surrounding tissues from infection via the mouth and nose

which lymphoid organ extracts aged and defective blood cells and platelets from the blood in addition to storing some of the breakdown products for later reuse?
the spleen
which of these lymphoid organs is the thymus
the thymus is located in the inferior neck and superior thorax profound to the superior sternum (B)
which of these lymphoid organs destroys bacteria before it can breach the wall of the small intestine has the abililty to launch an immune response when presented with appropriate antigens

peyer’s patch
tonsils
thymus
spleen

peyer’s patch
which of these lymphatic organs is organized with trabeculaee and compartments containing white pulp and red pulp?
the spleen
the filtration of lymph and activation of the immune system are two basic functions of _______

tonsils
peyer’s patch
spleen
lymph nodes

lymph nodes
which part of the spleen is the site of immune function?

white pulp
splenic cords
splenic sinusoids
red pulp

white pulp (contains reticular fibers with suspended lymphocytes)
where is the spleen located?
in the left side of the abdominal cavity just beneath the diaphram and curled around the anterior aspect of the stomach
tonsillar crypts are invaginations deep into the interior of the tonsils. what structures found in most other lymphoid organs are missing from the tonsils that allows for the presence of these crypts?

lymphoid follicles
lymphocytes
capsule
germinal centers

capsule

absence of capsule allows fluids from the throat and mouth to enter crypts and get close to lymphatic tissue- allows for better immune function, but prone to infection

which tonsils is located in the posterior wall of the nasopharnyx and is referred to as the adneoids if its enlarged?

tubual tonsils
pharyngeal tonsils
lingual tonsils
palatine tonsils

pharyngeal tonsils
protein containing fluid within the lymphatic vessels
lymph
stores blood platelets
spleen
recieves lymph from most of the body
thoracic duct
small organs intimately associated with lymphatic vessels
lymph nodes
largest lymphatic organ
spleen
isolated clusters of lymph follicles found in the wall of the small intestine
peyer’s patches
x

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