This study analysis ‘s the largest bank of Pakistan MCB. MCB was founded over 50 old ages ago in Pakistan, it has got a web of over 1026 subdivisions, 750 are automated subdivisions and 300 MCB ATMS in 41 metropoliss of Pakistan. MCB has a web of over 12 Bankss on the MNET ATM switch. The purpose of MCB is to apologize of disbursals, realignment of back and processing to increase productiveness, sweetening of client services, addition efficiency and control. MCB is the lone bank of Pakistan which introduced the advanced construct of centralising Trade Services in Pakistan by supplying centralised foreign trade services to its subdivisions with position to better efficiency, expertness and cut down bringing cost. MCB is the lone bank who has been able to have The Euro Money Award for the 4th clip in the last 5 old ages. Since 2001 to 2005 MCB has won the best bank in Pakistan and in 2000 the best domestic bank in Pakistan awards. All though MCB besides has differentiation in winning The Asia money award in 2004 and 2005. It has been 10 old ages that MCB has been privatized. MCB nucleus concerns are corporate, commercial and consumer banking. In twelvemonth 2005 MCB was the lone bank of Pakistan to go the preferable supplier of quality fiscal services. Financial services in the state with profitableness and duty. In the twelvemonth 2005 MCB was the best employers in Pakistan to employee alumnuss.
Harmonizing to the consequences, MCB witnessed resilient runing public presentation in the first one-fourth of 2009 with healthy growing in balance sheet and cardinal profitableness indexs. Entire assets of the bank swelled to Rs 456b with an addition of 3pc over Rs 444b as at December 2008 and increased by 15pc over Rs. 397b in March 2008. Deposits showed an addition of Rs. 8b over December 2008 and closed at Rs 338b i.e. a growing of 2pc over Dec 2008.
In 2007, MCB reported a net income after revenue enhancement of PKR16.4 billion ( US $ 270 million ) and generated a return on mean equity of 38 % and a net involvement border of 8.08 % . The Bank ‘s plus quality is strong with a gross NPL ratio of 4.7 % and proviso coverage of 100 % .
At the terminal of twelvemonth 2006 MCB Bank announced it Net Income Rs. 12,541M ( US $ 206M ) which was an addition of 36.1 % over 2005. Net Interest Income was Rs. 21276M ( US $ 349M ) for the twelvemonth 2006, which was a healthy addition of 42 % over the same period last twelvemonth, with the pre proviso operating net income at Rs.20, 113M ( US $ 330M ) , a 39 % addition over last twelvemonth.
However, the twelvemonth 2007-08 has been really tough old ages for Pakistan ‘s economic system. It is due to different factors such as political and economic events took topographic point within Pakistan. The above explained events such as disturbed political conditions, an unstable jurisprudence and order state of affairs ; supply dazes ; surging oil, nutrient and other trade good ; monetary values ; softening of external demand ; and convulsion in the international fiscal market.
Internal and External factors: you merely do n’t get down with internal and external factors atleast merely a spot of a theoretical context/introduction/citations and so travel onto it… ..you assignment deficiency figures, statistics, tabular array and presentation manner Internet Explorer. Report manner format… header and bomber header format… … 1, 1a, 1b, 1c… 2, 2a, 2b etc.. usage proper mention list… at the terminal… .
MCB Bank has earned a repute in the market for widening quality services to the market vis- & A ; agrave ; -vis its rivals. It has earned a strong Brand name in banking in a really short span of clip. As client assurance in MCB bodyguard it towards accomplishing their ends and aims. It has the prime figure of coupled subdivisions in the state. The bank operates through a web of 1026 BRANCHES and over 300 ATMs across Pakistan, therefore enabling them to function client in superior manner. MCB Bank has all the merchandises under its belt, which help it to widen the relationship with bing client. MCB Bank has umbrella of merchandises to offer their clients, if one time client has relationship with the bank. Some Products, which MCB Banks offering are Retail Banking, Business Banking, Merchant Establishment Services ( EDC Machine ) , Personal loans & A ; Car loans, Demit Services with E-Broking, Mutual Fund ( MCB Banks the Distributor of all Mutual Fund ) , Insurance and Housing Loans. MCB is holding an border over other Bankss in instance of Salary Accounts. Most of the companies are holding their Salary History with MCB even if their Current History is with any other Bank. This is chiefly because of the immense web of ATMs and subdivisions of MCB.MCB is merely Bank which is holding its working hours from 8 to 8 for some subdivisions which is one of the major strength of MCB Bank with regard to countrywide concern Industry. MCB Banks known for its aggressive selling of its merchandises. Recent Endorsement of its merchandise by celebrated famous persons and superior advertizement to pull more clients. From its origin, MCB Bank has adopted a policy of choosing internationally proven and specialized Packaged Systems for its engineering. MCB bank ‘s engineering platform has been acknowledged globally as one of the best in footings of hardiness, flexibleness and cost efficiency. MCB Banks in a place to leverage this platform to farther physique cost and service advantage.MCB has a strong direction squad and have a really impressive hard currency flow with an first-class fiscal public presentation. As MCB was awarded 1st Asiatic bank supplying good return on salvaging and current history to its clients.
The bank targets merely the top class of clients and does non provide to the demands of little clients. Due to this ground the bank may sometimes free good clients.As good they have to concentrate on their online banking to pull more clients as their online banking service has a weak image in forepart of clients. MCB Bank has a defensive attack in loaning. Chiefly to IT & A ; ITES companies Bank do non supply loan as these companies are non holding collaterals so bank hesitate in giving loans to them. Because of this policy companies prefer nationalized Bankss and MCB Banking bend sometimes loose possible clients. MCB Banks holding small presence Outside Pakistan, because of which companies prefer MNC Bank, chiefly united bank limited ( UBL ) . So if MCB Bank tries to emerge outside Pakistan so it has a immense potency of clients. MCB aggressive selling has quickly increasing its client base. They are non nevertheless, increasing the figure of employees consequently. This is taking to corrosion of the criterion of client service.
MCB can better insurance services to vie in market. MCB insurance premium is high and return on claim is less in per centum. As other insurance companies are converting their clients to purchase insurance policies. It has been noticed that MCB has non been enrolling decently and their concern demand experts in assorted revenue enhancement policies and service of bank. MCB has associated itself with assorted societal causes such as assisting hapless people for nutrient and medical intervention on low charges. MCB can better their client service as there is ever a room to add advanced techniques and constabularies which could take to extra proficiency of the establishment. MCB late introduces Mobile banking service, but most of the clients are incognizant of the service and MCB could work on attending it to give benefits of it to their clients.
MCB is holding hardy competition in market with its rivals as some of them holding their subdivisions countrywide and internationally every bit good. MCB is ready to supply all sort of services to their clients online but they have to do it confidential that the information is being protected and unafraid and can non be leaked to 3rd party. Branch directors are allowed to take determinations on their ain in respect to their subdivision but determinations made by persons will be different and a individual incorrect determination could escort towards intense losingss to the establishment. MCB has been confronting problem in supplying good service to uneducated clients to utilize electronic and computerized machines.
General Environment Analysis — — Plague
The analysis of MCB will take in to account the general environment analysis, the rival ‘s analysis by comparing the merchandises offered by the competitory Bankss and the departmental analysis.
The general environment of takes in to account the external factors like political relations, economic system of Pakistan, socio-cultural factors and engineering. Now we will analyse these factors one by one and look into how these affect the working of MCB:
The current state of affairs of the authorities in Pakistan is straight impacting the policies of Bankss. However, MCB tries difficult to maintain its concern off from the political relations but it is non an easy undertaking. MCB has no histories of political leaders or parties. However, its Customer Service Department faces peer force per unit area from such political parties.
As MCB is trapped in double countenances from the State Bank of Pakistan ( SBP ) and from the European Union so the altering political environment is non so good for the bank to run freely. The altering policies of the authorities, affects SBP which in return affects the MCB regulations and policies.
The authorities of Pakistan has privatized most of the Bankss. The figure of authorities owned Bankss have declined invariably, so these alterations straight affect MCB.
The economic system of any state has deep impact on any fiscal organisation. Economic indexs include Gross Domestic Product ( GDP ) , rising prices, balance of payment, debt of the authorities. These below graphs will explicate how economic conditions of Pakistan are adversely impacting the banking system of Pakistan.
The pathetic economic system of Pakistan and instable authorities is adversely impacting MCB and its different sections ; late MCB has redundant many of its employees. The economic system of our Pakistan is really hapless. Due to hapless economic system concerns are demoing low net incomes and Pakistan stock market is in great danger. Pakistan ‘s foreign debts are lifting twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours, so such a state of affairs is a immense challenge for MCB to last. Due to fiscal crisis in Pakistan the direction of MCB has to confront nerve-racking state of affairss and besides working environment. At present the MCB is non extending loans but retrieving the bing 1s.
MCB has been influenced by the socio-cultural factors. At present most of the European states are maintaining their eyes on Pakistan as being the terrorist state, so people of Pakistan are emotionally acquiring affected by it. Most of the foreign investings have been stopped in Pakistan. Pakistani people are diehards who do non like the modern banking environment of MCB. Some of the clients do non utilize ATMs they still prefer hard currency counters, so these sorts of socio-cultural factors affect the banking environment and its operations.
Technology has a deep influence on different sorts of organisations whether Bankss or any sort societal public assistance organisations. In MCB engineering has great consequence on the on the job environment. Largely all Bankss use computing machines none of the Bankss maintain informations manually so the bank has to be continuously in touch with the modern ways of undertaking public presentation. MCB is ever in front to present new computing machine systems for maintaining its staff up to day of the month. The intranet installation is playing an of import function in heightening the cognition of staff. Due to engineering that bank staff keeps in touch with the clients through e – mail ; ATMs and on-line banking is merely possible due to engineering. In this manner engineering is playing its cardinal function in and is assisting direction to further better its maps.
Overall we can state that MCB is influenced by the economic place of Pakistan, which has stopped it from widening loans to the clients. After that the policies of MCB are besides impacting its public presentation and free operation. Social and technological issues are of secondary importance but they besides can non be neglected. MCB is concentrating positively sing technological issues but it should besides maintain its oculus on the societal cultural factors besides.
Porters Five Forces Analysis
For farther analysis of MCB environment, Porters Five Forces Analysis is besides applied on the bank. This analysis takes in to consideration the undermentioned factors:
Substitution of one merchandise with another 1 increases the competition within an industry. However, the perfect replacements of Bankss are non available in the market at present, but people still have picks of salvaging or puting their money. The people can salvage their money in their ain houses or they can lodge their money in the National Saving Centers ( Banking Intermediaries ) which give protection to their assets. Aside from salvaging one can put money in stock market in signifier of portions / bonds or in existent estate. These sorts of replacements increase the competition in the banking sector.
There is tough competition between different Bankss. There is a immense assortment of public and private Bankss already exist in the market, offering merchandises on competitory monetary values. If we look at banking merchandises ( loans, nest eggs and current histories ) so Alfalah Bank, Meezan Bank, Habib Bank and many others are offering broad scope of merchandises in this sector. The tough competition between these Bankss increases the challenge which the MCB have to face. The competition among assorted Bankss increases the shift of the clients form one bank ‘s merchandise to the other bank.
Menace of new entrants
The banking sector of any state has ever possible of growing and competition. Mostly foreign Bankss measure in the development states for spread outing their subdivisions, non merely this amalgamations between foreign and local Bankss take topographic point at big graduated table but Pakistan ‘s present economic status and authorities instability has arose the feelings of awe and panic among most of the foreign Bankss to come in in the market. In future due to uncertainness and security jobs in Pakistan investors will non be willing to put here. Due to overall fiscal jobs in the whole universe new Bankss will non be come ining in to the banking industry.
Power of purchaser
Dickering power of purchaser is low where the merchandises replacements are non available and clients are big in figure. In instance of Bankss there are tonss of other Bankss and banking mediators, holding broad scope of merchandises, so power of purchaser in banking sector is high. The bank can non coerce any client to purchase the coveted merchandise because this straight affects its repute. However, the bank can convert its clients by giving them particular price reduction or wagess. If we look at MCB we will happen that the rivals are besides offering merchandises due to which client feel in power by stating that they can travel to some other bank in instance of dissatisfaction.
Dickering power of providers
The imparting power of bank is enhanced by its depositors as they are providers of the bank. It allows bank to affect in other concern activities to put such as personal and concern loans. The providers so acquire involvement on their sum as net income earned by the bank. Banks need to concentrate on their policies as dickering power of providers is really high and they move towards highest involvement rates.
Harmonizing to Porters Five Forces analysis we can state that MCB has no fright of new entrants due to the hapless economic place of Pakistan. However, it should maintain its eyes unfastened sing amalgamations of assorted Bankss. There are two large menaces ; foremost from the purchasers who can travel to the other Bankss and secondly organize the replacements like investing in stock market, so MCB should carefully analyze its undertaking environment.
The Ecological Responsibilities of Muslim Commercial Bank ( MCB )
3 different parts are mentioned in this subdivision:
- How ecological factors impacting determination devising and policy at MCB
- How effectual the action taken towards ecological environment been so far ( cut downing waste, cut downing C emanation, cut downing energy measures, cut downing airtravel, puting in sustainable undertaking ) how these have gone up and have benefited the company.
- What other countries of betterment that you think they should be making to better response of ecological factors… think about what other Bankss internationally have done and suggest something to MCB.
The public duties of corporations, harmonizing to Harvard direction ( twelvemonth ) , are to turn and thrive thereby supplying client satisfaction, employment, revenue enhancements, and parts to the economic system — and to command their jeopardies. Harmonizing to Milton Friedman, the lone societal duty of a corporation is to do money, by endeavoring after net income as an efficient agent of production, although he admits that the corporation should conform to the regulations and norms of society.
Corporate duty is more composite than a simple, additive cost/benefit analysis. Using the metaphor of corporation as being, it is possible to sketch a new set of duties for corporations and a series of behaviours that human persons and communities can pattern to incorporate corporate behaviour into the communities. With an ecological theoretical account, the ecological duties of corporations, to themselves, to nature, and to human communities, are described.
At MCB net income devising is an obligatory portion of concern, but non the exclusive ground for concern. There for MCB ensures that it serves public goods every bit good as private involvements. This is correspondent to Ruth Benedict ‘s original anthropological significance of synergism as applied to persons. In secure, unaggressive societies, an single serves his ain advantage every bit good as that of the group with the same act. Institution ensures common advantage ; the Acts of the Apostless are reciprocally reenforcing. Economic recession may convey a re-examination of values, non merely by persons who have less material wealth, but by corporations that have emphasized growing. The populace may take a firm stand that corporations consider societal public presentation every bit good as purely economic public presentation. The individual economic intent may merely be the focal point in a societal environment.MCB is extremely concerned about economic actions, such as where to construct, who to relocate, engage, or disregard, may be subjected to greater public examination. Business can non asseverate a primary opportunism at a cost to the populace or environment. Corporations need to maintain path of their environmental impacts. Many of the jobs that corporations face are connected to the jobs of the environment and society.
Corporations need to work hand in glove to do certain the costs and benefits are extended every bit throughout the system. They could get down by patronizing the rational usage of rare resources through revenue enhancement, and by act uponing the authorities to find precedences for wilderness countries or particular landscapes ; beautiful, fragile, alone, or endangered ecosystems and species must be protected at the disbursal of commercial activity.
With respects to ecological factors Muslim Commercial Bank have had considerable focal point on the ecological diversenesss in the market some of the bing factors in add-on to the hereafter constabularies and pattern have been discussed as under ;
The bank created a section with ecological authorization to visualize long-range programs and impacts. They have realized that they need to respond more rapidly to supervise their ecological and societal environments for the emerging forms that determine their hereafter. They need to expect and take part in the societal and natural model. A new section, with planetary, prevenient maps could supply way and continuity. Such a section could be justified in the same mode as military forces. Military outgo is a non-productive cost ; its benefits are general and long-range, that is, it must deter war in the following decennary every bit good as in this one. Its range of advice would include educational services every bit good as advertisement, capital acquisitions every bit good as new merchandises, and works technology every bit good as security.
Plan all foreseeable effects of a merchandise. Advanced engineering permits the power to alter to overpower the ability to anticipate the effects of alteration. Avoiding the opposite actions of purposes ( recognized by the Greeks as the operation of calamity ) is highly hard. Good purposes are non plenty: Labor-saving devices may lend to unemployment and societal jobs ; foreign assistance may ensue in famishment for more 1000000s as local agribusiness can non vie ; and the environmental direction of some species for sustainable output causes the population to prostration.
The bank is determined to optimum corporate size and maintains it. As they perceive that after a point, growing consequences in inefficiency and non adaptability. Development, on the other manus, can go on for 100s or 1000s of old ages. A smaller size could intend more flexibleness and faster response to local conditions. Acknowledge material bounds. The planetary economic system is likely excessively big already to be supported by the natural systems of the planet. Find an upper bound to the economic system of graduated table. Accept bounds to growing based on stuffs and on non-renewable or unsafe beginnings of energy. This should non restrict development based on progressing engineering and cognition.
Another factor which the bank could concentrate on is to set corporate schemes to altering values. Smaller societal and cultural groups have different and diverging values, so corporations are traveling to hold to set to a diverseness of values alternatively of to a massive criterion. The construction of power is disintegrating, with information replacing things as wealth. The knowledge-driven economic system is more decentralised and customized. This moves us towards customization of production and off from mass production. Change the form of the corporation to a model organizing separate divisions sharing information. Each division could respond much more rapidly to market conditions.
MCB works to define a new information theoretical account of production in which the phases of a procedure ( capital, stuffs, workers, design, advertisement, selling ) are coincident and synthesized. The construct of the merchandise is extended from design ( even client parts and design of working conditions ) to aftercare, including ecologically safe retirement and disposal. The impressions of efficiency and productiveness are altering. Invention and computing machine engineering shortens merchandise life rhythms. Production diverseness is increasing. Convert the information theoretical account to an understanding theoretical account. Information is merely informations without appropriate construction. Supply a construction and material base for understanding through communicating, instruction, and preparation. Furthermore MCB promotes the rule of least attempt, leting the company to devour less, recycle, usage thirster, and avoid waste. Corporations could develop renewable energy beginnings. Conduct a complete series of audits, including an energy audit for every edifice. Reduce office costs through energy preservation planning. Use renewable energy beginnings. Energy and stuffs can be used and reused, fluxing through the system. Cars are ecologically unacceptable signifiers of conveyance, yet companies per se acknowledge them with big, free parking tonss. Discourage commutation ; promote teleworking or even alternate signifiers of transit ( bicycling, coachs, and trains ) . Minimize wastes, for case, by utilizing lasting packaging ( milk bottles and Cola bottles can be reused 40 or more times ) . Conduct a complete series of audits, including an environmental audit to find negative impacts, from acerb wastes or merchandise disposal, and a job audit, to include familial jobs. Produce a comprehensive one-year impact statement.
MCB ensures to keep the wellness of natural communities, because environmental wellness is the footing for community wellness, and community wellness is the footing for economic wellness and worker wellness. The quality of life depends on the quality of the environment. If the environment is degraded to raise the quality of life, the consequence is really limited and can ne’er be self-sufficient. Suiting economic costs and demands to the bounds of ecosystems and supervising the economic procedure would cut down wastes and force per unit areas on natural procedures. The yoke of agricultural productiveness to a solar budget, and the witting Restoration of debauched systems, would lend to the wellness of ecosystems. The fiscal establishment believes that sufficient wilderness would let the self-maintenance of planetary rhythms. With the addition in security, wealth, and self-esteem, human populations could be dependent on ecosystem productivenesss and still be diverse and alone. What made us homo was that, in add-on to human societal groups, we lived in communities with other species. We learned spontaneously from other animate beings and enjoyed their company. We are hapless and malcontent without them.
The direction of the bank tends to be accountable for ecological impacts. They believe that the bank should be held more accountable for their technological impact. New engineering is more closely regulated. They comprehend this by prefering unfastened assessment of new engineerings. By analyzing the possible effects, physical, societal, and ecological, every bit far as possible into the hereafter, of its inventions in information engineering, they can derive credibleness. Otherwise, it can wait and be forced by public and governmental force per unit area. Integrate cringles and stuff flows ; internalise rhythms.
The bank tends to avoid intervention with natural procedures. Technological procedures have been brought into balance with the rhythms of the Earth. They must non damage or degrade natural rhythms. Avoid unneeded injury. It may be appropriate to utilize trees or to vie with black bears for tree usage, but it is ne’er wise to destruct the ecosystem of trees and bears. Laws on pollution and noxious wastes have been notoriously slack and sometimes wrong-headed. Minimal acceptable tolerances are legal, yet people frequently prefer zero sums of many substances. Minimal conformity with them is virtuous for many companies, but it would be better to take to higher criterions. Work toward puting zero-level ends. Do non dump alien or unsafe wastes. Do non dispatch measures of “ safe ” wastes.
The Corporation maintains edifice and workss in 1000s of locations, each necessitating support. Convert to ecological evidences patterns. Forgo economic development of cardinal ecosystems, which should non be available for human usage. See seting the economic gait to natural rates ; make non cut trees, for case, faster than they grow. See minimising usage of ecosystem productiveness to the net ecosystem productiveness, instead than the gross productiveness, particularly as respects piscaries.
Another influential characteristic of MCB is to advance ecological design ; the establishment is going a more responsible member of the community. Thus it would promote an ecological attack to systems and procedures in the whole environment, where the merchandise, with its works, applied scientists, and advertizers, is a nexus in a long biomorphic concatenation stretching from knives to surgical micro chip memory implants. Ecological design has of import features for responsible engineering: The merchandises are designed by interdisciplinary squads sing all parametric quantities and effects ; ecological scientific disciplines offer originative penetrations into design through a hunt for underlying organic rules ; the merchandise must be related to the peculiar environment, the tool is a nexus between human and environment.
It is difficult to protect communities when the manner most concern is done tends to interrupt community life. Because of its size, power, and purpose ( frequently merely for net income ) , the corporation should take higher hazards non lower than the environing communities. This will guarantee the safety of merchandises and wastes. The work topographic point is non merely aggregation of persons. It is a figure of groups. Group interaction can alter attitudes. A working community can construct common duty. Show proper behaviour ; learn community etiquette.
The bank can plan the corporate construction and size for the community. Limit unneeded motion or break. Plan the form, size, and merchandises of the corporation to suit the local community. Promote autonomy in communities. Communities can be autonomous: By bring forthing adequate nutrient and shelter ; by restricting their population to what can be produced ; by utilizing local merchandises and natural stuffs ( dirt, minerals, workss ) ; by utilizing general and non specialised machines ; by holding multipurpose mills ; by networking with other communities, and ; by making without things that are non needed, e.g. , bombs, nutrient additives, or plastic bottles.
Muslim commercial bank is an ecological corporation and could utilize corporate purchasing power to advance acceptable engineerings and discourage unacceptable patterns. Deal less with atomic arms contractors and more with solar energy companies. Deal less with one-shot paper companies and more with recycling paper companies. Boycott paper companies involved in Rainforest devastation or old-growth forest devastation. Avoid Bankss that invest in anything that brings a high return, from third-world debt to Amazonian devastation and South African favoritism. Favor peace-oriented companies as concern spouses. And, decline to take part in work that is socially destructive.
Economic development and societal advancement are necessary for the public assistance of humanity, but must be conducted with environmental cognition. The end of economic sciences and political relations is to supply suited and comfy human habitations and meaningful activities. Human colonies must be planned and constructed within environmental restraints and harmonizing to ecological precedences. Work to continue the construction of the natural and societal communities. Corporations can promote decentalisation and restore schools, clinics, and stores to local communities. Offer concerted control with the community. Change the form of ownership to reflect employee and community engagement.
The bank is advancing ecological instruction. Encouraging cultural traditions ; declining to allow societal and religious demands be subverted by economic terminals. Helping to take the immature into their grownup duties through preparation and engagement, such as with apprenticeship plans. They could besides educate people in appropriate ways to accomplish wealth and wellbeing. Teach grasp of the services rendered by nature through flows and cycling. Point out the surprisingness of the effects of even simple corporate intercessions and inventions, e.g. , positive feedback, biological concentration of toxicants, and synergistic effects of simple new chemicals like Chlorofluorocarbons. Trace the composite and mutual dealingss of dirt, clime, flora, and human activity. Stress that a fixed set of ecological parametric quantities in an ecosystem can non be maintained in a sustainable manner, because the system is dynamic and altering. Put computing machines in proper position. Children do non necessitate computing machines to develop the powers of idea, but they do necessitate an ecological course of study where animate beings display greater powers of head than computing machines or machines. The of import technological advantages of a computing machine, word-processing, database hunts, complex connexions, and rapid calculation, are non truly needed earlier high school, unlike myths, linguistic communications, and physical activities.
Encourage people to take duty for all of their actions, from reproduction to ingestion and political relations. The duty for the public assistance of the citizens belongs in the community, as does instruction, safety, and the whole substructure. Corporate direction is responsible for developing plans to put ends, modify constructions, and present standards to mensurate advancement. The Board of Directors is responsible, as the designers of duty and stewards of the human and material resources ; the authorities is responsible, in its legislative, judicial, and regulative maps.