1. Introduction

Disneyland is a well-known entertaining subject park of the Walt Disney Company, which is sometimes regarded as “the happiest topographic point on Earth” . At the bosom of its success lies the being of leading and power. This paper hence aims to critically reflect on how leading and power originate and exist at Disneyland by using different leading attacks and positions. This paper is structured into three chief parts. The first starts by looking at leading from an single position ; finding the features and behaviors of the leaders at Disneyland. In this position, power is considered to be the ownership of the leaders. The position of leading will so be extended to an organizational degree whereby the power is enacted through the formal relationship between the leaders and followings whilst it is besides embedded within the societal system at Disneyland. Finally, leading is viewed in a societal context that goes beyond the boundary of an administration. The power in the social position is enacted through norms and societal outlooks.

  1. Leadership and Power at Disneyland
  1. Leadership from an single position

There are many ways in which the construct of leading can be described as Stogdill ( 1974 ) argued that the definitions of leading seems to be endless. Despite different points of position about leading, Northouse ( 2013 ) proposed a model in which leading could be seen as “a procedure whereby an single influences a group of persons to accomplish a common goal” . In conformity to this definition, leading exist at Disneyland since a line of directors had the power to act upon their employees in order to accomplish the company’s vision and mission. In order to derive penetration into the leading existed in Disneyland, it is of import to research who the leaders are at Disneyland, what characteristics they have and how they influence others to accomplish a common end.

  1. Leadership traits

In the first half of the 20th century, traits became the chief focal point of leading. Many bookmans at that clip believed that successful leaders possess a set of alone features that makes them different from others ( Bass, 1990 ) . The directors at Disneyland are the leaders who possess creativeness and finding. First, as it is stated clearly in the mission statement of Walt Disney company: “we seek to develop the most originative, advanced and profitable amusement experiences and related merchandise in the world” ( The Walt Disney Company, 2013 ) , in order to be recruited and work at Disneyland, the directors must be originative and have the doggedness to drive the company towards it ends. Here, it is arguable that the directors are assigned to the place merely if they possess the features that were required by the company.

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The directors at Disneyland besides show finding. Determination is the desire to acquire the occupation done and includes features such as continuity, laterality and thrust ( Northouse, 2013 ) . The executive, Bill Ross shared that “although we focus our attending on net income and loss, twenty-four hours in and twenty-four hours out we can non lose sight of the fact that this is a feeling concern and we make our net incomes from that” ( Van Maanen, 1991 ) . Gaining an chance of doing net income from paying attending to the feeling of clients, the directors at Disneyland determine to accomplish company’s end by enforcing regulations to direct the behavior and modulate the emotions of the employees ( Reyers, 2007 ) . So for illustration, both work forces and adult females at Disneyland were required to look orderly and dainty whilst keeping high liquors by practising the friendly smiling and utilizing gracious phrases ( France, 1991 ) .

Following the trait attack, we could place different features of the leaders at Disneyland. However, the trait attack is besides criticised for being equivocal and unsure as the proposed list of traits seems to be eternal. Many research workers such as Stogdill ( 1974 ) , Lord, Devader and Alliger ( 1986 ) , Kirkpatrick and Locke ( 1991 ) , Zaccaro, Kemp, and Bader ( 2004 ) presented their lists each with different features ( see Appendix.. ) . This attack besides tends to be subjective as it ignores other facets of leading such as the societal interaction or the Acts of the Apostless of the leaders.

  1. Leadership manners

The restrictions of the trait attack has given birth to the manner attack which focuses on what leaders do and how they act. Although many researches have been conducted to analyze the manner attack, one of the most important surveies is the work of Douglas Mc Gregor in 1960.

Douglas McGregor ( 1960 ) believed that leading schemes are influenced by a leader’s premise about human nature. He proposed two different theories related to the point of view of directors. Theory X directors maintain a reasonably negative position on human nature, believing that the mean human being is non willing to work, therefore it is necessary to command, direct and even hale them. Theory Y directors, on the other manus, assume that people are enthusiastic and are willing to accomplish aims to which they are committed. Harmonizing to McGregor’s work the leaders at Disneyland are the theory Ten directors since they had to direct and command their employees to execute good at work. The sense of giving way is apparent as a enchiridion of regulations set by the directors is promulgated within the administration. So for illustration, employees must follow the frock codifications of the company and ever show cordial reception with a friendly smiling, which might travel against their existent involvement ( Van Maanen, 1991 ) . The bossy leading of theory Ten directors at Disneyland could besides be affirmed when they closely control their employees by puting up a line of supervisors. Van Maanen ( 1991 ) described these supervisors as those who, dressed likewise in short-sleeved white shirts and ties with walky-talkies hitched to their belts, wander about their districts on the sentinel for divergences from park processs and other marks of upset. The visual aspect of the supervisors helped to forestall any misconduct from the employees. By enforcing regulations and set uping a line of supervisors, the directors at Disneyland use the power as a mean to command and derive conformity from their employees.

Supported by many surveies, the manner attack has a great impact on the field of leading as it shifts our attending off from personality traits to what leaders do. However, it does non demo a clear relationship between manner and public presentation results.

  1. Leadership from an organizational position

Based on Northouse’s ( 2014 ) definition of leading, it is clear that analyzing leading from an single position would disregard the common relationship between the leaders and followings. Therefore, this paper continues by locating leading within the boundary of an administration.

  1. Leadership and power – The power of directors

In order to derive the conformity from the followings, the leaders foremost need to get one or more beginnings of power. Gallic [ D1 ] and Raven ( 1959 ) proposed different bases of power available to the leaders which includes: referent, expert, legitimate, wages and coercive. The directors at Disneyland get the legitimate power which derive from their place in a formal organizational system. With this power, directors are believed to hold the legal-rational authorization to enforce the regulations and influence employees. The directors besides had entree to the wages system, intending that they can supply wagess to those who perform good in their occupation. At Disneyland, a performance-related wage are used so that the better the employees perform, the higher the position and payment they get ( Van Maneen, 1991 ) . Coercive power is another beginning of power available to the directors which is acquired through usage of menaces and penalties ( Northouse, 2013 ) . Employees at Disneyland learn that if they do non follow the regulations, they are threatened to be fired. Taking excessively long a interruption ; non have oning parts of one’s official uniform such as a chapeau, standard-issue belt, or correct places ; fraternising with invitees beyond the call of responsibility ; speaking back to quarrelsome are frequently capable to instant and rough subject. All these beginnings of power have enabled the directors at Disneyland to take the organisation’s members. Harmonizing to Dahl’s ( 1957 ) definition of power, if A has power over B, A can do B make something to the extent that B would non otherwise make. Therefore, the power at Disneyland is relational and influenced by dealingss of dependence between the directors and their employees. The employees have to follow the directors otherwise they would non acquire wages or be punished.

  1. Leadership and power- the power embedded in the administration

It could be seen that although Gallic and Raven’s survey provide a clear construct of the beginnings of power, their point of position tend to concentrate on the overt and seeable signifier of power. They assume that those who have these beginnings of power are able to command power. However, non all agree with this position. Foucault ( 1977 ) believe that power is cardinal to all of our societal relationship, is non a ownership of a group or single, and reaches into the really grain of people, and influences people by enabling the use of attitudes, values and beliefs. He drew upon Jeremy Bentham’s thought of panoptican. Originally a design of a prison, it enabled many captives to be seen by a few guards who were in a cardinal tower with positions of cells all around it. However the captives could non see into the tower, so they would non cognize if the guards were at that place or non. The possibility of guards watching meant they would act themselves- they became self-disciplining. The thought of self-discipline can be found at Disneyland as the employees have to train themselves at work due to the possibility of being observed by the supervisors. Supervisors in Tomorrowland are, for illustration, celebrated for their inclination of concealment in the shrubs above the pigboat caves, clocking the reachings and goings of the purportedly to the full laden boats doing the eight-minute sail under the polar ice caps ( Van Maneen, 1991 ) . They are regarded by drive operators as sneaks and pranksters out to acquire them and representative of the dark side of park life. In this circumstance, the employees conform to the ‘norms’ merely in instance their evildoing are observed. The power go more permeant because it is embedded in the every twenty-four hours routines that are taken for granted.

  1. Leadership from a social position

Having [ D2 ] discussed about who the leaders were and how they used power to act upon their employees, nevertheless, this paper argued that leading at Disneyland did non arise from the leaders. Alternatively leading is generated by the societal power and the Acts of the Apostless of both directors and employees are framed by the outlooks and reading of the society. One major manner that these outlooks and reading are formed was through the Walt Disney’s trade name image. The trade name image could be defined as ” an identifiable merchandise, service, individual, or topographic point augmented in such a manner that the purchaser or user perceives relevant, alone added values which match their demands most closely” ( De Chernatony & A ; McDonald, 1998 ) . The identifiable merchandise of Disney is the narratives with the entertaining sketch characters such as Micky mouse or Donald Duck which become an icon of the American popular civilization and has been widely recognised over the universe ( Wantasen, n.d ) . The perceptual experience associated with these happy characters becomes a norm in which people recognise Disneyland as the “happiest topographic point on Earth” . To exemplify this point, Boje ( 1995 ) wrote about Disney being the “Tamara-land”- a metaphor foregrounding the fact that the significance of events are shaped by the organizational narratives. The alleged storytelling administrations such as Disney has shaped the manner the society construe its image through the bringing of their narratives.

As a consequence the, outlooks of clients influence the leading determination of the directors and the emotional show of the employees at Disneyland. The populace, for the most portion, wants Disneyland employees to play merely the functions for which they are hired and costumed. If, for case, Judy of the Jets is experiencing tired, grouchy, or bored, few clients want to cognize about it. Disneyland employees are expected to be cheery and helpful ; and the occupation, with its limited chances for sustained interaction, is designed to back up such a stance. Therefore, if a drive operator’s behavior impetuss perceptibly off from the norm, clients are certain to indicate it out – “why aren’t you smiling? ” “What’s incorrect with you? ” “Having a bad twenty-four hours? ” “Did Goofy measure on your pes? ” Ride operators learn fleetly from the changeless intimations, glimpses, blazes, and tactful cues sent by their audience what their function in the park is to be and every bit long as they keep to it, there will be no expostulations from those passing by ( Van Maanen, 1991 ) . Leadership at Disneyland hence originates from the society and has become a procedure. The procedure starts when the society perceive Disneyland as an entertaining topographic point to see and in order to run into the clients demand, the directors use their legitimate, wages and coercion power to act upon the manner the employees deliver the service and eventually the employees comply to the directors to derive their benefits such as position or fiscal wagess.

However, employees do non ever move to delight the directors and clients. The drive operators discover that when they are bright and lively, clients would react to them in similar ways. They assume that most people will respond to their small moving ridges and smilings with some fondness and joy. When they do non, it can destroy an employee’s twenty-four hours ( Van Maneen, 1991 ) . The bad-mannered or boisterous invitees would so be detested and scorned by the employees. So for illustration, employees would pay back hard clients the “seatbelt squeeze”- a rapid cinching-up of a seat belt so that a aberrant client would be left panting during the trip, or the “break-toss”- a sudden brake made by the operators conveying the running auto to an about instant halt while the driver flies on the goon of the auto ( Van Maneen, 1991 ) . Although, at a glimpse, employees might look to be powerless as they have to follow with the regulations of the administration and the outlooks of the clients, they have the power by commanding and runing games at Disneyland. In other word, the employees have the power to make up one’s mind how they deliver the service to clients. The power of employees in this instance could be seen as a mean of opposition instead than conformity as antecedently mentioned.

  1. Conclusion ( 500 )

By using the person, organizational and social position, this paper offers insight into how leading and power originate and exist at Disneyland. The single position with the trait and manner attacks shows that the leaders at Disneyland are the theory Ten directors who possess alone features such as creativeness and finding. The directors use power to command and direct employees toward organisation’s end by enforcing regulations and puting up a line of supervisors.

Leadership should besides be viewed through the organizational positions. At Disneyland, the directors are believed to utilize different beginnings of power including legitimate, wages and coercive power to pull strings their employees. However, the power that exists within the administration is non ever in open signifier. It could be embedded within the societal system. So that the employees have to train themselves to execute good at work under the unsighted observation of the supervisors.

In a wider context, leading could be seen as a procedure which is influenced by the power of norm and societal outlooks. The power works to border the manner significances are interpreted so that when Disneyland is by and large believed to be a happy topographic point, the directors set regulations that require the employees to demo a right attitude and act in a certain manner. However, the employees

It could be learnt from the instance of Disneyland that to to the full understand leading and power, we should see them through different positions. So for illustration, power could be seen by the leaders as authorization, influence or control, but from the position of an employee, it might be regarded as conformity or opposition. By construing leading and power through different lens, we could break direct ourselves and others towards end.

Mentions

De Chernatony, L. , & A ; McDonald, M. ( 1998 ) .Creating powerful trade names. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Northouse, P.G. ( 2013 ) . Leadership: Theory and Practice ( 6 ed. ) . Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications.

Lord, R. G. , De Vader, C. L. , & A ; Alliger, G. M. ( 1986 ) . A meta-analysis of the relation between personality traits and leading perceptual experiences: An application of cogency generalisation processs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 402-410.

Kirkpatrick, S. A. , & A ; Locke, E. A. ( 1991 ) . Leadership: Make traits count? Academy of Management Executive, 5,48-59.

Zaccaro, S. J. , Kemp, C. , & A ; Bader, P. ( 2004 ) . Leader traits and properties. In J. Antonakis, A. T. Cianciolo, & A ; R.J. Sternberg ( Eds ) . The nautre of leading ( pp.101-124 ) . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Bolden, R et Al. ( 2011 ) . Researching Leadership: Individual, Organisational & A ; Societal Perspectives. New York: Oxford University Press.

Wantasen, I.L. ( n.d. ) Walt Disney as the icon of the American popular civilization. ( Master ‘s thesis, Sam Ratulangi University, Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. ) Retrieved from www.niu/international/_images/IsnawatiLydiaWantasen.pdf

France, V.A. ( 1991 ) . Window on Main Street. Nashua, NH: Laugh Publications.

Foucault, M. ( 1977 ) . Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison, London: Allen Lane.

Bass, B. M. ( 1990 ) . Bass and Stogdill’s enchiridion of leading: A study of theory and research. New York: Free Press.

The Walt Disney Company. ( 2013 ) . Disney’s Mission Statement. Retrieved March 18, 2015 from hypertext transfer protocol: //disneycompanyprofile.weebly.com/ .

Northouse, P.G. ( 2013 ) . Leadership: Theory and Practice ( 6 ed. ) . Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications.

Van Maanen, J. ( 1991 ) . The smile mill: Work at Disneyland.In P. J. Frost, L. F. Moore, M. R. Lewis, C. C. Lundberg & A ; J. Martin ( Eds. ) ,Reframing organisational civilization( pp. 58–76 ) . Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Boje, D. M. ( 1995 ) . Narratives of the Storytelling Organization: A Postmodernist Analysis of Disney as “ Tamara-Land” . The Academy of Management Journal, 38 ( 4 ) , pp. 997-1035.

Appendixs

Appendix A My Leadership Resolutions

I RESOLVE…

These are my Leadership Resolutions. They are my statements of purpose in the face of the challenges I see around me. Their intent is to assist me lend to leading around here and to develop my leading pattern

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