Transport plays an of import function in the economic system. Because of conveyance natural stuffs reach the mill and finished merchandises reach to the consumer. The gait of development of a state depends upon the production of goods and services every bit good as their motion over infinite. Therefore. efficient agencies of conveyance are pre-requisites for fast development. Apart from conveyance. the easiness and manner of communications. like telephone and cyberspace makes seamless flow of information possible. Today. India is well-linked with the remainder of the universe despite its huge size. diverseness and lingual and socio-cultural plurality. Railways. air passages. H2O ways. newspapers. wireless. telecasting. film and cyberspace. etc. have been lending to its socio-economic advancement in many ways. The trades from local to international degrees have added to the verve of its economic system. It has enriched our life and added well to turning comfortss and installations for the amenitiess of life.

India has one of the largest route webs in the universe. aggregating to about 2. 3 million kilometer at present. In India. roadways have preceded railroads. They still have an border over railroads in position of the easiness with which they can be built and maintained. The turning importance of route conveyance vis-a-vis rail conveyance is rooted in the undermentioned grounds ; ( a ) building cost ofroads is much lower than that of railroad lines. ( B ) roads can track relatively more cleft and undulating topography. ( degree Celsius ) roads can negociate higher gradients of inclines and as such can track mountains such as the Himalayas. ( vitamin D ) route conveyance is economical intransportation of few individuals and comparatively smaller sum of goods over short distances. ( vitamin E ) it besides provides door-to-door service. therefore the cost of lading and droping is much lower. ( f ) route conveyance is besides used as a feeder to other manners of conveyance such as they provide a nexus between railroad Stationss. air and sea ports. In India. roads are classified in the undermentioned six categories harmonizing to their capacity Golden Quadrilateral: The authorities has launched a major route development undertaking associating Delhi-Kolkata- Chennai-Mumbai and Delhi by six-lane Super Highways.

The North-South corridors associating Srinagar ( Jammu & A ; Kashmir ) and Kanyakumari ( Tamil Nadu ) . and East-West Corridor linking Silcher ( Assam ) and Porbander ( Gujarat ) are portion of this undertaking. The major aim of these Super Highways is to cut down the clip and distance between the mega metropoliss of India. These main road undertakings are being implemented by the National Highway Authority of India ( NHAI ) . • National Highways: National Highways link utmost parts of the state. These are the primary route systems and are laid and maintained by the Central Public Works Department ( CPWD ) . A figure of major National Highways run in North-South and East-West waies. • State Highwaies: Roads associating a province capital with different territory central offices are known as State Highways. These roads are constructed and maintained by the State Public Works Department ( PWD ) in State and Union Territories. • District Roads: These roads connect the territory central office with other topographic points of the territory.

These roads are maintained by the Zila Parishad. • Other Roadss: Rural roads. which link rural countries and small towns with towns. are classified under this class. These roads received particular drift under the Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana. Under this strategy particular commissariats are made so that every small town in the state is linked to a major town in the state by an all season motorable route. • Border Roads: Apart from these. Border Roads Organisation a Government of India set abouting concepts and maintains roads in the surrounding countries of the state. This administration was established in 1960 for the development of the roads of strategic importance in the northern and northeasterly boundary line countries. These roads have improved handiness in countries of hard terrain and have helped in the economic development of these country. The Indian Railways is the largest public sector project in the state. The first train steamed off from Mumbai to Thane in 1853. covering a distance of 34 kilometer. concrete or even bitumen of coal. hence. these are all conditions roads. Unmetalled roads travel out of usage in the rainy season. Road Density

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The length of route per 100 sq. kilometer of country is known as denseness of roads. Distribution of route is non unvarying in the state. Density of all roads varies from merely 10 kilometers in Jammu & A ; Kashmir to 375 kilometers in Kerala with the national norm of 75 kilometers ( 1996-97 ) . Road transit in India faces a figure of jobs. Keeping in position the volume of traffic and riders. the route web is unequal. About half of the roads are unmetalled and this limits their use during the rainy season. The National Highways are unequal excessively. Furthermore. the roadways are extremely congested in metropoliss and most of the Bridgess and culverts are old and narrow.

Railwaies are the chief manner of transit for cargo and riders in India. Railways besides make it possible to carry on many-sided activities like concern. rubber-necking. pilgrim’s journey along with transit of goods over longer distances. Apart from an of import agencies of conveyance the Indian Railways have been a great integration force for more than 150 old ages. Railways in India bind the economic life of the state every bit good as speed up the development of the industry and agribusiness. Rail Network: The Indian Railway have a web of 7. 031 Stationss spread over a route length of 63. 221 kilometer. with a fleet of 7817 engines. 5321 rider service vehicles. 4904 other manager vehicles and 228. 170 waggons as on 31 Rail Gauge and Length of paths in India

Development of Railwaies:
The Indian Railway is now reorganised into 16 zones. The distribution form of the Railway web in the state has been mostly influenced by physiographic. economic and administrative factors. The northern fields with their huge degree land. high population denseness and rich agricultural resources provided the most favorable status for their growing. However. a big figure of rivers necessitating building of Bridgess across their broad beds posed some obstructions. In the hilly terrains of the peninsular part. railroad piece of lands are laid through low hills. spreads or tunnels. The Himalayan cragged parts excessively are unfavorable for the building of railroad lines due to high alleviation. thin population and deficiency of economic chances. Likewise. it was hard to put railroad lines on the flaxen field of western Rajasthan. swamps of Gujarat. forested paths of Madhya Pradesh. Chhattisgarh. Orissa and Jharkhand.

The immediate stretch of Sahyadri could be crossed merely through spreads or base on ballss ( Ghats ) . In recent times. the development of the Konkan railroad along the West seashore has facilitated the motion of riders and goods in this most of import economic part of India. It has besides faced a figure of job such as sinking of path in some stretches and land slides. Today. the railroads have become more of import in our national economic system than all other agencies of conveyance put together. However. inveigh conveyance suffers from certain jobs as good. Many riders travel without tickets. Larcenies and damaging of railroad belongings has non yet stopped wholly. Peoples stop the trains. draw the concatenation unnecessarily and this causes heavy harm to the railroad.

Pipeline conveyance web is a new reaching on the transit map of India. In the yesteryear. these were used to transport H2O to metropoliss and industries. Now. these are used for transporting rough oil. crude oil merchandises and natural gas from oil and natural gas Fieldss to refineries. fertiliser mills and large thermic power workss. Solids can besides be transported through a grapevine when converted into slurry. The far inland locations of refineries like Barauni. Mathura. Panipat and gas based fertiliser workss could be thought of merely because of grapevines. Initial cost of puting grapevines is high but subsequent running costs are minimum.

It regulations out trans-shipment losingss or holds. There are three of import webs of grapevine transit in the state. • From oil field in upper Assam to Kanpur ( Uttar Pradesh ) . via Guwahati. Barauni and Allahabad. It has subdivisions from Barauni to Haldia. via Rajbandh. Rajbandh to Maurigram and Guwahati to Siliguri. • From Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar in Punjab. via Viramgam. Mathura. Delhi and Sonipat. It has subdivisions to link Koyali ( near Vadodara. Gujarat ) Chakshu and other topographic points. • Gas grapevine from Hazira in Gujarat connects Jagdishpur in Uttar Pradesh. via Vijaipur in Madhya Pradesh. It has subdivisions to Kota in Rajasthan. Shahajahanpur. Babrala and other topographic points in Uttar Pradesh.

Waterwaies are the cheapest agencies of conveyance. They are most suited for transporting heavy and bulky goods. It is a fuel-efficient and environment friendly manner of conveyance. India has inland pilotage waterways of 14. 500 kilometer in length. Out of these lone 3. 700 kilometers are navigable by mechanized boats. The undermentioned waterways have been declared as the National Waterways by the Government: • The Ganga river between Allahabad and Haldia ( 1620 kilometer ) -N. W. No. 1 • The Brahmaputra river between Sadiya and Dhubri ( 891 kilometer ) -N. W. No. 2 • The West-Coast Canal in Kerala ( Kottapurma-Komman. Udyogamandal and Champakkara canals-205 kilometer ) – N. W. No. 3 The other feasible inland waterways include the Godavari. Krishna. Barak. Sunderbans. Buckingham Canal. Brahmani. East-west Canal and Damodar Valley Corporation Canal.

Major Sea Ports
With a long coastline of 7. 516. 6 kilometer. India is dotted with 12 major and 181 medium and minor ports. These major ports handle 95 per cent of India’s foreign trade. Kandla in Kuchchh was the first port developed shortly after Independence to ease the volume of trade on the Mumbai port. in the aftermath of loss of Karachi port to Pakistan after the Partition. Kandla is a tidal port. It caters to the convenient handling of exports and imports of extremely productive garner and industrial belt stretching across the provinces of Jammu and Kashmir. Himachal Pradesh. Punjab. Haryana. Rajasthan and Gujarat. Mumbai is the biggest port with a broad natural and well-sheltered seaport. The Jawaharlal Nehru port was planned with a position to decongest the Mumbai port and service as a hub port for this part. Marmagao port ( Goa ) is the Prime Minister Fe ore exporting port of the state. This port accounts for about 50 per cent of India’s Fe ore export. New Mangalore port. located in Karnataka caters to the export of Fe ore dressed ores from Kudremukh mines.

Kochi is the utmost south-western port. located at the entryway of a laguna with a natural seaport. On the east seashore. is the port of Tuticorin. in Tamil Nadu. This port has a natural seaport and rich backwoods. Therefore. it has a booming trade handling of a big assortment of ladings to even our neighboring states like Sri Lanka. Maldives. etc. and the coastal parts of India. Chennai is one of the oldest unreal ports of the state. It is ranked following to Mumbai in footings of the volume of trade and lading. Vishakhapatnam is the deepest landlocked and well-protected port. This port was. originally. conceived as an mercantile establishment for Fe ore exports. Paradip port located in Orissa. specialises in the export of Fe ore. Kolkata is an inland riverine port. This port serves a really big and rich backwoods of Ganga- Brahmaputra basin. Bing a tidal port. it requires changeless dredging of Hoogly. Haldia port was developed as a subordinate port. in order to alleviate turning force per unit area on the Kolkata port.

Air passages:
The air conveyance was nationalised in 1953. On the operational side. Indian Airlines. Alliance Air ( subordinate of Indian Airlines ) . private scheduled air hoses and non- scheduled operators provide domestic air services. Air India provides international air services. Pawanhans Helicopters Ltd. Provides chopper services to Oil and Natural Gas Commission in its off- shore operations. to unaccessible countries and hard terrains like the north-eastern provinces and the interior parts of Jammu and Kashmir. Himachal Pradesh and Uttaranchal. Indian Airlines operations besides extend to the neighbouring states of South and south-east Asia and the Middle E. It can cover really hard terrains like high mountains. drab comeuppances. dense woods and besides long pelagic stretches with great easiness.

Personal communicating and mass communicating including telecasting. wireless. imperativeness. movies. etc. are the major agencies of communicating in the state. Indian Post: The Indian postal web is the largest in the universe. It handles packages every bit good as personal written communications. Card games and envelopes are considered first–class mail and are airlifted between Stationss covering both land and air. The second–class mail includes book packages. registered newspapers and periodicals. They are carried by surface mail. covering land and H2O conveyance. To ease speedy bringing of mails in big towns and metropoliss. six mail channels have been introduced late. They are called Rajdhani Channel. Metro Channel. Green Channel. Business Channel. Bulk Mail Channel and Periodical Channel. Telephone: India has one of the largest telephone webs in Asia. In order to beef up the flow of information from the grassroot to the higher degree. the authorities has made particular proviso to widen 24 hours STD installation to every small town in the state.

There is a unvarying rate of STD installations all over India. It has been made possible by incorporating the development in infinite engineering with communicating engineering. Mobile Telephones: India is one of the fastest turning nomadic web in the universe. Mobile phones have changed the manner Indians conducted concern. Now even low income group people like vegetable sellers. pipe fitters and carpenters get better concern because they are connected through nomadic phones. Mass Comunication: Mass communicating provides amusement and creates consciousness among people about assorted national programmes and policies. It includes wireless. telecasting. newspapers. magazines. books and movies. All India Radio ( Akashwani ) broadcasts a assortment of programmes in national. regional and local linguistic communications for assorted classs of people. spread over different parts of the state.

Doordarshan. the national telecasting channel of India. is one of the largest tellurian webs in the universe. It broadcasts a assortment of programmes from amusement. educational to athleticss. etc. for people of different age groups. Newspapers: India publishes a big figure of newspapers and periodicals yearly. They are of different types depending upon their cyclicity. Newspapers are published in approximately 100 linguistic communications and idioms. Largest figure of newspapers published in the state are in Hindi. followed by English and Urdu. Movies: India is the largest manufacturer of characteristic movies in the universe. It produces short movies ; video characteristic movies and picture short movies. The Central Board of Film Certification is the authorization to attest both Indian and foreign movies.

International Trade
Trade between two states is called international trade. It may take topographic point through sea. air or land paths. Advancement of international trade of a state is an index to its economic prosperity. It is. hence. considered the economic barometer for a state. Export: When the goods are sent to other state for sale it is called as export. Import: When the goods come from other state to be sold in India it is called import. Balance of Payment: This is the difference between export and import of a state. When export is higher than import so this is a state of affairs of favorable balance of payment. On the other manus when the import is hihger than export so this is a state of affairs of unfavorable balance of payment. Indian Commodities Witnessing growing in portion in Export:

Major Imports to India

Bulk imports as a group registered a growing accounting for 39. 09 per cent of entire imports. This group includes fertilisers ( 67. 01 per cent ) . cereals ( 25. 23 per cent ) . comestible oils ( 7. 94 per cent ) and newspaper ( 5. 51 per cent ) . International trade has under gone a sea alteration in the last 15 old ages. Exchange of trade goods and goods have been superseded by the exchange of information and cognition. India has emerged as a package giant at the international degree and it is gaining big foreign exchange through the export of information engineering. Tourism as a Trade

Foreign tourist’s reachings in the state witnessed an addition of 23. 5 per cent during the twelvemonth 2004 as against the twelvemonth 2003. therefore lending Rs 21. 828 crore of foreign exchange. Over 2. 6 million foreign tourers visit India every twelvemonth. More than 15 million people are straight engaged in the touristry industry. Tourism besides promotes national integrating. provides support to local handcrafts and cultural chases. It besides helps in the development of international understanding about our civilization and heritage.


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