Running head: LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT AND PERSONALITY PAPER Lifespan Development and Personality Paper Jocelyn F. Oatman University of Phoenix Introduction to Psychology PSY 103 Michelle Williams October 22, 2008 Lifespan Development and Personality Paper Development does not end with adolescence. Adults, too, go through modifications and experience physical, cognitive, and social changes. Adulthood has been suggested that emerges as early as 18, but for our purposes, adulthood can be divided into three periods: early adulthood (ages 20 to 39), middle adulthood (ages 40 to 65), and late adulthood (beyond age 65).

In young maturity, bodily development continues. Shoulder length, tallness, and chest range increase, and individuals continue to expand their physical capabilities. Through their mid-thirties practically everybody demonstrates some hearing injury, but for the majority of people, the years of young adulthood are the best part of life. In the heart of adulthood, additional physical modifications slowly appear. The most familiar of those affect the extra loss of sensory sharpness.

Individuals become more responsive to light, more precise at distinguishing dissimilarities in distance, and more slowly and less able at considering factors. At age 40, escalated farsightedness is usual, and glasses may be essential to rectify for it. In their late ‘40s or early ‘50s, women usually experience menopause, the shutdown of reproductive capacity. Estrogen and progesterone levels decline, and the menstrual cycle finally stops. Most individuals are well into delayed adulthood before their physical functions illustrate perceptible destruction.

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Nevertheless, within the body, bone mass is deteriorating, and the chance of heart disease is expanding. Male get smaller about an inch in height, and female about two inches, as their stance transforms and cartilage disks between the spinal column become thinner. Older adults tend to go to sleep earlier, but may find it harder to sleep through the night without awakening to use the bathroom. Coagulating of the heart vessels and an increase of fat buildups on the artery walls may lead to heart disorder.

The digestive system decelerates and becomes more proficient. Both digestive disorders and heart disease sometimes result from problems of diet, too little fluid, too little fiber, too much fat and inactivity. Additionally, the brain shrinks during late adulthood. The few reflexes that remained after infancy, such as the knee-jerk reflex, weaken or disappear. The flow of blood to the brain slows. As in earlier years, many of these changes can be delayed or diminished by a healthy diet and exercise.

Regardless of the maturing of the brain, cognition experiences diminutive change for the inferior until delayed adulthood. Previously that time, vigilant older individuals may function as well as aware younger people. In reality, elders may perform even improved than younger adults in circumstances that strike their long-term reminiscences and well-learned talents. The experienced teacher may deal with an unruly child more skillfully than the beginner, and the senior lawyer may understand the implications of a new law better than the recent graduate.

Their existence of gathering and categorizing information can make older adults practiced, competent, and clever. Until age 60 at most, significant cognitive capabilities increase. For the duration of this period, adults do better on tests of vocabulary, comprehension, and general knowledge especially if they use these abilities in their daily lives or engage in enriching activities such as travel or reading. Young and middle-aged adults learn new information and new skills; they remember old information and sharpen old skills.

Furthermore, young and middle-aged adults in their forties through their early sixties that people tend to put in the best performance of their lives on complex mental tasks such as reasoning, verbal memory, and vocabulary. The quality of contemplation may also transform throughout maturity. Grown-up deliberation is frequently more complicated and adaptive that youthful concept. Unlike adolescents, adult understand the contradictions inherent in thinking.

They see both the possibilities and the problems in every course of action in deciding whether to start a new business, back a political candidate, move to a new place, or change jobs. Full-grown adults are more knowledgeable that youngsters or adolescents at creating logical resolutions and at correlating reason and generalization to actions, feelings, common concerns, and special affiliations. As they appreciate these relationships, their thought becomes more global, more concerned with broad moral and practical issues.

The achievement of these new kinds of thinking reflects a stage of cognitive development that goes beyond Piaget’s formal operational period. In this stage, people’s thinking becomes dialectical, which means they understand that knowledge is relative, not absolute such that what is seen as wise today may have been thought foolish in times past. They see life’s contradictions as an inevitable part of reality, and they tend to weigh different solutions to problems rather than just accepting the first one that spring to mind.

Adulthood is a generation when modifications appear in social connections and situations. These transformations do not appear in efficient, foreseeable stages but as an alternative resulting in different courses, depending on personality experiences. Transitions involving divorce, being fired, going back to school, remarrying, losing a spouse to death, being hospitalized, getting arrested, moving back home, or retiring are just a few of the turning points that can redirect a person’s life path.

Male and female in western backgrounds frequently enter the mature world in their 20’s. They choose on an employment, or at most obtain a profession, and regularly become inattentive with their professions. They also happen to be more concerned with matters of love. The sixth of Ericson’s stages of psychosocial development that young people become able to commit themselves to another person or they develop a sense of isolation and feel they have no one in the world but themselves. This intimacy may include sexual intimacy, friendship, or mutual intellectual stimulation.

The intimacy may lead to marriage or some other form of committed relationship. All this comes at a time when having separated from their parents; young adults may also be experiencing isolation and loneliness. They may view the future with a mixture of anticipation, fear, and insecurity. Just how willing and able people are to make intimate commitments may depend on their earlier attachment relationships. Researchers have discovered that young adults’ views of intimate relationships parallel the patterns of infant attachment.

If their view reflects a secure attachment, they tend to feel valued and worthy of support and affection; develop closeness easily; and have relationships characterized by joy, trust, and commitment. If their view reflects an insecure attachment, therefore, they tend to be preoccupied with relationships and may feel misunderstood, underappreciated, and worried about being abandoned; their relationships are often negative, obsessive, and jealous. Otherwise, they may be unapproachable and unable to trust, or commit themselves to a partner.

Throughout maturity, the knowledge of becoming parents signifies access into a main recent developmental phase often supplemented by personal, social, and occupational variations. The challenges of young adulthood are complicated by the nature of family life today. Parents are older now because young adults are delaying marriage longer and waiting longer to have children. The changes seen in family life over the past several decades have made it more challenging than ever to successfully navigate the years of early adulthood. Sometimes around age 40, individuals go through a midlife modification.

They may reappraise and transform their lives and affiliations. Many people may feel invigorated and liberated and see midlife as an opportunity for personal development, but others may feel upset and have a “midlife crisis. ” No one knows how many people experience a crisis during the midlife transition, but researchers suspect that these people are in the minority. The contrast between youth and middle age may be especially upsetting for men who matured early in adolescence and were sociable and athletic rather than intellectual.

Once the midlife transition is past, the middle years of adulthood are usually a time of satisfaction and happiness. An essential inquiry in developmental psychology distresses the family member control of nature and nurture. Gesell pressured personality in his theory of growth, recommending that adulthood is maturation the normal describing of capacities with age. Watson obtained the conflicting outlook, declaring that maturity is knowledge, as outlined by the external environment. In his theory of cognitive growth, Piaget illustrated how nature and nurture perform jointly.

Nowadays individuals understand the notion that both nature and nurture influence growth and inquire not if, but how and what degree each contributes. Research in behavioral genetics shows that complex traits, such as intelligence and personality are influenced by many genes, and by many environmental factors. References: Bernstein, Douglas A. , & Nash, Peggy W. (2005). Essential of Psychology, Third Edition Carpenter, S. , & Huffman, K. (2008). Visualizing Psychology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

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