_______ development is the field of study that examines patterns of growth, change, and stability in behavior that occur throughout the entire lifespan.
A student reads a flyer on the campus bulletin board that says a researcher is searching for students to volunteer for a long-term study. Participation includes completing testing that measures traits such as temperament, attitudes, and adaptability, as well as being available for follow-up for the next 10 years. The researcher who is developing this study is most likely interested in ___________ development.
Personality development
Which age range is considered a social construction and does not have a clear-cut boundary?
Middle adulthood ends with retirement
To gain a clearer understanding, developmentalists must consider all of the following broad cultural factors except
how subcultures are exactly like cultures in their views and attitudes
A group of people who are born around the same time in the same place is called a(n)
Alice’s symptoms of menopause include hot flashes and cessation of her monthly menstrual cycle. Alice’s doctor tells her she is experiencing a(n)
Age-graded influence
In ___________, development is ________, with achievements at one level building on those of previous levels.
Continuous change; gradual
If a child develops into a person who integrates into society and maintains a good awareness of safety, Freud may say that person has a well-developed
Kimberly is a young woman who has a fear of relationships with others. She can be said to have had a negative outcome in Erikson’s ________ stage of psychosocial development.
Intimacy vs Isolation
Piaget’ s two basic principles of growth in children’s understanding of the world are
assimilation and accomodation
When does the greatest increase in height and weight occur?
During the first year of life
A baby grasps for his/her rattle at 3 months of age but cannot quite get hold of it. However, by 11 months the baby is holding and moving the rattle with total control. This is an example of..
principle of hierarchical integration
_________ receive messages from other cells, and at their opposite end there is a long extension called a(n) ________ which carries the messages.
Dendrites; Axons
Waking, eating, sleeping, and elimination are important parts of a baby’s
What is the term for the period of sleep that is found in older children and adults and is associated with dreaming?
(REM) Rapid Eye Movement
What is the term for the reflex that disappears around 8-12 months, and occurs when an infant fans out its toes in response to a stroke on the outside of its foot?
Mary is preparing to breast feed her infant daughter, and, in doing so, the baby’s cheek brushes across her mother’s blouse. The baby immediately turns its head toward Mary’s chest in preparation for feeding. This is called the _______ reflex.
Thomas is 6 months of age. It is likely that he is able to
Sit without support
Due to malnutrition, a child’s stomach, limbs, and face may swell with water so that the child actually appears chubby, but in fact the child is suffering from
Maria and Thomas are preparing for the birth of their baby, and are trying to decide whether or not to breastfeed their new baby. Which of the following is NOT a reason for them to decide on breastfeeding?
Breast milk is cheaper than store bought formula
Piaget argued that infants acquire knowledge through
acting upon objects
Piaget’s theory of development assumed that all children pass through a series of ____ universal stages in a fixed order from birth to adolescence. These are ______.
4; Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational.
Four-year-old Alex and his mother visited the zoo. While they were there, Alex’s mother took him to see the squirrel exhibit. Alex saw many different types of squirrels, but when he saw a flying squirrel glide from one branch to the next he pointed and said, “A bird.” Considering Piaget’s work, Alex is demonstrating an example of
In which of Piaget’s substages of his sensorimotor stage do infants begin to coordinate what were separate actions into single, integrated activities?
First habits and primary circular reactions
Baby Nicholas watches as his mother leaves the room, but he does not cry because he understands that his mother still exists even though he cannot see her. This is an example of which reaction concept?
Substage 4: Object Permanence
Piaget calls an internal image of a past event or object a
Mental Representation
Information processing focuses on _________ changes in infants, while Piaget’s theory focuses on _________ changes in infants.
Quantitive; Qualitive
Processes that require relatively little attention are ___________; however, processes that require relatively large amounts of attention are ________.
Automatic; Controlled
A baby’s first communication usually comes in the form of ___________, which are one-word utterances that stand for a whole phrase, whose meaning depends on the particular context in which they are used.
In 4-year-old Amanda’s preschool class, the group discussion involved airplanes. After that, Amanda considered herself an expert on airplanes and believed she knew everything there was to know about airplanes, even though she was unable to provide a reasonable explanation about why she thought she knew so much about airplanes. In this example, Amanda is demonstrating
Intuitive thought
By age five, a child’s brain weighs ____ of an average adult’s brain.
Which of the following most likely contributes to the high level of accidents in the preschool age group?
Preschoolers high level of physical activity, curiosity, lack of judgment
In the later stages of preoperational stage, children show an understanding that certain things stay the same, regardless of changes in shape, size, and appearance. This is called
Approximately how many hours per week does the average preschool child watch TV?
According to Piaget, _________ is at the heart of __________, which is a major advance for preschool children.
Symbolic functioning; language
What is the term for the aspect of language that relates to communicating effectively and appropriately with others?
Parents in China, Japan, and the United States all see the benefits of preschools in a different way. What do Chinese parents view as the most likely benefit of preschool?
Academic head-start
By what age would a child be expected to jump, hop on one foot, skip, and run?
3 years
According to the Centers for Disease Control, approximately how many children are at risk for lead poisoning due to exposure to potentially toxic levels of lead?
14 million
What is the term for a state in which gender roles encompass characteristics thought typical of both sexes?
stress, fear, and terror accompanying abuse may also produce permanent changes in the brain due to _____________ of the ________.
Overstimulation; Limbic System
What is the term for parents who provide lax and inconsistent feedback and require little of their children?
Who was the psychoanalyst who suggested that during the preschool years, children face conflict relating to initiative?
self control and promoting brain development
Play may assist the brain Increasing what?
Two boys, ages 3 and 4, are playing with cars, and both boys want the bigger red car. As one boy reaches for the red car, the other strikes him, knocking it out of his hand and taking the red car for himself. This is an example of
Instrumental Agression
African American Girl and a Caucasian American Girl
On the preschool playground, which of the following couples is most likely to be playing together before the others?
What is the term for abuse that occurs when parents or other caregivers harm children’s behavioral, cognitive, emotional, or physical functioning?
Psychological Maltreatment
Robbie is a 4-year-old boy in the U.S. who is encouraged to stand out from the rest and make his needs known. Sean is a 4-year-old boy in Japan who is encouraged to blend in and refrain from making himself distinct. Robbie is growing up with a(n) _________, and Sean is growing up with _______.
Individualistic orientation; a collectivistic orientation
Approximately how many children are killed by their parents or caretakers every day?
What percentage of preteens suffers with depression
Metalinguistic Awareness
Middle-school-age children utilize _____________ when information is fuzzy or incomplete, such as asking for clarifications of information.
Multicultural education
What is the term for a form of education in which the goal is to help minority students develop competence in the culture of the majority group while maintaining positive group identities that build on their original cultures?
in an automobile accident
Children ages 5-9 are most likely to be killed
Boys and girls should engage in sports and games in mixed-gender groups until puberty.
The American Academy of Pediatrics suggests that boys and girls should engage in sports and games, and
Cultural Bias in testing and poverty
Recent findings show that nationally in the U.S., twice as many African American students as Caucasian American students are classified as mildly mentally retarded, which is a difference that experts attribute to
Some research indicates that ADD/ADHD is related to a delay in Neural Development
Frank was tested by the school psychologist and diagnosed with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD/ADHD). The test results have been explained to his parents. His parents are curious as to brain involvement and ADD/ADHD. The school psychologist informs them that.
Stage 2- second and third grades
At which stage does a child learn to read aloud with fluency? What grade(s) is the child likely to be attending?
partial sightedness
If a person has the inability to see even at 20 feet what a typical person can see at 70 feet (20/70) after correction (corrective lenses, etc.), this is known as
Auditory impairment, which is a special need that involves the loss of hearing or some aspect of hearing, affects ________ percent of the school-age population? 1-2%
12: 3 or 4 years
In boys, the penis and scrotum begin to grow at an accelerated rate around age ____, and reach adult size in
Personal fable
Egocentrism leads to a distortion in thinking: the notion that one’s experiences are unique. This may lead the adolescent to develop a
Formal operational thought disorder
Which of the following is NOT a term that relates to an adolescent’s belief that his or her own behavior is unique and a primary focus of others’ attentions and concerns?
adolescent ego centrism
When an adolescent’s newly sophisticated metacognitive capability enables him/her to construct elaborate scenarios about others’ thoughts, this is known as
an adolescent who matured later than her peers
All of the following female adolescents are more likely to develop an eating disorder EXCEPT
One Billion
According to the World Health Organization, how many of the world’s people will die prematurely in the 21st century due to the effects of smoking?
personal fable
The view held by some adolescents that what happens to them is unique, exceptional, and shared by no one else is called
The _____ gland signals the body to increase production of growth hormones that interact with the sex hormones to cause the growth spurt and puberty.
will try basically any drug
If a person is called or known as a “garbage head,” that means that the person
What percentage of high school students report having an alcoholic drink in the past year?
Generational gap
A divide between parents and adolescents in attitudes, values, aspirations, and world views is known as
Increased; 13%
The number of adolescents who say they have never had sexual intercourse has _________ nearly ________ from 1991 to 2007.
Bicultural identity model
Which of the following models represents U.S. minority groups, which draw from their own cultural identities while integrating themselves into the dominant culture?
During adolescence, all of the following are true except
adolescents lack sufficient brain development to make informed decisions
hormonal imbalance in females
All of the following are likely causes of major depression in adolescent females except
Why do adolescent boys succeed in committing suicide more often than adolescent girls?
Boys tend to use more violent means, like guns when attempting suicide.
likelihood of being successfully rehabilitated
Undersocialized delinquents grow up to be adults that demonstrate all of the following except
Identity achievement
According to Marcia, which of the following four categories of identity development leads to the most psychological health, achievement motivation, and moral reasoning ability in adolescents?
What is the percentage of teenagers who experience major depression, in which their psychological disorder is such that the depression is severe and lingers for a long time?
The landmark legislation which mandates full access for people in wheelchairs to public establishments such as stores, office buildings, hotels, and theaters is called the
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
Jayne is having difficulty finding adequate, affordable daycare for her child while she is at work. Instead of focusing on the negative, she looks at the bright side and realizes that at least she has a good job in a tight economy. Jayne is utilizing
Emotion Focused coping
Which body part continues to exhibit growth both in size and weight during early adulthood?
Which of the following is NOT considered a psychosomatic disorder?
social support
Mita is 21 years old. She has 2 jobs and is attending a local college. However, due to her hectic schedule, she is experiencing several stressors which are contributing to physical ailments. Mita does not want to take medication for her stress. The therapist at the college informs her to try and increase contact with friends as a means of decreasing her stress. This is referred to as
responsible stage
According to Schaie, the stage in which people in early adulthood through middle adulthood are mainly concerned with protecting and nourishing their families and careers is called
psychosomatic disorders
Medical problems caused by the interaction of psychological, emotional, and physical difficulties are called
Thinking that acknowledges that adult predicaments must sometimes be solved in relativistic terms is called
Postformal thought
According to Schaie, what is the mission of many (but not all) of people in middle adulthood?
According to developmental psychologist K. Warner Schaie, the stage where the major concerns of middle-aged adults relate to their personal situations is called
responsible stage
All of the following are reasons why middle age adults are involved in fewer automobile accidents than younger people EXCEPT
slowing of reaction time helps them avoid accident
Which of the following groups is particularly susceptible to glaucoma?
African Americans
Intelligence that represents the accumulation of information, skills, and strategies that people have learned through experience and that they can apply in problem-solving situations is called
Crystallized Intelligence
Using memory skills such as getting better organized, paying attention, using visualization strategies, and rehearsing information for later retrieval are all considered
Mnemonic Strategies
Which of the following is NOT an acceptable treatment for cancer?
Holistic Therapy
Based upon longitudinal studies, a different developmental pattern for intelligence was revealed that showed all of the following EXCEPT
Adults intelligence significantly slowed around their mid 30s
Which of the following is one of the most frequent causes of eye problems that can result in blindness in middle adulthood?
Research indicates that stress can produce indirect health-related behaviors such as all of the following EXCEPT
increased and habitual risk taking behaviors
Since chronic illnesses begin to appear during middle adulthood, the death rate during this period
When information in memory is rehearsed and stored on a relatively permanent basis, it is called
long term memory
Winona is a 22-year-old new mother, and Anna is a 38-year-old new mother. According to Ravenna Helson’s theory, the ____________, both of these women may experience similar psychological forces based upon their shared experience of being a new mother regardless of their ages.
Life events model
Theorist Ravenna Helson focused on _____________, which suggest that it is the particular events in an adult’s life, rather than age per se, that determines the course of personality development.
Life events model
When middle-aged people focus on work that is directed toward others rather then themselves, Erik Erikson called this
All of the following may be contributing factors to why a higher percentage of second marriages end in divorce EXCEPT
the empty nest syndrome
Approximately how many people who divorce will remarry again, usually within 2 to 5 years?
Three quarters
Which of the following of the “Big Five” major clusters of personality traits/characteristics pertains to the degree to which a person is easygoing and helpful?
Which two developmental psychologists believed that there is a substantial change in personality over time, and that change follows a set, predictable pattern?
Erikson and Levinson
Approximately how many hours per week does the average middle-aged person spend socializing?
What percentage of people who were abused or neglected grow up to be abusive and neglectful to their own children?
Couples in their middle age who must fulfill the needs of both their children and their aging parents are called
sandwich generation
Elderly people experience a decline in their taste and smell sensitivity because of all of the following EXCEPT
too much salt on food
What is the name for the protein that forms the basic fibers of body tissue?
What portion of older people have hypertension, or high blood pressure, which is a condition with no symptoms that can lead to tension within the circulatory system, deterioration of the blood vessels and heart, and increased risk of cerebrovascular disease or stroke if left untreated?
According to surveys conducted in the U.S., almost ________ of people 65 years old and older rate their health as good, very good, or excellent.
Three quarters
When pleasant memories are more likely to be recalled than unpleasant memories, this is called
the Pollyanna Principle
K. Warner Schaie has employed an ongoing study of intelligence in older people using the _________ research method.
Sequential Studies
Approximately how many deaths are a result of Alzheimer’s disease annually in the U.S.?
Memories from one’s own life are called
Autobiographical Memories
All of the following are leading causes of death in elderly people EXCEPT
Alzheimers Disease
What percentage of adults between the ages of 65 and 74 has some degree of hearing loss?
Which of the following is NOT a benefit of a life review?
Reviving old wounds
Grace’s care needs have increased since her husband’s death. She has moved into an independent housing unit which is supported by medical providers as needed. Grace is living in a(n)
assisted living facility
What percent of elderly people finish their lives in nursing homes?
MacDonald is in his mid-60s. He is reflecting on his life and is experiencing a sense of satisfaction and accomplishment. Erikson refers to this as
Which of the following theories focuses on a gradual withdrawal from the world on physical, social, and psychological levels?
Disengagement theory
Which of the following stages of retirement means that retirees feel that retirement is not all that they thought it would be, and they may miss the stimulation of a job or find that it’s difficult to keep busy?
What percent of people age 65 and older live in poverty?
The ego-integrity-versus-despair stage of psychosocial development is characterized by a process of
looking back over ones life, evaluating it, and coming to terms with it
Daniel Levinson discusses a transition stage people pass through when entering late adulthood and they realize that they are
Scientists have discovered that carrying the sickle-cell gene raises immunity to _______, which is a common disease in West Africa.
What is the term for the inherited blood-clotting disorder that has been a problem throughout the royal families of Europe, such as the descendants of Queen Victoria?
Eric has blue eyes. Since the gene for blue eyes is recessive, Eric must be ______ for that trait.
Huela is going to have her first child and talks to her physician about assessing the health of her unborn child. The physician recommends a test which combines a blood test and ultrasound sonography. Which procedure was recommended?
first-trimester screen
The hormone __________ is produced in ________, which some scientists speculate may lead to differences in male and female brain structure, and later variations in gender-related behavior(s).
androgen; males
What is the term for the procedure of fertilization in which a man’s sperm is placed directly into a woman’s vagina by a physician?
artificial insemination
Diane has had difficult pregnancies and also developed a rare form of cervical cancer. Diane’s mother may have been prescribed ______ before Diane was born to prevent miscarriage.
DES (diethylstilbestrol)
Which “Big Five” personality trait refers to the degree of emotional stability an individual characteristically displays?
Jason and Justin are twins and are genetically identical. They are ________ twins.
In the embryonic stage, what is the term for the outer layer that will form skin, hair, teeth, sense organs, the brain, and the spinal cord?
In its study of growth, change, and stability, lifespan development takes a(n) ______ approach.
________ development involves the ways that growth and change in intellectual capabilities influence a person’s behavior.
The concept of childhood as a special period did not exist during the ________ century.
Race is what kind of a concept?
People who lived in New York City during the 9/11 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center experienced shared challenges due to the attack that are called ________ effects.
Consider a situation where a woman comes down with a case of rubella (German measles) in the eleventh week of pregnancy, as opposed to the thirtieth week of pregnancy. The difference in the way rubella would affect the unborn child at these two times is an example
critical period.
The predetermined unfolding of genetic information is known as
Genetically-determined traits not only directly influence a child’s ______, but also indirectly shape the child’s _________.
behavior; environment
Advocates of the __________ perspective believe that much of behavior is motivated by inner forces, memories, and conflicts of which a person has little awareness or control
Freud believed that the goal of the pleasure principle was to
maximize satisfaction and reduce tension.
Adults demonstrating excessive activities such as eating, talking, or chewing gum may be experiencing a(n) __________ fixation.
Kimberly is a young woman who has a fear of relationships with others. She can be said to have had a negative outcome in Erikson’s ________ stage of psychosocial development.
intimacy vs isolation
_________ conditioning, in which the response being conditioned is voluntary and purposeful, differs from _________ conditioning, where the response is automatic.
Operant; classical
Roger likes to buy lottery tickets regularly because he occasionally wins. This is an example of ________ behavior.
Ralph watches the other kindergarten students receive stickers and other rewards from the teacher for sitting at their desks and completing their work. Soon, Ralph begins to behave like the other kindergarten students. This is what type of learning?
What did Piaget call the process in which changes occur in the existing way a child thinks in response to encounters with new stimuli or events?
About an hour or so after the sperm enters the ovum, the two gametes suddenly fuse, becoming one cell called a
A trait within an organism that is present but not expressed is called
What is the name of the inherited disorder in which a child is unable to make use of an essential amino acid present in proteins found in milk and other foods and that has the potential to cause brain damage and mental retardation?
phenylketonuria (PKU)
Tera has a disorder that is untreatable and produces blindness and muscle degeneration prior to death. Her diagnosis would be
Tay-Sachs disease.
Along with schizophrenia, all of the psychological disorders below have been shown to be related, at least in part, to genetic factors. Which of the following disorders is least likely to have a genetic factor, according to the text?
By ____ months of age, the fetus swallows and urinates, arms and hands develop, and fingers develop nails.
The birth of a baby usually occurs _____ days after conception.
The attending nurse tells the expectant mother that her contractions are approximately 5 minutes apart. What hormones are high enough in the mother to cause the uterus to begin periodic contractions?
At what state of birth do the child’s umbilical cord (which is still attached to the neonate) and the placenta expel from the mother’s body?
A newborn baby scores under 4 on the Apgar scale. This means that the baby
needs immediate, life-saving intervention.
In parts of the world other than the United States, midwives help deliver about _______ of babies, often in the ________.
80%; home
What is a doula?
What is a doula? A person well-versed in birthing alternatives who provides emotional, psychological, and educational support to the mother
The extent of danger faced by preterm babies largely depends upon
the baby’s birth weight.
What factor can classify an infant as meeting the criteria of very low birth weight?
regardless of weight, an infant who was in the womb less than 30 weeks
What is the stress-related hormone that newborns need in their bloodstream to avoid, for example, breathing problems?
Approximately ___% of Caucasian American women and approximately ____% of African American women receive no prenatal care early in their pregnancies.
Following the birth of her baby, Kerry experienced a period of deep depression triggered by swings in hormone production. Kerry was experiencing
postpartum depression.
Neonates are born with a variety of reflexes including all but which of the following?
Newborns also can distinguish different colors, and they seem to prefer
blue and green.
Which form of learning relies upon newborns producing an “orienting response” in which they become quiet, attentive, and experience a slowed heart rate as they “take in” the novel stimuli?
An infant who learns that smiling at his or her parents brings positive attention, and therefore begins to smile more often, is demonstrating what type of learning?
operant conditioning
The different degrees of sleep and wakefulness through which newborns cycle, ranging from deep sleep to great agitation, are called
States of Arousal
Tiffany Field’s research suggests that infants can discriminate between all of the following basic facial expressions except one. Which expression is NOT discriminated by newborns?
When the newborn’s behavior meshes with the parental behavior, this helps the ________ to grow.
baby’s social relationship skills
Piaget believed that the _______ fit entirely in a single stage of cognitive development called the ___________ stage.
preschool years; preoperational
On Christmas morning, 3-year-old Billy opens one of his gifts from his mother and finds a new sweater. Disappointed that it is not a toy, Billy frowns and throws the sweater aside in front of his mother with no regard for her feelings. In this example, Billy is demonstrating
egocentric thought.
What area of the brain that is associated with memory is completely myelinated in the preschool years?
Because the rate of Alex’s growth during preschool years is ____ than during infancy, Alex needs ______ food to maintain his growth.
slower; less
What is the term for the aspect of language that relates to communicating effectively and appropriately with others?
According to Vygotsky, what is the level at which a child cannot fully perform a task independently, but can do so with the assistance of someone more competent?
zone of proximal development
The right hemisphere of the brain becomes more specialized during the preschool years in all of the following areas EXCEPT
thinking and reasoning.
The left hemisphere of the brain processes information _________, while the right hemisphere of the brain processes information ________.
sequentially; globally
What is the term for the system of rules that determines how our thoughts can be expressed?
What type of psychology focuses on the reliability of children’s autobiographical memories in the context of the legal system?
forensic developmental psychology
Developmental psychologists have found that children can benefit from involvement in some form of ___________ before they enroll in formal schooling, which takes place at ages 5 or 6 in the U.S.
educational activity
What percentage of children who are raised in abusive households grow up to be abusive parents themselves?
Western cultures, unlike many Asian cultures, foster a view of self reflected in a(n)
individualistic orientation.
The difference between a 3-year-old’s development of “pretend” compared to his/her development of “belief” can be illustrated by
false belief task.
In preschool one day, 5 children decided to help each other build a fort with the items that were available to them. Each child took it upon him/herself to find objects in the classroom that could be put together to build a fort. This is an example of
associative play.
What is the term for the phenomenon in which minority children indicate preferences for majority values or people?
race dissonance
Which of the following is the best example of functional play?
skipping or jumping
Five-year-old Wendel is new to his kindergarten classroom. His teacher tries to use open and friendly questions to build rapport with him. His teacher asks him what he is good at and what he likes. Wendel responds “I can run fast” and “I like to eat pizza.” Wendel’s responses are examples of his
What is the term for the perception of oneself as male or female?
gender identity
According to Erikson, what is the term for development that encompasses changes both in the understanding individuals have of themselves as members of society and in their comprehension of the meaning of others’ behavior(s)?
psychosocial development
Which of the following is the most frequent form of child abuse?
What is the term for action in which children simply watch others at play, but do not actually participate themselves?
Functional play is typical of
The ____________ approach believes children learn gender-related behaviors and expectations by observing others and how they are rewarded for acting in gender-appropriate ways.
social learning
What percentage of preteens suffers with depression?
Which of the following is NOT considered one of the prevalent disorders that affects children with normal intelligence?
psychosomatic illnesses
Auditory impairment, which is a special need that involves the loss of hearing or some aspect of hearing, affects ________ percent of the school-age population.
Some developmentalists suggest that two kinds of intelligence exist. What is the term for intelligence that reflects information processing capabilities, reasoning, and memory?
fluid intelligence
Larry was daydreaming the day that his first grade teacher reviewed the math lesson that 5 + 5 = 10. Later, Larry was not able to recall this information, probably because
he never encoded it.
When non-English speaking children are initially taught in their native language, while at the same time learning English, this is called
bilingual education.
The American Academy of Pediatrics suggests that boys and girls should engage in sports and games, and
boys and girls should engage in sports and games in mixed-gender groups until puberty.
Children begin to use reading as a source for learning around
fourth grade.
What is the term for the ability to take multiple aspects of a situation into account?
At what age can both boys and girls judge and intercept directions of small balls thrown from a distance and run 17 feet per second?
10 years old
At approximately what age should a child be able to tie his/her shoes?
7 years old
Which of the following is least likely to be the cause of U.S. children’s inadequate fitness levels?
There is no national effort to increase the level of children’s fitness.
Middle-school-age children utilize _____________ when information is fuzzy or incomplete, such as asking for clarifications of information.
metalinguistic awareness
Approximately how many children under the age of 18 in the U.S. live in single-parent households?
Friends influence children’s development during the middle childhood years in all of the following ways EXCEPT
friendships provide more security than relationships with parents and other family members.
More than ______________ households in the United States contain at least one spouse who has remarried.
10 million
According to Damon, when Steven (who is 15 years old) is asked, “How do you know that someone is your best friend?” it is highly likely that he responded
“Because a friend is someone you can talk to about things that are bothering you, and they will stick with you no matter what.”
____________ is the period in which parents and children jointly control children’s behavior.
Which of the following psychologists developed the three stages of moral development for women?
Carol Gilligan
Which of the following terms means rankings that represent the relative social power of those in a group?
dominance hierarchy
When living in a blended family, roles and expectations can be unclear, and this is called
role ambiguity.
The lack of cross-gender interaction in the middle childhood years means that
boys’ and girls’ friendships are restricted to members of their own sex.
What percentage of children in the U.S. live in “blended families”?
According to psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg, which of the following stages reflects concrete interests of the individual considered in terms of rewards and punishments?
preconventional morality
What is the approximate percentage of children in the U.S. who spend their entire childhood living in the same household with both parents?
A seventh grade student is tempted to cheat on an exam, but talks himself out of it because he is afraid he will get caught and will fail the course. This student is demonstrating
preconventional morality.
Which of the following terms relates to the knowledge that people have about their own thinking processes, and their ability to monitor their cognition?
According to researchers, what is the percentage of high school seniors and eighth grade students, respectively, who have used marijuana in the past year?
50%; 20%
The characteristics associated with the development of the organs and structures of the body that directly relate to reproduction are called
primary sex characteristics.
What is the ratio of adolescents who can be classified as obese?
1 in 20
According to Piaget, what do adolescents employ during the formal operational stage of development that helps them reason differently than children in the concrete development stage?
propositional thought
For men, binge drinking is a problem and is defined as
5 or more drinks in one sitting.
According to the World Health Organization, how many of the world’s people will die prematurely in the 21st century due to the effects of smoking?
one billion
If a person is called or known as a “garbage head,” that means that
the person will try anything, especially any kind of drug.
According to research, all of the following are factors with regard to the age of menarche in girls EXCEPT
age at which her mother’s menarche began.
Which of the following is the most likely reason for adolescent impulsivity and risky behavior(s)?
the adolescent prefrontal cortex is biologically immature
16-year-old Sally primps in front of every mirror she comes across, and believes that she is the focus of everyone’s attention – even fictitious observers. Sally is demonstrating
imaginary audience.
When physical characteristics, such as early onset of menstruation or increased height and weight (due to better nutrition), change over the course of several generations, this is an example of a
secular trend.
The age at which adolescents have sexual intercourse for the first time is ________, and _____ have had sex before the age of 20.
declining; 80%
Because of the adolescent’s development of _________, the balance of power in the relationship between parents and adolescent becomes more _______ toward the end of adolescence.
autonomy; egalitarian
Psychologist James Marcia proposed ____ categories of adolescent identity.
An adolescent delinquent who is raised with little discipline or with harsh, uncaring parental supervision is called a(n)
undersocialized delinquent.
In the last 10 years, the number of teenagers giving birth has ________ by
dropped; 30%.
According to James Marcia, which of the following four categories of identity development leads to adolescents living with relatively high anxiety and psychological conflict, while at the same time these adolescents can be lively and appealing and seek intimacy with others?
According to Erikson, the period during which teenagers seek to determine what is unique and distinctive about themselves is called
identity-versus-identity-confusion stage.
The average age at which adolescents first have sexual intercourse has been steadily _____ over the past 50 years, and about ___________ adolescents have had sexual intercourse before the age of
declining; one in five; 15.
If an adolescent has awareness of his/her self-concept, he/she would be considering all of the following EXCEPT
considering only traits he/she fully likes in himself/herself.
A set of standards against which adolescents can judge their abilities and social success is called
The desire to have independence and a sense of control over one’s life is called
From an “ethgender” point of view, which of the following adolescents has the lowest self-esteem?
Asian female
According to developmental psychologist K. Warner Schaie, the period of late adulthood during which the focus is on tasks that have personal meaning is called
reintegrative stage.
Allison is having a great deal of difficulty in her statistics class. She goes to her teacher to discuss ways in which she can improve her skills, or even drop the class if necessary. Allison is demonstrating
problem-focused coping.
By age ____, illness and disease overtake accidents as the leading cause of death, and, statistically speaking, this is the first time this occurs since infancy.
Psychologist Robert Sternberg proposed a theory that intelligence is made up of three major components: componential, experiential, and contextual, which he called
triarchic theory of intelligence.
_________ of adults in the United States are obese.
One third
Which of the following developed countries has the highest murder rate?
the U.S.
Recent research indicates that first generation college students
are particularly susceptible to difficulties during their first year of college.
According to developmental psychologist K. Warner Schaie, the first stage of cognitive development, encompassing all of childhood and adolescence, in which the main developmental task is to acquire information, is called
acquisitive stage.
When a person attempts to control stress by using conscious regulation of emotions, this is known as
emotion-focused coping.
According to Schaie, what is the mission of the late stages of early adulthood through middle adulthood?
When people unconsciously try to prevent themselves from experiencing emotions to avoid the pain brought about by the experience, this is known as
emotional insulation.
Schaie believed that when young adults apply their intelligence to attain long-term goals and confront and resolve major issues such as what job to take, whom to marry, etc., they are using an operation in the
achieving stage.
According to Robert Sternberg, when two people enjoy each other’s company and their relationship but no longer feel much sexual interest for the other, it is called
companionate love.
Which of the following reflects a secure attachment style?
someone who finds it easy to get close to others and is comfortable depending
In the United States, what is the average amount of money that parents will spend on one child from birth until the child reaches age 18?
In what culture do men rank good health more important in marriage than love?
What percentage of marriages in the U.S. remain intact?
Sociologist Robin Simon conducted a study in 2008. The study focused on American families and happiness with children. Which of the following best summarizes the findings of her study?
Parents experience lower levels of emotional well-being, less frequent positive emotions and more frequent negative emotions than their peers who did not have children.
According to Erikson, the period of post-adolescence into the early 30s that focuses on developing close relationships with others is called
intimacy-versus-isolation stage.
Research suggests that most gay and lesbian couples
seek loving, long-term, and meaningful relationships.
Bernice is a go-getter at her sales job because she likes the finer things of life like sports cars, jewelry, and expensive vacations. Bernice is most likely motivated by
extrinsic motivation.
According to psychologist Robert Sternberg, the three components of love include all of the following EXCEPT
companionate love where strong affection is apparent with people whose lives are deeply involved.
When polled, _____________ 18- to 29-year-olds rate a happy marriage as an important ingredient to a good life.
9 out of 10
Which of the following age groups of women giving birth have increased over earlier decades?
The median age of first time marriage in the U.S. is now _____ for men and _____ for women.
27; 25
Which of the following is NOT a reason to develop a friendship?
Which of the following groups is particularly susceptible to glaucoma?
African Americans
By what age have most people lost, on average, 10% of their maximum strength?
John has been gaining weight during middle adulthood. He feels fine and exercises, but still gains weight. John’s weight gain is attributed to
the amount of body fat that begins to grow with age.
What is a likely explanation for the results from cross-sectional studies showing that older people are less likely to score as well as younger subjects on traditional intelligence tests?
cohort effects
Rasheed is memorizing his math multiplication tables by using flash cards. He does this frequently enough that eventually he does not need the visual stimulation of the cards to remember his multiplication tables for a test. Rasheed is then taking advantage of
long-term memory.
Which of the following has become a stereotypical emblem of middle adulthood?
reading glasses
When a person carries out multiple activities simultaneously, this is called
polyphasic activities.
Alice is a 52-year-old typist working in the same law firm as 28-year-old Juliet. Both are considered excellent at their job, even though Alice is older and has some delay in her reaction time. What is it that permits Alice to perform her job the same as Juliet?
Alice has developed selective optimization whereby she can look further into the material to compensate for her typing time.
Which disorder tends to appear during middle adulthood?
Certain chronic illnesses begin to appear during middle adulthood. Which of the following would NOT be considered a chronic illness typically occurring during this time?
All of the following are considered reasons why marriages unravel in Western society EXCEPT
the benefits of marriage, such as economic, sexual, health, social support, and financial (such as tax advantages), no longer exist.
According to Levinson, the period of assessment that middle-aged people 40-45 go through may lead to a stage of uncertainty and indecision brought about by the realization that life is finite is called
midlife crisis.
In which of the following families is incest most likely to occur?
families of affluent socioeconomic levels
Approximately how many hours per week does the average middle-aged person spend socializing?
Which of the following of the “Big Five” major clusters of personality traits/characteristics pertains to the degree to which a person is easygoing and helpful?
In stark contrast to the majority of immigrants in the beginning of the 20th century, the majority of recent immigrants are
not Caucasian.
Critics who argue that immigrants lack the technical knowledge to contribute to the U.S. economy fail to see some fundamental aspects of immigrant success, including all of the following EXCEPT
most immigrants eventually marry into native-born American families.
According to Erikson, if a middle-aged person is focused on the triviality of his/her own activities and not on being involved with family and society, he/she is likely to experience all of the following EXCEPT
satisfaction and inner-peace.
Which of the following developmental psychologists believed that between the ages of 45 and 55 is important regarding “keeping the meaning” versus rigidity?
“Involved” grandparents usually are all of the following EXCEPT
they act as supporters and buddies to their grandchildren.
Whether an old person is ill or healthy, their health depends upon all of the following EXCEPT
cognitive capabilities.
Which of the following is an incurable disease that causes painful inflammation and swelling of one or more joints?
Which of the following is the definition of “oldest old”?
frail and in need of care
What percent of people 85 and older have Alzheimer’s disease?
Which of the theories promotes the idea based upon the survival of the species that a long life after the reproductive years is unnecessary?
genetic programming theories of aging
What is a category of by-product that is produced in the body and has been related to aging?
free radicals
According to the terminology that demographers use, people at age 75-84 are called
old old.
What is the name for the protein that forms the basic fibers of body tissue?
Which of the following people is most likely to show the symptoms of dementia?
85-year-old African American
Hannah is a strict parent, and does not recall that she herself got drunk at her senior prom, which does not “fit” with the way she currently views herself. This is an example of
the Pollyanna principle.
What is a source of financial vulnerability for people in late adulthood?
reliance on fixed income
According to children’s responses in a research study, what is the most important way that children should behave toward their elderly parents?
help them understand resources
Which of the following theories focuses on a gradual withdrawal from the world on physical, social, and psychological levels?
disengagement theory
The theory suggesting that people need to maintain their desired level of involvement in society in order to maximize their sense of well-being and self-esteem is called
continuity theory.
The physical or psychological mistreatment or neglect of elderly individuals is called
elder abuse.
Which of the following stages of retirement means that retirees come to grips with the realities of retirement and feel fulfilled with the new phase of life?
retirement routine
Thinking about “old age” and associating it with nursing homes is a
What percent of people over the age of 65 live with family members?
Which of the following stages of retirement means that retirees reconsider their options and become engaged in new, more fulfilling activities?
Learned helplessness is a belief that
one has no control over one’s environment.
In the second stage of grief, people tend to
fully experience grief and acknowledge the reality that the separation from the dead person is permanent.
An alternative to hospitalization in which dying people stay in their homes and receive treatment from their families and visiting medical staff is called
home care.
The acceleration of decline in cognitive functioning related to impending death is called
terminal decline.
Which of the following is NOT included in the survivor’s first stage of grief?
Some medical experts argue that a person who suffers irreversible brain damage, who is in a coma, and who will never experience anything approaching a human life
can be considered dead.
The care provided for the dying in institutions devoted to those who are terminally ill is called
hospice care.
When medical staff act to end a person’s life before death would normally occur, this is called
voluntary active euthanasia.
In the final stage of grief, people tend to
reach the accommodation stage where they pick up the pieces of their lives and construct new identities.
Psychiatrist Elisabeth Kubler-Ross developed a theory of death and dying that involves _____ steps?
According to Kubler-Ross, what is the fourth step people pass through as they move toward death?

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