Asthma is one of the general chronic inflammatory diseases that disturb the passenger car of air to and from the lungs as a consequence of a conceited air passage. The puffiness of the air passage causes a high degree of annoyance which increases the hazard of an allergic reaction by doing it more hard for the transition of air to and from the lung. The symptoms of asthma are ; wheezing – a hiss sound produce during external respiration, coughing, shortness of breath and thorax stiffness. All these symptoms are normally occur at dark and early forenoon.

1.1 Categorization of Asthma

Child-Onset Asthma

Adult-Onset Asthma

Occupational Asthma

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Nocturnal Asthma

Cough-Induced Asthma

Exercise-Induced Asthma

Steroid-Resistant Asthma

1.2 Causes of Asthma




Tobacco Smoke

Babies at hazard ( Babies born by Caesarean have a 20 % opportunities of holding asthma )

1.3 Treatment for Asthma

Long-run control medical specialties such as Inhaled corticoids.

Short-run control medical specialty: asthma can be treated by the usage of medical specialties such as a beta – 2 agonists for illustration ; pressurized metered dose inhalator, dry pulverization inhalator

1.4 Pressurized Metered Dose Inhaler

Inhaled preparation has been used for a really long clip ago. It has it origin associated with smoke of “ Datura ” preparation in India over four 1000 ( 4,000 ) old ages ago. The first pressurized metered dose inhalator was developed in 1955 by Riker Laboratories, now a subordinate of 3M Healthcare 17. Prior to this development, asthma medicine has been delivered by utilizing a squeezing bulb atomizer which is weak, undependable and excessively large to present an effectual drug to the lungs, this lead to the research and development of pressurized metered dose inhalator. In 1956, there was another development in metered dose inhalator ; this gave birth to two merchandises which are Medihaler-Ept incorporating adrenaline and the Medihaler-Iso containing Isuprel. The two merchandises are I? agonist whose map is to guarantee a short term alleviation from the asthma symptoms. However, asthma intervention has now been replaced by Salbutamol which is more effectual, efficient and has fewer side effects 18.

Pressurized metered dose inhalator ( pMDI ) can be described as an aerosol inhalator or blowfish which is used to present drug straight into the lungs. This drug or medical specialty is used for the intervention of asthma, chronic clogging pneumonic disease and other respiratory and lung diseases that are characterized by obstruction of air flow and shortness of breath. Pressurized metered dose inhalator is made up of curative active ingredients which are dissolved in a mixture of dissolver and propellent in a compact pressurized aerosol dispenser. The propellent and the co solvent signifier the basic composing which determines the internal force per unit area of an inspiration aerosol. They are different from other drug merchandise in footings of their preparation, container, stableness and other manufacture-in -process.

1.5 Components of pressurized metered dose inhalator

Pressurised metal case shot: this carries the solution or suspension of the medical specialty

3 Cans

Figure 13: shows the image of a coated case shot

Fictile Mouthpiece: this is the channel or medium where the medical specialties base on ballss through from the oral cavity of the patient to the lung 19

Metering Valve: this controls the measure of preparation to be dispensed 19

Spray Orifice

hypertext transfer protocol: // locale=en_WW & A ; lmd=1216415621000 & A ; assetId=1180602188733 & A ; assetType=MMM_Image & A ; blobAttribute=ImageFile Figure 13: shows the diagram of pressurized metered dose inhalator 20

Note that the design of the container of pressurized metered dose inhalator and it protective boxing constitute the drug these besides determines the efficaciousness and public presentation of the drug. Besides, the container will administrate a fixed proportion of the medicine to the patient without taint or exposure of the staying medicine or dosage.

1.6 Physical and Chemical Assessment Test for Pressurized Metered Dose Inhaler 20a

Moisture content trial

Weight of the content

Drug content ( check )

Impurities/degradation merchandises

Particle size distribution

Leak rate

Dose content uniformity

Pack unity

Valve bringing

Spray form and plume geometry

Priming/re-priming surveies

Extractable and leachable testing

Microbiology proving

In May, 2009 3M been a forefront leader in inhaled drug bringing and engineerings discovered two inventions for the bringing of pressurized metered dose inhalator. The purpose of these new finds was to better the pressurized metered dose inhalator systems in footings of it public presentation and capacity which are:

3MTM Plasma Coating Technology 20b

The plasma surfacing engineering has helped to supply an optically balanced system for pressurized metered dose inhalator. The plasma coating is made up of inorganic bed that prevents debasement coupled with fluorine bed to diminish the surface energy of the container closing system ( CCS ) . Besides the 3MTM plasma surfacing engineering has assisted in work outing the job of hyrofluoroalkane ( HFA ) one of the ingredients of the inhalator by doing a covering bed on the container which addresses the issue of debasement, deposition and corrosion. This surfacing stuff can be used for plastics and metals because some active pharmaceutical ingredients ( API ) are apt to debasement and corrosion when they come in contact with metal oxides.

1.7.2 Benefits of the plasma surfacing engineerings:

The plasma surfacing aid to diminish the susceptible interaction of the inspiration ingredient with the valves and case shots

This addresses the issue of debasement, deposition and corrosion by supplying an effectual barrier or opposition

It enhances the stableness of merchandise life

The plasma surfacing engineering can besides be used for surfacing complex constituent such as plastics and metals

1.8.1 3MTM Face Seal Valve 20c

The face seal valve has assist to acquire rid of the usage to prime an inhalator by retreating the dosage as the inhalator is ejected. The rule of the valve of a pressurized metered dose inhalator is based on the dosage keeping which is achieved by retreating the dosage when the valve root is released. This rule has lead to loss of dosage. The purpose of presenting the face seal valve is to better the public presentation and capacity of the valve by assisting the patient to have a full dosage of their medicine.

1.8.2 Benefit of the Face Seal ValveRetention Valve

Face seal valve helps to acquire rid of premier

It assist to present an accurate and precise dosage

Pressure can be compressed into the valve

Figure 14 shows the 3MTM Face Seal Valve

1.9 Dry Powder Inhaler

Dry pulverization inhalator can be described as another aerosol inhalator which is used for the intervention of respiratory diseases such as asthma, emphysema, bronchitis and chronic clogging pulmonary. The dry pulverization inhalator is another invention with a little difference from the pressurized metered dose inhalator. The medical specialty or drug in dry pulverization inhalator is transported in signifier of a dry pulverization straight into the lungs 21. This thought was brought in order to set the pressurized metered dose inhalator system to chlorofluorocarbon free system by utilizing hydrofluoroalkanes besides to transport a larger measure of therapeutics to the respiratory piece of land 22. The container and the packaging of dry pulverization inhalator will find the public presentation and the efficaciousness of the drug. One of the chief differences between pressurized metered dose inhalator and dry pulverization inhalator is that energy is required for scattering of the drug and this energy can be gotten from the patient ‘s inspiration, compressed gas and motor-driven impeller while pressurized metered dose inhalator uses the energy stored in by the liquefied gas propellent. Dry pulverization inhalator is more likely exposed to taint from wet or microbic activities both in usage and after usage unlike that of pressurized metered dose inhalator.

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Figure 14: shows a good labeled diagram of dry pulverization inhalator 22

Chapter 2

2.1 Introduction to Plastics

Plastic is a man-made or semi-synthetic organic formless solid. They are majorly polymers from either natural or man-made compounds with big molecular mass a. Plastic have improved every twenty-four hours necessitate such as in packaging of nutrient and drugs, family utensils, computing machines, phones, toys e. t. c. It usage and production are increased day-to-day which is predicted to be 300 million metric tons by 2010 b. Rubbers and plastics are frequently used as drug bringing device, primary and secondary wadding.

2.2 Properties of Plastic degree Celsius

1. It is various

2. It does n’t interrupt easy

3. It is a good dielectric of heat

4. It is comparatively inexpensive and strong

5. It is non heavy ( in footings of weight )

6. It can be easy shaped and colored

7. It can defy chemical and wet onslaught

There are legion different types of plastic, which can be categorised based on their starting monomer, length of polymer ironss and the type of modifying compounds added. Plastics can be classified based on the chemical procedure used for is synthesis, such as condensation and cross-linking. It can besides be classified based on it legion physical belongingss for illustration, denseness, tensile strength, passage temperature e. t. c. Below is the categorization of plastic:

Figure 7: shows the categorization of plastic vitamin D


LDPE: low denseness polythene

MDPE: medium denseness polythene

HDPE: high denseness polythene

2.3.1 Thermoplastics

A thermoplastic is one of the major categorizations of plastic. It is besides known as thermosoftening plastic. It is made from polymer rosins such as polythene and polystyrene which have the ability to model and recast repeatedly. It turns to a homogenized liquid when it is heated and hardens when cooled. The indispensable characteristic of thermoplastics is that it can be recycled e. Thermoplastic polymer ironss are related through a weak Van der Waals force, strong dipole – dipole interaction and H bonding degree Fahrenheit.

File: Tempdependence.jpg

Figure 8: shows the graph emphasis strain of one of the thermoplastic stuff

2.3.2 List of trial carried out on thermoplastic includes:

Tensile trials: this is a proficient trial method set by an international administration: ISO 527 -1/-2 and ASTMD 638 to find the tensile strength of a thermoplastic. However, this trial is quiet sensitive and it needs a sensible truth of A± 1micrometer for the dilatometer.

Flexural trials: this trial is carried out to find the rigidness of thermoplastic

Pendulum impact trial: are used to analyze the consequence of the character of stuffs at a high distortion velocities. Besides, it can be used to observe the energy needed to interrupt a stuff by taking measuring of it height to which the corresponding pendulum cock rises after the impact of the trial.

2.4.1 Thermosetting Plastic g

Thermoset is a polymeric stuff that usually has a web that is transverse linked. It is besides known as thermosetting rosin. Once the form is formed, it can non be reversed. They are wholly cured by a chemical reaction such as irradiation: negatron beam processing which may necessitate heat at 200 o C above and force per unit area. Thermoset polymers are non soluble ; they can non be recycled after organizing a form expect as filler. One of the advantages of thermosetting is that they keep their strength and form when heated. They are used to bring forth lasting constituents and form.

2.4.2 The Thermosetting procedure

The consequence of the bring arounding procedure alterations the rosin into plastic or gum elastic by a cross-linking procedure. The presence of energy and accelerator are required to organize a chemical reaction with the rosin at the active site which forms a stiff 3 – Calciferol construction. Besides, the chemical reaction or cross – linking of the fictile monomer will ensue into a higher molecular weight and runing point for the plastic. An illustration of thermosetting plastics includes ; epoxies, polyesters, silicones and phenoplasts. They chief application of thermosetting plastic is used in the industry of electrical appliance such as

2.5 Elastomer

Elastomer is a polymer which can be referred to as elastic of polymer or gum elastic. It is an formless polymer whose temperature exceeds the glass passage. At room temperature, gum elastics are soft and they can be deformable. The chief applications of elastomer are seals, adhesives and molded flexible par.

Identification Test for Plastics and Rubbers

Simple trial


Solubility trial

Burning characteristic

Odour acknowledgment



Halogen trial

Fluorinated Ethylene Polymer ( FEP ) .

Fluorinated Ethylene Polymer ( FEP ) surfacing reduces drug deposition to better chemical and physical stableness.

3M Product Number

Diameter Coated Canisters ( FEP )


0.872 ” ( 22.15mm ) brimful capacity 15ml

A64461 + O-ring

0.918 ” ( 23.32mm ) brimful capacity 16ml


0.872 ” ( 22.15mm ) brimful capacity 19ml

FTIR spectra and mechanical strength analysis of some selected rubbernext term derived functions

S. Gunasekaran, R.K. Natarajana and A. Kala

Chapter 3: History and Introduction of Infrared

3.0 History of Infrared Spectrum

Infrared ( IR ) is portion of an electromagnetic spectrum / radiation 1. The infrared spectra are collected from a unique and particular instrument called Infrared Spectrometer 2. It wavelength is between seeable radiation and micro-cook which extends beyond the ruddy visible radiation. The scope of IR wavelength is 700 nanometer to 300Aµm 1.

Figure 1 shows the electromagnetic spectrum or radiation 2

Infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum was foremost discovered in 1800 by a British uranologist named Sir William Herschel. The find of infrared by Sir William Herschel paved manner for fast development and research on the technique of infrared spectrometry 3. One of the development of infrared after it discovery in 1800 was the building of the first mid infrared spectrometer in 1835 4. The 2nd development of infrared was it applications in uranology such as analyzing the emanation spectrum of the Sun 5 and in physical 6, organic and atmospheric chemical science 7 within 90 ( 90 ) old ages after the find of infrared 8. Abney and Festing took the exposure of the soaking up spectra for 50 – two ( 52 ) compounds and correlated soaking up sets along with specific organic groups in the molecule 9. Infrared spectrometry is a good and dependable technique which is mostly used to obtain qualitative information on the molecular construction of samples in any of the physical province which are solid, liquid or gaseous province.

3.1 Advantages / Uses of Infrared Spectrometer 2

Infrared spectrometer is sensitive

Infrared spectra are fast and simple to run

Infrared is used to prove for the pureness of a compound

Infrared spectrometry is used for placing organic substances

Infrared is used to roll up related information on the construction of a compound

3.2 Properties of Infrared 11

Chemical image can be mapped

Materials are chiefly organic compounds

Strong soaking up of glass, H2O and CO2

Resolution is between 10 – 20 Aµm while the sidelong confocal is non possible

Frequency scope is between 4000 – 400 cm-1 ( for a typical research lab instrument )

Physical belongings or consequence: soaking up of molecule and changing of the dipole minute ( strong signals O-H, N-H etc. )

Sample readying: optical thickness ( transmittal manner ) or sample contact ( attenuated entire contemplation ) manner necessary, scattering for impetus etc.

3.3 Application of Infrared Spectroscopy 12: infrared spectrometry can be applied in the undermentioned countries:

Oil industry

Paper industry

Fabrics industry

Biological analysis

Finger print analysis

Chemical industrial analysis

Polymers analysis e.g. polymers present in plastics

Pharmaceutical analysis: used for analyzing orally inhaled and rhinal drug merchandise

Medical analysis e.g. passage between the assorted construction of DNA, characterizing phases of chest malignant neoplastic disease 8

Figure 3: shows the infrared grouping ( 13a )

3.4 Principles of Infrared Spectroscopy 12

Infrared spectrometry is an of import technique in the designation of polymers. It is based on the rule that molecules vibrate and these molecules can absorb energy in the infrared part.

An equation is derived which shows relationship between the vibrational frequence ( V ) for two atomic system holding two multitudes M1s and M2, the force invariable ( K ) and the decreased mass ( Aµ ) as:



is the vibrational frequence / Hz


is the force changeless / Nm-1

is the decreased mass / g or kg


is the decreased mass / g or kg


is the atomic mass 1 / g or kg


is the atomic mass 2 / g or kg


Infrared spectrum shows the relationship between the transmittal and wavelength ( cm-1 ) . Absorption can merely be attained when the molecule has a higher vibrational province at a peculiar frequence. Vibrational energy degrees are quantised and molecules ( normally in the land vibrational province ) are excited to a higher vibrational degree by soaking up of a quantum of IR radiation 11.

With a Fourier transform-infrared spectrometry, the infrared wavelength from a polychromatic beginning can be measured at the same clip. An interferogram is collected at the sensor ; this is moved to the infrared spectrum through a Fourier transmutation. Normally, the spectrum is collected within seconds.

Figure 4: shows the conventional diagram of Fourier transform-infrared spectrometer 12

3.5 Detector of a Fourier transform-infrared spectrometer includes ;

Thermal sensors for illustration thermocouple and bolometer

Pyroelectric sensors for illustration triglycine sulfate

Photoconducting sensor ; for illustration MCT ( quicksilver Cd telluride ) , fast response and really sensitive

4.0 Chapter 4: Instrumentality of Infrared Spectroscopy

4.1 Instrumentality of Infrared Spectroscopy by PerkinElmer 12a

The 1600 Fourier transform infrared spectrometer is one of the merchandises from PerkinElmer which is really dependable, simple to utilize and it cheap. It is a individual beam scanning Michelson interferometer.

Perkin Elmer PE 1600 FTIR

Figure 5: shows the image of a PerkinElmer 1600 Fourier tranform infrared spectrometer

Table 1: shows the map of each constituent in the 1600 Fourier transform infrared:


LiTaO3 or DTGS

Abscissa truth:

0.01 cm-1 to 370 cm-1

Signal to resound ratio:

this is preferred to 0.1 % transmission extremum to top out with 4cm-1 opposition and 1min acquisition


the declaration of PE 1600 FTIR is between 2 cm-1 to 64 cm-1

Scan clip:

the scan period for PE 1600 FTIR is 4 seconds

End products:

RS-232C ( 2 ) , Centronics

4.2 Instrumentality of Infrared Spectroscopy by Fisher Thermo Scientific 12b

The Nicolet iS10 Fourier transform infrared spectrometer is one of the merchandises of thermo scientific. Part of the benefit of this to the full graded spectrometer is it preciseness and truth in the country of confirmation and designation of samples. It is really fast to run and it breaks down research lab informations aggregation to the lowest signifier.

4.2.1 Description of Nicolet iS10Fourier transforms infrared spectrometerImageA 3

It is simple and inexpensive to utilize

It optical system which consists of the certain and dried-out unit. It map is to forestall the instrument from humidness and solvent vapor

It applicable for analytical services and forensic responsibilities

Figure 6: shows the image of a Nicolet iS10Fourier transform infrared spectrometer

4.3 Library digest of infrared by Nicodom 12c

Nicodom ltd produces a alone library digest of about 800 infrared spectra for polymers and other related compounds. The purpose of bring forthing the library digest of the infrared was for easy designation of polymers and other related compound by utilizing Nicolet Fourier transform – near infrared spectrometer and OMNIC hunt package. The Nicodom infrared spectra is between the scope of 4.20 – 11.00 cm-1 for polymers, monomers, plasticisers, lubricators, antidegradants ( antioxidants, light stabilizers, polyvinylchloride stabilizers ) , firing retarders, antistatic agents, blowing agents, colourising agents, pigments, optical lightening ‘s, fillers and other compounds in this class. The spectra are printed in logarithmic graduated table ( Log 1/R or optical density ) . The spectra were acquired by Thermo Nicolet FTNIR spectrometers, the sample in a powdery signifier were prepared in a glass phials in coefficient of reflection manner ; clear liquids were collected in transmission with a transflectance mirror.

2.3.1 Detailss of the Library digest of infrared by Nicodom

Name: it is either the literature name or the general name given to the sample by the polymer chemist that comes up in this subdivision

Type of stuff: this subdivision gives inside informations of category of polymer the sample falls into such as copolymer, polymer ally, terpolymer, block polymer, softening agent etc.

Abbreviation: this subdivision handles the allotment of the proper abbreviation for each polymer. For illustration ; the abbreviation of polyvinylchloride is given as PVC

Commercial rubric: this subdivision has stored information on the commercial non chemical name of each sample ; e. g. Nylon, Buna etc.

Remark: this subdivision gives farther inside informations about the sample such as the physical province of the sample, denseness, molecular weight, viscousness etc.

Figure 7: shows the trying methods in Fourier transform infrared 13

4.4 Sample Preparation for Infrared Spectroscopy

Samples for infrared spectrometry are prepared based on the available information of the sample in footings of it physical and chemical stableness. Normally, samples are prepared by chew overing the sample pulverization in liquid paraffin ( Nujol ) or by crunching the sample with K bromide ( KBr ) pulverization. Some base incorporating hydrochloride may substitute the halogen ( e.g. Cl ) with K bromide pulverization, utilizing the mulling technique for the sample readying will be better.

In other instances, normally chew overing agents have bands in there spectrum which may dissemble the sets in the sample spectrum. Potassium bromide on the other manus does n’t hold sets in their ain spectrum which will non dissemble the sample ‘s spectrum, through these ; the halide disc loses less information. Samples in the halide pulverization should be homogeneous with a atom size that will non disperse the spectrum.

The capacity of the infrared soaking up spectrum is determined by the figure of molecules in the beam whereas ; the capacity of the K bromide is determined by the measure and homogeneousness of the sample in the K bromide pulverization. After the sample has been prepared in the appropriate disc, the infrared visible radiation base on ballss through the sample. The sample analyzed is identified by comparing it infrared spectrum with spectra from a similar sample in a library 14.

4.5 Sampling Preparation Technique for Infrared Spectroscopy

4.5.1 PerkinElmer ‘s Attenuated Total Reflectance ( ATR ) :

This is an infrared sampling technique that produces a qualitative and quantitative informations coupled with its ability to affect in other infrared sampling technique. It is used for surface analysis of soft samples and liquids e.g. plastic and rubber constituent. It rule is based on the entire contemplation of the infrared radiation that happens within the high refractile index crystal. Sampling deepness of ATR is given as amplitude of the evanescent moving ridge decreases exponentially with deepness ( ten ) into the sample which is 13:

Where displaced person is the trying deepness which is defined by the Harrick Equation

Where Harrick Equation province:



Is the refractile index of sample


Is the refractile index of crystal

cubic decimeter

Is the wavelength


Is the angle of incidence

Figure 8: shows the spectra taken from a PerkinElmer ‘s Fourier transform infrared package called “ prevue manner ” 14a

4.5.2 Infrared microscope:

This can be used to analyze little sample, both transmittal and contemplation technique. It is used to observe defects in compounds and crystals, these defects are rendered seeable by utilizing infrared microscope 15. Features of Infrared Microscope

It is non expensive

It averagely sensitive

It has medium declaration of ca. 1 Aµm

It is non to the full quantitative ( strain Fieldss )

It is used to measure thermic matching within constituent

It can be used for analysis of samples that have medium defect

Figure 9: shows the image of infrared thermic imaging microscope 15a

Infrared can chiefly be divided into two parts based on their diffraction – limited microscopy, they are follows 15b:

Optical visual image and infrared spectroscopic informations aggregation

Focal plane array sensing for infrared chemical imagination

Infrared microscopic images needs a Perkin Elmer limelight system which contains a critical additive array ( 16 x 1 detector elements ) mercury – Cd – telluride ( MCT ) sensor.

4.5.3 Use of K bromide ( KBr ) :

This technique is used for sample that can be crushed or land. The sample one time land is compressed in a disc for analysis. ( Details above )

Figure 10: shows the sample readying with K bromide 16

4.5.4 Mirrorlike Reflectance Spectroscopy:

This is a non destructive sample readying method for surface measuring e.g. analysis of thin beds on metal such as crystal faces and massive polymers. This happens when the reflected angle of infrared radiation is the same as the angle of incidence. Kramers-Kronig transform is used to obtain spectra from the optical density when the sample is homogenous and optically thick. This sample readying technique is used on Hyperion microscope and Nexus spectrometer 17a.

Figure 11 shows the diagram of a mirrorlike coefficient of reflection spectrometry

4.5.5 Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy:

It involves the usage of many light sample interaction. The rule behind diffuse coefficient of reflection is that there is a contemplation of energy from the incident beam which penetrates on one or more atoms. It is specially used for analysis of pulverization, unsmooth surface and solid that is intractable. Sample should be land to a atom size 2 of to 5 micrometers before the analyses starts, this aid to diminish the measure of specularly reflected visible radiation. 17b.


Figure 12: shows the light sample interactions of diffuse coefficient of reflection spectrometry


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