Announced as the alleged “ New Seven Wonders of the World ” Machu Picchu has made it stand as extremely regarded cultural site ( Davidar 2008 ) . It attracts 858,000 visitants and 141,000 Inca Trail tramps in 2008 ensuing Machu Picchu as the most visited site in South America ( Maxwell 2009, 1 ) . This well-known archeological site has become the chief portion of Peru touristry run and besides one of the chief Peru ‘s gross.
As portion of the globalisation, international travelling and cultural find besides have impacted on Peru. Baud used the term cultural touristry to explicate the touristry that grows because of heritage and imposts signifier of attractive force ( Baud, Ypeij, and Ypeij 2009, 1 ) . UNESCO World Heritage Site join forcesing with World Bank shows a statistic that Machu Picchu bit by bit attracts more visitants to Peru and impact to better Peru ‘s gross. The sum of tourer has increased imposingly about double merely in four old ages. It besides has made the Peru more to tourism economic system orientation.
Merely in case, the shutting of Machu Picchu in the late of January 2010 due to landslides has made Peru lost about a million touristry dollars every twenty-four hours ( Blog 2010 ) . This sum of money of class gave the Peruvian authorities a sense of urgency to do the touristry back online. Machu Picchu has become vastly moneymaking Peru ‘s hard currency cow as Machu Picchu is the beginning of 90 % of Peru ‘s touristry gross ( Weaver 2010 ) . It has become the fact for us that Machu Picchu is non merely the iconic archeological site of Peru but besides produced million dollars of money for the state ‘s gross.
As Vich suggested in Journal of Latin American Cultural Studies, the geopolitical state of affairs in Peru tends to pretermit the political and historical referents that originally building the cultural patrimonies. It becomes important for us to retrieve that Machu Picchu is seen more as commercial and political facet instead than the cultural itself. Peru has become a neoliberal economic development docket with touristry as a tool for bring forthing new markets, foreign currency, and employment ( Baud, Ypeij, and Ypeij 2009, 2 ) .
The shutting of Machu Picchu in the late January 2010 has given the authorities daze therapy and besides a lesson that dependences of touristry on Machu Picchu need to be re-evaluated.
International Society Awareness
The aura of Machu Picchu has attracted several international adventurers and archeologist to happen out about Machu Picchu, including Hiram Bingham. Hiram Bingham wrote that Machu Picchu has no topographic point in the universe to compare with ( Bingham 2000, 159 ) . Hiram Bingham showed a immense enthusiasm towards the brilliant Machu Picchu in his book. A Machu Picchu Program which is funded by Finland has given $ 6 million dollars swap for ecological preservation ( Maxwell 2009, 20 ) . This reflects that the beauty and ‘mystical ‘ Machu Picchu has attracted planetary touristry and find involvement. It besides looks like the cost of conserving Machu Picchu can non bear on Peru ‘s income and need international fund.
An temblor in 1950s has harm most of the heritage edifices of Cuszo, which cause a noteworthy attending to regional and international society. The United Nations and U.S. participated with Peruvian authorities to retrace the metropolis of Cuszo ( Baud, Ypeij, and Ypeij 2009, 40 ) . Machu Picchu besides one time suffered serious harm at the sundial because of cinematography of a beer commercial ( Shullenberger 2008, 30 ) . UNESCO blamed the Peruvian authorities non sensitive to the historical site and demanded speedy recovery on the sundial. This has reflected how the regional and international community will respond towards a extremely regarded cultural site.
Although Peru is an independent democratic state right now, they have a long political history. A period between 1970s until 1980s the autocratic government, force, and human rights misdemeanors occurred in Latin America, including Peru ( Baud, Ypeij, and Ypeij 2009, 8 ) .
Sendero Luminoso ( besides known as Communist Party of Peru- Shining Path ) which is considered as a rebellion by the Peruvian authorities has attacked autochthonal people though their aimed is the Peru citizens in general. It clears that in the terminal the autochthonal people will go the victim and have possible menace to force. This has attracted international community in demand of autochthonal rights. A menace which is done to the local community including the autochthonal people, civilization, and besides heritage site will make a sense of urgency from international community.
As cultural touristry is an of import sector for the economic sector, it besides provokes political and economic tenseness Baud, Ypeij, and Ypeij 2009, 4 ) . Furthermore, as the icon of Peru national individuality Machu Picchu besides associated with the local geopolitics. Former President Alejandro Toledo had his 2nd startup at Machu Picchu in 2001 to confirm his autochthonal roots and promote international touristry as his precedence for economic docket ( Shullenberger 2008, 330 ) . In a picture, Toledo invited Peter Greenberg to near the sundial and snog it to typifying Machu Picchu as the Mecca of international touristry. In the Journal of Latin American Cultural Studies, Shullenberger proposed that Machu Picchu is a cardinal in political rapprochement and integrating framing phases into the promotional international touristry.
As stated Cultural Tourism in Latin America: the Politicss of Space and Imagery, Baud, Ypeij, and Ypeij illustrated that cultural touristry is associated to multiple Fieldss every bit different as urban Reconstruction, societal exclusion, support possibilities, political reshuffle, concern development, migration, etc. These all may ensue to political battle and state instability.
Baud besides mentioned that tourer activities do non give equal benefit to the local people as the most profit people will be the local elite and agents, while the local people is marginalized by the touristry industry. All of this will destroy the societal order and leads to societal tenseness.
If we are conceive ofing that Machu Picchu is demolished, it will hold impressive affect to the local people income where the chief gross is touristry. Thousand of the people will be idle and creates economic instability. Economic instability will take to political tenseness and pandemonium can be happened. For illustration, the economic depression 1998 has made the current president of Indonesia which is Soeharto ousted as the effects. The pandemonium which is because of national broad economic depression leaded to racism ( societal tenseness did go on ) by immoral people. Relates back to Machu Picchu, it become clears that trusting on cultural touristry as the chief gross is slippery and volatile. This is of import to bear in head.
World Heritage and Tourism: Continuing our Heritage Resources. n.d. hypertext transfer protocol: //siteresources.worldbank.org/INTCHD/Resources/430063-1199808332150/Pedersen.pdf ( accessed October 24 2010 ) .
Davidar, D. 2008. The New 7 Wonders of the World. Chennai: New Horizon Media.
Blog, I. 2010. Machu Picchu Hopes to Reopen Soon. hypertext transfer protocol: //blogs.nationalgeographic.com/blogs/intelligenttravel/2010/03/destination-watch-machu-picchu.html ( accessed October 24 2010 ) .
Weaver, M. 2010. Machu Picchu Reopens. hypertext transfer protocol: //blogs.nationalgeographic.com/blogs/intelligenttravel/2010/04/machu-picchu-reopens.html ( accessed October 24 2010 ) .
Maxwell, K. 2009. Introduction. MakingA MachuA Picchu: Embedding History and Embodying Nature in the Peruvian Andes ( 1 ) .
Baud, M. , A. Ypeij, and J. L. Ypeij. 2009. Cultural Tourism in Latin America: The Politicss of Space and Imagery. Leiden: Koninklijke Brill NV
Bingham, H. 2000. Lost City of the Incas: The Story ofA MachuA PicchuA and Its Builders. Greenwich: Triune Books.
Shullenberger, G. 2008. That vague object of desire: Machu Picchu as myth and trade good. Journal of Latin American Cultural Studies 17 ( 3 ) : 317-333.
Vich, Victor. 2007. Magical, Mystical: ‘The Royal Tour ‘ of Alejandro Toledo. Journal of Latin American Cultural Studies 16 ( 1 ) : 1-10.