In footings of the instance, it suggests that the environment of air hose companies is non really stable, particularly the increasing monetary value of fuel which is the cardinal driver of alteration. From Ryanair net income statement ( Exhibit 1a ) it shows the fuel and oil cost has increased by ˆ200 million from 2005 to 2006. The addition in fuel costs is 74 per centum. The impact to the air hoses companies is obvious and the budget air hoses may confront the problem more so than normal air hoses. Furthermore, air hose companies besides have to concentrate on some other issues. For illustration, harmonizing to the instance, they are confronting the hazards from terrorist onslaughts which are hard to foretell.

It is non hard to happen the changeableness, nevertheless it is complex to the air hose environment. Some factors, such as legal action and client demand, besides have influence on them. Some of these such as the monetary value of fuel and oil can be predicted, while some of them can non.

Phase 2 – Audited account environmental influences

The Pestel Analysis is employed to place macro-environment influences of the air hose industry.

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Political: Government wants to beef up the economic system and, accordingly, will back up local air hoses by puting regulations, such as discriminatory rights. Every authorities nevertheless, will likely make so. Therefore there ‘s no obvious advantage between competitions. The political issues have a broad scope of consequence, so they are non the cardinal points that budget air hoses are confronting.

Economic: This is identified as the most important factor to air hose companies, particularly to budget air hoses. The influences refer to the macro-economic factors such as the national growing rates and the exchange rates. As budget air hoses, they will pay more attending to the operation costs such as fuel cost. It became a large issue for budget air hoses because of the increasing cost of fuel. That may cut down the advantages and the companies will be less competitory than earlier. On the other manus, the recession will take more people to take budget air hoses.

Social: With the development of Asiatic states in peculiar China, there are more and more people make up one’s minding to analyze or go in Europe. In recent old ages, the life style of local people has besides changed. They tend to go abroad to bask their lives. Most of these people are non affluent such as pupil. The budget air hoses hence, will be their best pick to cut down the travel costs.

Technological: The invention of engineering helps the air hose companies cut down costs and carry out undertakings more efficaciously. The new type of aircraft can assist to cut down the combustion of fuel ; and new engineering can besides do the security cheque more efficient and accurate.

Environmental: European states pay more attending on environmental issues, particularly greenhouse gases from C emanations. Furthermore in footings of the instance, air hose companies have to pay the environmental revenue enhancements for the parts they make to planetary heating. In peculiar, it is bad intelligence for budget air hoses. Costss will increase and the companies want to keep good trade name image in the consumer ‘s perceptual experience. Furthermore, noise pollution and energy ingestion can non be ignored under such conditions.

Legal: Some legal actions such as discriminatory airdrome rights are directed against the specific air hoses. As budget air hoses, which have higher competitory power, they should pay more attending to the legal forces to forestall loss. On the contrary, they can besides take the enterprise over illegal assistance to challengers.

Phase 3 – Determine industry specific factors ( this phase will be analysed in Question 2 )

Phase 4 – Identify competitory place ( this phase will be analysed in Question 3 )

Phase 5 – Identify cardinal chances and menaces

There are many possible chances for the air hose companies. For case, the recession may take to more people taking the budget air hose instead than the expensive 1s ; new engineering which helps to cut down the use of fuel ; authorities set the revenue enhancement at a lower per centum.

On the other manus, the increasing cost of fuel may be the most important issue most budget air hoses face. What ‘s more, the compensation to riders, terrorist act and security, and clients ‘ satisfactions will all have possible negative impacts on the air hose. In order to accomplish lower costs, budget air hoses will hold to cut down costs from many sections and operations. That ‘s why tonss of clients are non satisfied with the budget air hoses except for the monetary value.

Question 2

Fix a Porter Five Forces analysis of the budget air hose industry. Express Ryanair ‘s position of these forces.

The menace of entry

There are high barriers to come in the budget air hose industry. I ) High investing demands. Economies of graduated table are of import in the air hose industry. It is hard for new entrants to fit others bing rivals. In add-on to this, the operational experiences can non be acquired in such short infinite of clip. two ) Expected revenge. Retaliation will take topographic point when new entrants appear for budget air hoses, it will likely be in the signifier of a monetary value war due to costs of entry being really high for them. three ) Legislation or Government action. Government wo n’t allow new entrants enter the market if the industry is saturated.

With respects to Ryanair in the budget air hose industry, there will non be big impacts to bing budget air hoses if new entrants appeared. Budget airlines ever concentrate on the costs and monetary value, so does Ryanair. Harmonizing to the instance, Ryanair was the first budget air hose in Europe and now its ticket monetary values are much lower than the other challengers ‘ . Therefore it will be impossible for new entrants to put a low monetary value to win the market.

The menace of replacements

Before discoursing the menaces, some comparative informations is showed below.

Round Trip by Ryanair Flight:

London Stansted – Milan

Traveling Out

Regular Menu


8.99 GBP

Tue, 2 Dec 08

Flight FR 4184

8:15 Depart

11:15 Arrive

Coming Back

Regular Menu


12.99 GBP

Sun, 8 Dec 08

Flight FR 4185

6:45 Depart

7:50 Arrive

( Beginning: )

One manner by Rail Europe:

London ( ST Pancras ) – Milan

Standard Class


227 GBP

Tue, 2 Dec 08

8:40 Depart

21:20 Arrive

( Beginning: )

Most of the travelers will prefer the short journey, in add-on to the cheaper manner to go. From the tabular arraies it is obvious that taking a plane from Ryanair is much cheaper than taking the train in a similar state of affairs. Although some air hoses may be expensive, budget air hoses such as Ryanair will normally be the best pick. The impact of replacements, hence, has less impact on the budget air hoses.

The power of purchasers

Buyers of air hoses tickets can sometimes be the travel bureau. In other instances, Ryanair caters to ultimate consumers. Majority of the purchasers are non concentrated purchasers and they come from all over the states. Persons can choose the budget air hoses harmonizing to their penchant, because the shift costs are low and the distinction of such service is weak. It is highly expensive for people to have an aircraft. When there is a pick of budget air hoses to utilize, with low monetary values. So there is a low purchaser competition menace. Like Ryanair, with less concentrated purchasers and purchasers ‘ competition menace, the power of purchasers is low.

The power of providers

The high power of providers may be one of the most important menaces among the budget air hose industry. The increasing monetary value of fuel, which leads to a high cost for air hoses, is a basic issue they are confronting. As we know, fuel industry is now concentrated in the custodies of few manufacturers. Therefore, in this state of affairs it is hard to cut the monetary value for this indispensable stuff. In add-on to this, it is useless to alter fuel providers when the planetary monetary value is turning. Furthermore there are no practical replacements. Ryanair is confronting this job with other budget air hoses.

Furthermore Ryanair sells all the ticket straight through the web site. Therefore there is no intermediary.

Competitive competition

Rivalry is influenced by these four competitory forces and each of them may hold different degrees of impact on the competitory competition.

In this market, every air hose provides the same services which are ill differentiated. Low distinction and shift costs in this industry, hence, do the monetary value competition. Ryanair, which has the first mover advantages, still holds the dominant place. Although many of the rivals were losing money or even have been taken over, Ryanair remains steady in incremental growing.

For industry growing rate, this industry is in the adulthood state of affairs of life rhythm, which means the growing is low. Price war is hence playing a important function throughout the competition.

Question 3

Evaluate Ryanair ‘s peculiar strengths and failings and explain, with grounds, what Ryanair must make to retain a sustainable competitory advantage.

As the first-mover of budget air hose industry, Ryanair still holds the dominant lowest-cost place. This is besides the one of the strengths it has. What ‘s more, Ryanair was announced being the most profitable air hose in the universe harmonizing to the instance. The gross is still increasing, despite the monetary value of fuel did non halt turning in recent old ages. The trade name image of Ryanair is besides one of its strengths. Customers are attracted by the lower monetary value. Its traffic is the highest among the rivals ( see Exhibit 2 ) and it is still increasing due to the expansion of the company.

On the other manus, there are still some failings of this budget air hose leader. In footings of the instance, Ryanair win the market largely depends on the costs. However, the costs of its major natural stuffs are increasing quickly these old ages. This will be a serious issue. Further, minimize costs mostly will do the deficiency of service and preparation quality and so on. The Skytrax star evaluation ( See Exhibit 2 ) indicates Ryanair is below the mean degree. Besides, rivals contribute large influence to Ryanair. For illustration, Easyjet which is a immature upstart of the European budget air hose industry grows rapidly with a big figure of market portions.

It is obvious Ryanair makes success base on its monetary value advantage, and how to prolong this advantage go really important issue in recent state of affairs.

Keep first mover advantages. Long history with experiences, well-known trade name image and economic system of graduated table, these are the alone resources of first mover advantages. It is hard for rivals to acquire these resources at a similar degree. Therefore, in order to forestall the rivals from copying the same scheme as cost decrease, Ryanair must do good usage of these alone resources and seek to rule the market.

Technology. Purchase and present the latest technological support. Although the fixed costs will be high, they can assist the air hose carry out undertakings more expeditiously and efficaciously such a new security cheque machine. Furthermore it can besides assist to cut down the variable costs. For illustration, harmonizing to the instance, new type aircraft produced 50 per centum less emanations, 45 per centum less fuel burn and 45 per centum lower noise emanations per place. They help Ryanair cut down the fuel cost with a lower pollution to environment.

Alone cost construction. A cost construction which aims to minimise the costs must be set up. In peculiar to fuel cost, the fluctuations are capable to unpredictable and volatile universe events harmonizing to the instance. It is of import for Ryanair hedge the hazards before the monetary value goes up all of a sudden. On the other manus, taking the secondary and regional airdrome finishs is a good manner of the construction. Furthermore, the cyberspace is used to cut down distribution costs.

Service quality / Customers ‘ satisfaction. Customers will usually tie in low monetary value with low service benefits. Ryanair was voted the universe ‘s least favorite air hose due to its bad service such as unfriendly staff and hapless legroom. However it still won a great figure of client base on the monetary value. Thus if some rivals cut down the ticket monetary value to a low degree, Ryanair will acquire into a large problem due to the similar monetary values but lower service quality. Therefore it must non merely concentrate on the monetary value but besides the service. In order to derive competitory power, for illustration, trade name trueness can be one of the facets.

Government / legal actions. Ryanair should take attention of the authorities and legal actions and moreover, can take the enterprise over illegal assistance to challengers. These may forestall the unneeded loss.

In drumhead, Ryanair, as the cost leader in budget air hose industry should non merely concentrate on the costs but besides tonss of other issues. Although it is developing quickly and successfully, the hereafter is unknown. The unsure environment is altering all the clip, therefore Ryanair should ever follow it and do the long-run programs in order to retain a sustainable competitory advantage. Grasp the chances, and it will has a bright hereafter.



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