The purpose of this essay is to research and discourse the maps of kidneys and the chief causes of chronic kidney disease. The mammalian kidneys are brace of variety meats located at the dorsum of the abdominal pit and are supplied with blood from the nephritic arteria ( Brenner and Rector, 1981 ) Functions of the kidney that will be discussed in this essay are the remotion of waste merchandises and extra fluids from the organic structure through the piss, osmoregulation, blood force per unit area ordinance and endocrine secernment. ( National Kidney Foundation, 2010 )

Chronic kidney disease ( CKD ) defined by the ( National Kidney Foundation, 2010 ) as kidney harm or reduced degree of kidney map for a lower limit of 3 months, is a world-wide wellness job with a lifting happening. The chief causes of chronic kidney disease that will be discussed are diabetes, high blood force per unit area, glomerulonephritis and polycystic kidney disease.

The map of kidneys

( Patient UK, 2010 )

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Gross Features

The two kidneys weighing about 150g each are critical variety meats that have several nephritic maps, and without these maps decease will normally happen within yearss. Urine is produced in the kidneys, passed down from the kidneys through the ureters to the vesica and it finally leaves the vesica through the urethra. Internally the kidney consists of an outer cerebral mantle and an interior myelin and is composed of uriniferous tubules. These uriniferous tubules consists of the glomeruli, Bowman ‘s capsule and convoluted tubules that lie in the cerebral mantle, cringle of henl & A ; eacute ; , roll uping canals and blood vass lie in the myelin. ( Axford and O’Callaghan, 2004 )

Removal of nitrogen-bearing waste from the blood

We all depend on the procedure of micturition for the remotion of certain waste merchandises in the organic structure. The control of secernment of salt, H2O, aminic acids and glucose in the piss is of import for keeping the homeostasis of the organic structure. The kidneys uriniferous tubules form piss by three regulated procedures: ultrafiltration, re-absorption, and secernment. ( Roberts and Ingram, 2001 )

Ultrafiltration is the separation of big molecules from little that occurs in glomerulus. The blood force per unit area is high on the walls of glomerulus due to wider sensory nerve and narrower motor nerve arteriola that forces H2O and solutes from the glomerulus into Bowman ‘s capsule. These substances must go through across walls of the capillaries, cellar membrane and cells of Bowman ‘s capsule. The fluid come ining the Bowman ‘s capsule is called glomerular filtrate. ( Roberts and Ingram, 2001 )

A survey by Axford and O’Callaghan ( 2004 ) has shown that resorption takes topographic point in the proximal convoluted tubules and the substances reabsorbed are H2O, glucose and other foods, and Na ( Na+ ) and other ions. Glucose is reabsorbed from the proximal convoluted tubule by active conveyance and besides moves along with Na+ ions by the glucose-sodium cotransport mechanism. Chlorides and other negatively charged ions are reabsorbed into the blood watercourse following an electrochemical gradient. Amino acids are besides reabsorbed 100 % by active conveyance. Water is reabsorbed by osmosis and carbamide is reabsorbed by diffusion. ( Brenner and Rector, 1981 )

Secretion is the procedure where substances move out of the blood and into the distal convoluted tubule and roll uping canal from the capillaries around these tubules. The cringle of Henl & A ; eacute ; is a rip mechanism and is responsible for bring forthing concentrated piss. In the distil convoluted tubule Na+ are reabsorbed, but in much smaller sums than the proximal convoluted tubule. Cells in the distil convoluted tubule secrete substances such as K+ , H+ and ammonia into the lms of the tubule. NH3 combines with H+ to organize NH4+ where they are finally eliminated in the piss. ( Brenner and Rector, 1981 )


Osmoreceptors are found in the hypothalamus of the encephalon and they monitor the H2O potency of blood. If H2O potency of the blood is higher that normal, less ADH is released from the posterior pituitary secretory organ, which makes the roll uping canal, and distal convoluted tubule to go less permeable to H2O hence less H2O is reabsorbed from the filtrate and as a consequence the piss is more dilute and more in volume. The H2O potency of blood is kept changeless by negative feedback. ( Axford and O’Callaghan, 2004 )

Blood force per unit area ordinance

Kidneys produce a endocrine called renin, which is synthesized and stored in the granules of the juxtaglomerular cells and another endocrine called angiotonin. These endocrines modulate how much Na and fluid the organic structure keeps, and how good the blood vass that normally involve arterias can spread out and contract, which helps command blood force per unit area. Checking the sum of H2O in the organic structure is a manner to modulate, if there is unstable overflow so blood force per unit area will increase, if the organic structure is desiccating so blood force per unit area will diminish. Blood force per unit area is besides regulated by the breadth of the arterias, the narrower the arterias, the higher the blood force per unit area, this is where renin helps the control of narrowing of the arterias so if the kidneys are neglecting so they frequently make excessively much renin, which raises blood force per unit area. ( Suzuki and Saruta, 2004 )

Hormone secernment

Secretion of certain endocrines from the kidney aid in the production of ruddy blood cells and the growing and care of castanetss. A endocrine known as erythropoietin stimulates the production of ruddy blood cells in the bone marrow, which releases ruddy blood cells into the blood stream. Kidneys besides regulate degrees of Ca by utilizing an activated signifier of vitamin D that promotes enteric soaking up of Ca and the nephritic resorption of phosphate. ( Brenner and Rector, 1981 )

Chronic kidney disease

What is chronic kidney disease?

Harmonizing to Bomback and Bakris ( 1952 ) Chronic kidney disease is a slow progressive diminution in the kidneys ‘ ability to filtrate metabolic waste from the blood, which happens when there is a lasting loss of kidney map that bit by bit happens, normally months to old ages. In the tabular array below you can see that chronic kidney disease is divided into 5 phases each phase increasing with badness.

( JNC 7, 2003 )


Diabetess is a disease where your organic structure does non do adequate insulin, which is a endocrine that regulates the sum of sugar in your blood, or can non utilize normal sums of insulin decently. This consequences in a high blood sugar degree, which can do jobs in many parts of your organic structure particularly the kidney. There are two types of diabetes, type 1 and type 2 that cause a status called diabetic kidney disease, which is the taking cause of kidney disease. ( Bomback and Bakris, 1952 )

High blood force per unit area

High blood force per unit area, besides known as high blood pressure can damage the kidneys over clip but besides cause bosom onslaughts and shots. Blood force per unit area depends on how forcefully the bosom pumps blood around the organic structure and how narrow or loosen up your arterias are. Hypertension occurs when blood is forced against the arteria walls at an increased adequate force per unit area to do harm, this in return puts strain on the arterias and on the bosom itself doing an arteria to rupture. When high blood force per unit area is controlled, the hazard of complications such as chronic kidney disease is decreased. ( National Kidney Foundation, 2010 )


Glomerulonephritis is a status that causes the redness of the kidneys glomeruli, which in return causes the kidneys to go conceited. When the kidneys become inflamed they are unable to work decently and as a consequence salt and extra fluid can construct up taking to high blood pressure and perchance kidney failure. There are two types of Glomerulonephritis, ague which develops all of a sudden and frequently follows an infection and chronic which may develop mutely without symptoms over several old ages. ( NHS, 2010 )

Polycystic kidney disease

Polycystic kidney disease is familial or familial disease that causes cysts or fluid filled pouches to develop on the kidneys. The symptoms which can include high blood force per unit area, abdominal hurting and blood in the urine tend non to get down until the ages of 30 – 60, which is considered maturity. Polycystic kidney disease is caused through familial mutant that occurs when there is a alteration in construction or sum of DNA. ( NHS, 2010 )


The kidneys perform several of import undertakings including the remotion of toxins and mineral drosss from the blood, commanding organic structure fluids, aid to command your organic structure ‘s production of ruddy blood cells and modulate blood force per unit area. The kidney is able to make this as it is made up of 1000000s of uriniferous tubules and these uriniferous tubules contain bantam blood vass called glomerulus that filter and clean the blood as it flows through the kidney.

The most frequent causes of kidney disease are diabetes and high blood force per unit area but other common kidney diseases are glomerulonephritis, which causes redness and harm to the glomerulus, and polycystic kidney disease that is inherited and causes big cysts to organize in the kidney.

There are things you can make to cut down the hazard of acquiring kidney. For people with diabetes, it is critical to maintain good control of blood sugar degrees. Staying physically tantrum is besides an of import factor for kidney maps as exercising can assist kidney disease by bettering musculus map, take downing blood force per unit area, take downing cholesterin and maintaining a healthy organic structure weight.


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