Management Strategies.

            Management strategies are important aspects to any organization.  Management is a word used in organizations and businesses to refer to the process of mobilizing human labor by putting it together with the aim of accomplishing results and goals that are desired.  Management in prose can also be defined as the process of putting or coordinating people by bringing them together with the aim of pursuing certain objectives or targets[1].  One should look at management as being a key aspect to a business’s prosperity and achievement.  It should also be looked at in the sense that it is the organization of various resources including human labor so as to take care of various needs in a business environment.  Management strategies are aspects that are put in place by various management bodies and authorities in order to plan, organize and shape their businesses with the aim of improving quality service[2].  Various management strategies have been used in organizations and businesses with different intentions and goals.

The research paper has looked at various management strategies that can be used in the day to day management of businesses, organizations and firms.  It is quite evident from research that management strategies need to be put in place in order to address the various issues that affect business in thee modern world.  Every businessman or business for that matter should come up with ways and methods of dealing with management related issues that tend to hamper business prosperity and growth.

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Aims and Objectives of the research paper.

            This research paper is aimed at addressing management strategies in terms of discovering the various advantages, challenges facing management and coming up with solutions to resolve such challenges.  The research is also aimed at proving ways and methods of making management strategies successful in the diverse businesses and communities.

Scope of the research.

            Businesses, organizations and communities will be focused in the research.  Ways of improving management, benefits of management, various management strategies and the effect of such strategies will be focused on as well.

Methodology and data collection.

            Data collection of the research was done by the help of interviews and questionnaires.  Oral interviews were administered only to specific business owners but the rest were given questionnaires to fill.  Questions were structured in a way that reflected what was intented in the research.  The importance of management strategies and the problems encountering businesses that did not have strategies in place were among the various aspects that were focused on during the formulation of the questionnaires and the interview questions.  Besides, secondary data was also used for the purposes of backing up the outcome from the primary data.  Sources such as the Internet, journals, scholarly materials and documentation were used in the literature review section[3].  Questionnaires were divided into two.  There were those that were specifically meant for businessmen while others were meant for the common being.  Interviews were carried out with aim of getting first hand feedback from the top Chief Executive Officers of the different businesses.

The data collected was analyzed using the various data analysis methods.  Both qualitative and quantitative data analysis methods were used.  One hundred questionnaires were given out to different businesses and organizations for the purpose of giving their views and opinion on what they thought about management strategies.  Many people were quick to point out that management strategies are of paramount importance to businesses and organizations not excluding individuals.

            Questionnaires and interview methods were used because they proved to be reliable as they gave the respondents the courage and confident to give answers to the formulated questions without fear of victimization.  Questionnaires also have the advantage of being used again in case there is a problem in future.  They can be kept as evident or proof for carrying out the research unlike other ways of data collection.

Literature.

            In this section, the research will look at various case studies that have addressed management problems, the literature focusing on management theories and strategies, the benefits associated with management, ways of improving management in organizations and businesses, various types of management strategies and lastly it will address as a tool for success.

Types of Management Strategies.

            There are various management strategies that will be addressed in this section.  Management strategies include; conflict management strategies, stress management strategies, sales management strategies, change management strategies, risk management strategies, behavior management strategies and time management strategies[4].  All these are strategies that have been employed by various organizations in their day to day administration.

Time management strategies.

            When managing time, one has to take into account specific schedules. Prioritizing tasks and writing them down is the first step.  The tasks are supposed to be sorted out in terms of which ones are most important and which ones are less important.  Those that are deemed very important are done first while the down level priorities can wait.  This is important in that it it gives the manager the capacity to handle the most urgent issues and leave out the least urgent for some other time[5].

            How much time a task requires is also very important when it comes to time management.  Each task should be evaluated in terms of the energy needed to do the task and then allocated time appropriately and proportionally.  This exercise will depend on factors like the complexity of the task, the urgency of the task and the general feel of the task.  Another factor when managing time is the need for relaxation[6].  One has to take time to get things together and fix them.  It is therefore important to fix time for relaxing in every time plan.  In time management, exercising is very important for every one.  No one can work and function properly when tired.  Stress and strain affects performance an done needs to workout all the time every time.  Flexibility in time management is very important in any business.  There has to be room for in terms of time for situations and obstacles that are unforeseen.  When planning, some time has to be created in order for uncertainties to be met.

Conflict Management Strategies.

            In life, conflicts have to be dealt with accordingly. There are different ideologies, different values and different beliefs about how some things are supposed to be in life.  Such different opinions and stands will always result to conflicts among people[7].  Some people view the conflicts and problems as burdens while some view them as opportunities.  According to Scott Peck (2005), one has to go through a painful moment in the process of trying to face and solve the conflicts.  Such a painful process may lead to reactions and feelings that include despair, anger, the feeling of anxiety, the feeling of regret and loneliness, the feeling of fear and resentment and so forth so on.  He further argues that conflicts and problems helps a person to face life and issues courageously and with wisdom[8].

             There are several ways of overcoming conflicts and solving problems.  Education for instance is one of the ways of overcoming conflicts.  Imparting knowledge to people may help them to provide information that they would otherwise not be in a position  to provide.  Services such as guidance and counseling are also very important in that they make people realize the importance to being open with the truth.

            Communication in conflict resolution is also a key factor. The importance of conflict resolution, the importance of active listening and empathizing are needed especially for those people who are rigid and have difficulty in changing.  Those who do not appreciate what change is need to be communicated to in order for their perceptions to change to the better.  Participation of also key to conflict resolution and management.  All parties need to participate wholly in the process of resolving conflicts.  Those who are viewed as the causes of conflict and those who think are the offended, should all take part in resolving conflicts.  It is only through such ways that problems and conflicts can be sorted out ones and for all.

            There is also the issue of problem solving.  It is believed that problems cannot be avoided but can always be solved.  Avoiding problems several happenings come into place.  First, there is the likelihood of the original problem is taking effect.  This is to mean that the initial problem is still unsolved.  Secondly, by avoiding a problem or conflict, a new conflict is created in the process as one does not want to look like he/she has been defeated by the initial problem.  Lastly, by avoiding a problem, people tend to undermine themselves.  The guilty of having avoided the problem remains with them resulting to a situation where one does not feel good and free[9].

            Problem solving should focus on dealing with the problem and no attacking the person causing the problem. There should be some spirit of openness and honesty if one has to solve a problem amicably.  When one focuses on problem solving exercise, he/she is bound to make mileage when dealing specifically with the problem and ignoring the person who caused the problem.  Various problems can be solved in different ways and there is no doubt that by amicably solving problems, one will be able to deal with the conflicts.

            Strategies for conflict management can be classified into several categories.  There is a win-lose strategy, a win-win strategy and a lose-lose strategy.  In a win-lose strategy, all the participants have the notion that, in all conflicts, there must be a winner and a loser[10].  This therefore leads to competition where one person will always want to satisfy his/her own desires and ignore the desires of their fellow competitors.  Such competitions focuses on individuals and groups and not on the main issues of contention.  As part of a win-lose strategy, there is also the aspect of accommodating other people’s desires.  Here, one has a relatively low desire to his/her satisfaction and a high desire for the satisfaction of the other person’s desire.  Such a strategy is aimed at maintaining a status quo at all costs and by all means.  There is the wish for one to be accepted by other people in the community.  In such a scenario, there is the overall feeling of being responsible and one does not want to hurt the feelings of other people.

            We also have a lose-lose strategy.  It comprises of the aspect of avoidance and compromise.  Avoiding issues is the order of the day in this type of situation.  One views a conflict as an experience of punishment and that it is useless in the setting in which it is applied.  The person avoiding the conflict distances him/herself completely from the problem both physically and emotionally.  There is also the aspect of compromising in conflict management.  The two parties involved have to deal with the conflict by coming to an understanding instead of taking solid and uncompromized positions.  There has to be a give and take situation for some conflicts to be resolved.  It is the most oftenly used way of resolving conflicts by many people.  The reason is that it gives both parties the feel of winning the situation.  When people feel that they have won, they tend to back off from the conflict and as a result, the conflict will have been solved.

            Under the win-win strategy, there is the aspect of problem solving.  Both parties come together and agree on a result that will favor the two of them.  The first step is identifying the problem[11].  The exact conflict problem and the nature of the problem are key to other steps in problem solving.  Possible solutions to the problems have to be identified next.  It is believed that all problems have different solutions.  The next step is concerned with deciding the type of solution to take in solving the problem.  All solutions are viable but there is one or two that are best placed to solving the problem.  The forth step is the process of determining how the solutions can be implemented.  A plan has to be in place so that action on the conflict is taken.  The last step in problem solving is the assessment of the result or the outcome of the implemented solution.  This is to fond out whether the solution satisfied both parties and whether it was a win-win solution.

Risk Management Strategies.

            In any field, be it construction, employment wise and many other fields, there has to be risks to be encountered.  Such risks need to be taken care of or rather managed in a way that will abate, avoid or curb the associated outcomes.  In risk management strategies,  there are various ways of dealing with risks[12].  Avoidance of risk is the first way of dealing with the menace.  It entails the process of avoiding the specific project or task that is associated with the risk.  A project has to be evaluated in order to determine the extend of the risk involved so that it can decided whether or not to avoid the project.  This type of risk management is essential in most businesses as the client will be in a position of either taking the deal or ignoring it all together.

            There is also the aspect of risk abatement.  This means that a risk is minimized by one employing loss control and prevention measures.  It is aimed at reducing the extend of the risk and the frequency with which it occurs.  This method of risk strategy is commonly used with other methods of risk management.  This is because it cannot eliminate risk totally.  Risk retention is another way of managing risks.  It is used in situation where the risk cannot be transferred or in cases where the loss extrapolated from the risk is much more than that that would be gotten from the transfer of the risk.  It is argued that this method of risk management can best fit in situations where transferring risk is more demanding and expensive to the client.

            There is also risk transfer as a way of risk management.  This entails shifting or moving of a burden associated with the specific risk from one entity to another.  It is done through insurance policies and other forms of indemnity.  Risk allocation is the last form of risk management.  It is where the risk burden is shared among the different parties involved.  It is common in business especially when a firm realizes that the cost of the risk is too unbearable and therefore decides to share it with another firm.

            There are five steps of dealing with risk management[13].  The first step is the identification, assessment and documentation of the program’s risks to be followed.  This step might take a lot of effort and time as the other equally important steps will be based on it.  It is imperative for one to find out the type of risk and go ahead to assess the risk in order for one to know what measures and precautions to take into consideration.  The second step is the establishment and implementation of various procedures for evaluating the concerned parties[14].

            It is also important to make sure that there is the required insurance policies and coverage.  Besides, there should also be a development of an ethics code which will guide the volunteers in the process.  This code of ethics will be important as it will give guidance and protection to the people giving information.  The last step will be developing, monitoring and communicating the procedures and policies that shall be followed in the due process of risk management.  All the steps have to be followed closely so that the risk management process can be a success.

Workplace Management Strategies.

            Many workplaces have a mixture of employees with various backgrounds and ethnical affiliations.  Gender in the work place is a key issues that has to be taken into consideration when dealing with such like cases.  Relationships are of different types ranging from interpersonal to relationships between different sexes to those between same sexes.  Many organizations and businesses are made to compete for employees in order to get the best.  Many employers have opted to attract the best employees to their organizations by offering specific benefits that meet the employees’ expectations.  The relationship between the employees and the employers is a sensitive issue that has to be given the necessary attention attention it deserves[15].

            Some organization have different restrictions that they apply exclusively in their organization.  Such restrictions include the fact that a couple is not allowed to work under the same manager, a couple is not allowed to work for the same organization, that employees should not get into relationships in the same organization and so forth.  Such restrictions are the unspoken policies that are not documented anywhere but are within the company’s policies.

            In order for an organization to be able to deal with workplace relationships, they should first of all put policies into writing.  All organizations should have policies and rules in written form which are determined by the concerned manager and enforced by the same authority in charge.  If an organization lacks a written policy, it is bound to fail in the management of workplace relationships[16].  The moment the policy is implemented, it is communicated to the employees and the various managers.  The employees can be communicated to via different ways and means.  Managers are given training where they are subjected to learn how to communicate effectively with their employees and are also taught how to pass information to them without causing any conflicts.  Managers will have to learn how to pass information  to their colleagues and be able to do it in way that does not cause communication problems.

            At the workplace, there are also contracts that dictate how things are to be done and how is to do them.  Different organizations take different measures of dealing with workplace related issues.  Some would rather that the employees sort out such issues with the human resource department which will require that each couple signs a contract that will protect the company against any problems that would face them.  Such organizations are very serious on such contracts and will be fast in pointing out that people who refuse to sign such contracts are dismissed from their place of work.

            Cases of homosexuality and gayism are also treated differently by different companies[17].  Some organizations treat their employees differently depending on who is who and who has what in the company.  It is extremely important to note that employees should be treated in the same way unless it reflects in their contracts.  Organizations should have guidelines that state what each manager should do and how they should act in case there is a problem with the employees.  The moment a manager finds out a problem, he/she should start with discussing the problem with the employees in an environment that is friendly.  It is not advisable for the manager to raise the issues openly or attack and confront the worker in the presence of other employees.  A chance should be given to the employee to explain the situation as there might be a good reason as to why the problem occurred.  In case the problem is not solved, the manager should try other alternatives such as readdressing the problem ones more.  If it does not stop, it can be forwarded to the human resource department and let the issue be dealt with.  A good manager should realize that treating employees differently will cause a lot of eyebrows and make other employees feel left out.

            After putting down the policies required, it is the prerogative of the managers to implement the policies[18].  Employees who are unproductive are dealt with differently.  Some are forced to resign, some are put on probation while others are terminated.  Those employees who are working towards fixing problems that are related to their workplaces are not forced to resign neither are they discriminated or harassed in any way by the employer.

            In conclusion, the managers are advised to treat all employees the same way so as to protect them against any form of harassment.  Challenges that are faced are unique in nature concerning relationships at the workplace.  Complications will arise from conflicts between sexes, conflicts between the employers and the employees and also conflicts between same sexes[19].  It is also important to note that relationships at the workplace are for the benefit of both the employees and the employers.  It is a mutual relationship which should not be ignored by any means.  This is because, the good workplace relationship has its advantages that increase the companies’ benefits and the convenience of doing its business.

Behavioral Management Strategies.

            Behavior is an aspect in life that need management.  Behavior can be scaled in terms of performance and actions, and this can be attested by all the involved parties.  Such interpretations of behavior are vague as they base on interpretations that are personal and some are self centered.  An example is, a person who shouts loudly to answer a question in a gathering is considered to have a behavior that is confrontational while some else might see it as a behavior of seeking attention.  In this scenario, confusion is bound to result.

            Behavior has to be measured ones the target has been agreed upon.  A suitable method of observation recording has to be agreed upon and put in place.  This recording is aimed at establishing the type of measures to be undertaken depending on the type of behavior exhibited.  Goals setting is the next step in behavioral management in an institution.  The main goal is actually to try and reduce ones behavior that is undesirable.  Arranging of cues in then followed as the next step.  A signal that can help in encouraging and prompting some form of guidelines with the aim of encouraging the person in subject is what is called a cue.  Reinforcements are also key to behavioral management.  There are positive reinforcers and punishment[20].  Rewards can be used for positive reinforcement.  In order to shape behavior, the reward is supposed to follow the behavior being targeted at the soonest moment possible.

            When it comes to punishment, one can only use this form of management strategy it positive reinforcement fails.  Inasmuch as punishment is essential in some cases, it must be administered in the right way and style.  It is however used mostly when suppressing bad behavior in the short run.  However, it can only be used when one wants to stop bad behavior and cannot be used to start a good behavior.

            Success evaluation is the next and last step of dealing with behavioral management.  Evaluation normally is used to show or rather find out if the implemented program has produced results and if so then how tangible the results are in terms of achievement and change of behavior[21].  If results are not tangible, a different method is sort for.  The method is then applied to further establish whether or not the desired behavioral change has been achieved.

Stress Management Strategies.

            Stress management just like any other form of management strategies is very important in the day to day life of an individual and a business[22].  When dealing with stress, one has to make sure that he/she gets enough sleep.  Sleep is vital to ones physical, psychological and emotional wellbeing.  The ability to handle stress can be affected by the lack of sleep and in most cases it renders someone unproductive, lazy and nonfunctional.  Lack of sleep could be attributed to too much work, schedules that are busy as well as stressful activities that some one undergoes during the day.  If none is not able to get enough sleep at night, it is advisable to take a nap during the day in order to compensate for the missed sleep at night.

            Another strategy could be in the form of getting nutrition that is proper and well balanced[23].  Poor diets could make one vulnerable to elements of stress.  A diet that lacks some basic components is destructive to a human being and can lead not only to stress but also strain.  On the other hand, when one is subjected to schedules that are hectic and more straineous in nature, he/she is bound to skip proper nutrition and as a result develop stress.  Research has further shown that some specific types of foods react differently to specific people and produce specific results.  One is therefore advised to seek guidance from the nutritionists on the type of food to consume in order to deal with specific types of stresses.

            It is also advisable to exercise regularly in order for one to keep stress at bay.  Taking regular exercises in the morning or in the evenings keeps the body and mind free of any strain and stress and as a result helps one to handle complicated situation in his day to day activities.  Regular exercises keeps somebody alert and on toes.  Research has shown that people who exercise regularly are less prone to stress than those who never carry out exercises at all.  It is therefore important that stress be handled by exercising together with other forms of stress management strategies.

            Social activities are important in the process of stress management.  When one is down, friends and relatives can play a major role in uplifting him/her[24].  Such social events and activities help in providing insight when one is confused, and also helps one to have fun especially when he/she was almost blowing off steam.  Friendship in many cases has helped many people deal with stress instead of keeping it to themselves.  Stress management ideally can be taken care of by people who are lively and can make some one laugh themselves off.

            Hobbies are also a way of releasing stress and managing it in some cases.  Both tension and stress can be eased through hobbies.  Every human being has what they like doing during their free times.  Such activities and exercises are meant to relieve some one of stress.  When one is stressed, let him/her find a way of relieving the stress the easiest way possible.  It is through such activities like gardening, traveling, cooking, drawing and so forth that one can deal with stress.

            By keeping ones mind alert and sharp, one is able to deal with stress and strain[25].  One has to maintain the attitude that stress is not a threat but a challenge and that one should be able to handle it at all costs.  When one is sharp and alert he/she is able to deal with challenges and problems facing his/her day to day routine of activities.  There are some games that are meant for keeping the mind sharp and alert.  Such games include chess, scrabble and even cycling.

            The other way of managing stress is by having an attitude that is right and straight[26].  Ones point of view of certain specific issues and aspects can really cause stress.  It is therefore advised that one should maintain an aptitude of sobriety and positive attitude towards situations and life experiences.  One is advised to be more optimistic in life as this will help relieved him/her of stress.

            The other way of managing stress is by one processing his/her emotions.  Keeping secrets to oneself normally lead to an explosion of the same at some stage in life.  It is advisable for one to listen to their feelings, try to understand them and process them in order to relieve themselves of stress.  When one takes the bold step of writing on their feelings and trying to understand them, they are bound to deal with stress in the best way possible.  Coming out openly and sharing ones stress with those who matter or simply expressing them in some form will eventually help in dealing with stress.  If this does not work out, one is advised to seek other ways of dealing with the stress as there are many other ways of comparting the menace.

            The last strategy in stress management is the maintenance of spiritual focus and practice[27].  From research, it is evident that spirituality has helped solved the many cases of stress among human beings.  One is able to deal with stress in the best way possible if they involve themselves in religion.  Prayer can be used together with spiritual songs and also bible reading.  It helps one get the inside inspiration and the soul food that will help ease stress.  The bible also helps in consoling someone especially those who are extremely down as a result of stress.

Strategic planning.

            In Strategic management, we also have what is called SWOT Analysis.  This is an analysis of the factors that are both internal and external to a business.  A business always has the internal factors which include strengths and weaknesses, and also external factors which include opportunities and threats.  A business needs such analysis in order to compare between its capabilities to those of the environment where it operates.  Such analysis gives the firm outlines of how to strategically deal with other related factors.  This analysis helps the business in ways that are vital to its growth and prosperity.  After the analysis has been done, the SWOT matrix is then put into play.  This type of matrix is basically arrived at by comparing the business’s strengths and weaknesses versus the business’s opportunities and threats with the aim of coming up with a concrete solution of dealing with the problems that will be facing the business and strengthening on them but at the same time taking advantage of the strengths and opportunities that the business enjoys.

Strengths.

            For strategic management of a firm, it is required that its strengths be analyzed in order to give it an advantage in its field of competition[28].  Examples include patents.  Patents are  exclusive rights of a product or commodity.  If a business has its products patented then it stands the advantage of other businesses not using the ideas in their formulations.  There is the aspect of brand names that are strong.  Names of products and service offered by a specific business or firm for that matter ought to be strong and make sense to the customers and the public as well.  Weak brand names do not any impact to the product and therefore makes the business to lose out.

            There has to be good customers reputation.  Customers are the main pillars of a business.  No business will prosper without a strong foundation of customers.  Analysis of such customers and there availability has to be done as it is a strength to the business.  If customers are not kept and given the reason to stay, they will take off and thus affect the business adversely.  Another strength is the access to networks.  All business should be networked in order to be able to get more customers and retain the loyal customers.  Distribution networks are as essential as customers are to the business.

            Natural resources that are of high grade should be easily accessible by the business.  Such resources include natural minerals and good working environment.  A business that suffers from the lack of access to natural resources is bound to suffer a great deal as it will not have an upper hand in competitive business.

Weaknesses.

            All businesses have weaknesses to deal with.  When there are no certain strengths, a business is considered to have weaknesses[29].  For instance, if a business lacks protection of its patents then it is considered to have a weakness.  Brand names that are weak are considered as weaknesses.  Reputations that are poor to customers are also considered weak points of the business.  If there is lack of best natural resources access, the business is bound to be considered as weak.  It is expected that business ought to have access to such natural resources in order for it to grow and prosper.  In most of these cases, weaknesses are just the other side of strengths.  For instance, if a firm has a huge capacity for manufacturing, it is considered as a strength.  It can however be also considered as a great weakness if the firm does not use this strength to react quickly to strategic management changes.

Opportunities.

            These are factors that affect the business from the external point of view.  Such an analysis has to be made in order to establish any new opportunities in terms of growth and profit making.  Such external opportunities include, a customer’s need that is not fulfilled.  All needs of a customer have to be fulfilled by all means.  A serious business has to go out of its way to fulfill the needs of a customer if it wants to remain in business.  Such needs are; the quality of the product, the rightful quantity of the product, meeting the preferred taste and fashion of the customer among other needs.

            There is also the issue of new technologies arriving into the market.  This is an external factor that has to be taken care of by all means if the business is to see its prosperity.  Any new technology that comes into the market has to be tapped and considered by the business in order to have a competitive advantage.  With the new technology advancements and the introduction of technology driven products in the market, businesses have to embrace such technologies and be abrest with the new entries in the market.

            Regulations loosening are also a factor in opportunities analysis[30].  There are so many regulations that need to be loosened in order not to affect the business.  Regulations such as tariffs, introduction of subsidies and other irrelevant licenses need to be looked at in detail by the government for the purposes of assisting the existing businesses so that they do not collapse.  This also goes hand in hand with trade barriers that need to be removed by the government and local authorities.  Such trade barriers are aimed at snailing the trade process thus affecting the businesses.  It is therefore the responsibility of the businessmen to ask the relevant local authorities to waive such barriers and taxes for them to have a smooth sail through.

Threats.

            Besides the above mentioned factors, threats are also an important aspect of analysis when it comes to strategic management of businesses[31].  Threats to a business may also be as a result of the changing external environment.  These threats could include the fact that consumers are shifting their tastes from certain products that the firm manufactures.  If there is a shift in the taste of the customers, it poses a threat to the business.  The business has to cope up with such types of threats as they are part of a business’ life.

            Another threat is the related to substitute products emerging and getting into the market.  Most of these products always come with better prices and qualities that the existing products.  If a customer comes across a product that is an alternative to the one he/she is used to, it is most likely that the product will be tasted to find out what special features it has.  The businesses in this case have to convince the consumers that their products are still the best.  They can only do this by actually guaranteeing them and giving the customers value for their money.

            Threats could also be in terms of the introduction of new regulations by the government and other external bodies.  Such regulations are a threat in that the firms may experience those that are extremely new and might end up lacing the capacity and ability to deal with them.  New regulations could affect the business adversely and it therefore calls for a keen eye on the specific threats.  It is a challenge to the business to be able to adjust accordingly so that they are not swept away or affected by the emergence of new regulations.

The Theory of Constraints(TOC).

            This theory is all about improvement and management of a system[32].  It says that every system has its own constraint which must be picked out giving way for the whole system to be managed with this constraint in mind.  This theory has different functions that define it wholly.  These functions include marketing functions, production functions, distribution functions and project management functions.  TOC can also be used in enhancing of communication and the daily activities with the help of skills such as conflict resolution, team building and evaluation of ideas.

            TOC is a theory that tries to shade light on the different type of management found in some situations in life.  Various management projects and models are explained by the TOC.  The theory tries to explain why some projects take a very long time to pick, how such projects are managed and how different they are from other projects that are managed differently.

            It also looks at the relationship between the external constraints and the internal constraints and goes ahead to look at their effect on the supplier’s performance[33].  It also looks at the relationship between the market and the external constraints and also the effect of team building and other functions mentioned earlier on.

Data Analysis and Interpretation.

The data collected was analyzed using the various data analysis methods.  Both qualitative and quantitative data analysis methods were used.  One hundred questionnaires were given out to different businesses and organizations for the purpose of giving their views and opinion on what they thought about management strategies.  Many people were quick to point out that management strategies are of paramount importance to businesses and organizations not excluding individuals.

The feedback from the respondents was compared against the secondary data from the books and then a general conclusion was made[34].  For the purpose of establishing the significant of the results, the co-relation method was used to compare the two sets of data.  It was found out that the results were significant.  This was a proof that actually the data was not cooked but genuine data.  Some of the questionnaires were destroyed in the process of data collection.  The destroyed questionnaires were six out of the total number of one hundred.  This was as a result of some of them being canceled due to negative feedback by the respondents while some were canceled as a result of them being incomplete.  On the other hand, some interviews were also aborted.  Out of the possible fifty interviews carried out, three were unsuccessful and were therefore not included in the data analysis.

Problems encountered during the research.

During the research, several problems were encountered.  One of the problems was the lack of cooperation of the business owners as they feared revealing the problems and business secrets.  They feared that the data collected would be used against them or in other cases; they sited the fact that some of the statistics would be exposed to their business competitors thus giving their competitors a mileage over them.

            The other problem was the lack of enough funds to travel to most parts of the country.  Businesses are found allover the country but the research was concentrated in one particular place simply because funds for traveling allover were unavailable.  This led to the research being carried out in a bias manner in as far as territorial coverage was concerned.  This problem was dealt with in such a way that the sample was made to be representative.  The sampled businesses reflected the whole business community and therefore addressed the issues that were to be captured by the research.

The other problem encountered was the problem of most businessmen not understanding the essence of management strategies and what they meant.  This phenomenon sounded new to most of the business owners and organizations owners at large.  The researchers had to shade some light and even substantiate on the topic.  However, after the tedious exercise of demystifying the whole issue, the required answers were able to be collected by the researchers.  At the end of the day, the research was a success as it covered the whole field that was to be covered.

Recommendations.

It is recommended that businessmen and business owners including individuals should embrace the need to have management strategies in whatever they do so that they can be able to meet their overall targets and goals.  Based on the literature available and the past records of businesses, it is recommended that businesses should strive to be at per with the ever improving market demand and technological changes.  As times change for the better, businesses are not supposed to be left out of the change.

Conclusion.

The research paper has looked at various management strategies that can be used in the day to day management of businesses, organizations and firms.  It is quite evident from research that management strategies need to be put in place in order to address the various issues that affect business in thee modern world.  Every businessman or business for that matter should come up with ways and methods of dealing with management related issues that tend to hamper business prosperity and growth.  Many businesses are losing out due to the fact that their businesses cannot compete favorably with other businesses because of lack of strategic and focused business management models and ideas.

From the research, one can easily point out that there are many benefits of strategic business management than those that meet the eye.  It is therefore the prerogative of the business owners and organizations owners to move with haste and put into place the various management strategies in order for them to realize any form of growth and competitive advantages in this ever increasing market competition era.
Work Cited.

Aldag, Kuzuhara. Organizational behavior and management: An integrated skills approach.  Cincinnati, OH: South-Western Thomson Learning, 2004

Deese, James. Strategic Management for Businesses. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co, 2003.

Domenico, Lepore and Oded Cohen. The Theory of Constraints and the System of Profound Knowledge. North River Press, 1999.

Hellriegel, Woodman. Organizational behavior. Cincinnati, OH: South-Western Thomson Learning, 2003.

Lakein, Alan. Managerial Strategies and SWOT Analysis. New York: Wyden Publishers, 2006.

Shewhart, Williams. Economic Control of Quality of Manufactured Product. London: MacMillan Publishers, 1968.

Warner, Burke. Organizational Change: Theory ; Practice. New York: Sage Publications, 2007.

Whetten, Cameron. Developing Management Skills.  Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2005.

[1]             Warner, Burke. Organizational Change: Theory ; Practice. New York: Sage Publications, 2007.
[2]             Lakein, Alan. Managerial Strategies and SWOT Analysis. New York: Wyden Publishers, 2006.
[3]             Deese, James. Strategic Management for Businesses. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co, 2003.
[4]             Domenico, Lepore and Oded Cohen. The Theory of Constraints and the System of Profound Knowledge. North River Press, 1999.
[5]             Shewhart, Williams. Economic Control of Quality of Manufactured Product. London: MacMillan Publishers, 1968.
[6]             Aldag, Kuzuhara. Organizational behavior and management: An integrated skills approach.  Cincinnati, OH: South-Western Thomson Learning, 2004
[7]             Hellriegel, Woodman. Organizational behavior. Cincinnati, OH: South-Western Thomson Learning, 2003.
[8]             Whetten, Cameron. Developing Management Skills.  Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2005
[9]             Deese, James. Strategic Management for Businesses. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co, 2003.
[10]          Aldag, Kuzuhara. Organizational behavior and management: An integrated skills approach.  Cincinnati, OH: South-Western Thomson Learning, 2004
[11]          Hellriegel, Woodman. Organizational behavior. Cincinnati, OH: South-Western Thomson Learning, 2003.
[12]          Shewhart, Williams. Economic Control of Quality of Manufactured Product. London: MacMillan Publishers, 1968.
[13]          Warner, Burke. Organizational Change: Theory ; Practice. New York: Sage Publications, 2007.
[14]          Domenico, Lepore and Oded Cohen. The Theory of Constraints and the System of Profound Knowledge. North River Press, 1999.
[15]          Whetten, Cameron. Developing Management Skills.  Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2005.
[16]          Lakein, Alan. Managerial Strategies and SWOT Analysis. New York: Wyden Publishers, 2006.
[17]          Aldag, Kuzuhara. Organizational behavior and management: An integrated skills approach.  Cincinnati, OH: South-Western Thomson Learning, 2004
[18]          Whetten, Cameron. Developing Management Skills.  Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2005.
[19]          Hellriegel, Woodman. Organizational behavior. Cincinnati, OH: South-Western Thomson Learning, 2003.
[20]          Deese, James. Strategic Management for Businesses. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co, 2003.
[21]          Warner, Burke. Organizational Change: Theory ; Practice. New York: Sage Publications, 2007.
[22]          Deese, James. Strategic Management for Businesses. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co, 2003.
[23]          Deese, James. Strategic Management for Businesses. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co, 2003.
[24]          Domenico, Lepore and Oded Cohen. The Theory of Constraints and the System of Profound Knowledge. North River Press, 1999.
[25]          Hellriegel, Woodman. Organizational behavior. Cincinnati, OH: South-Western Thomson Learning, 2003.
[26]          Lakein, Alan. Managerial Strategies and SWOT Analysis. New York: Wyden Publishers, 2006.
[27]          Deese, James. Strategic Management for Businesses. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co, 2003.
[28]          Aldag, Kuzuhara. Organizational behavior and management: An integrated skills approach.  Cincinnati, OH: South-Western Thomson Learning, 2004
[29]          Aldag, Kuzuhara. Organizational behavior and management: An integrated skills approach.  Cincinnati, OH: South-Western Thomson Learning, 2004
[30]          Lakein, Alan. Managerial Strategies and SWOT Analysis. New York: Wyden Publishers, 2006.
[31]          Shewhart, Williams. Economic Control of Quality of Manufactured Product. London: MacMillan Publishers, 1968.
[32]  30. Ibid
[33]          Deese, James. Strategic Management for Businesses. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co, 2003.
[34]  25.Ibid

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