Marcus Garvey
A powerful African American leader during the 1920s. Garvey founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and advocated a mass migration of African Americans back to Africa. Garvey was convicted of fraud in 1923 and deported to Jamaica in 1927. While the movement won a substantial following, the UNIA collapsed without Garvey’s leadership.
Margaret Sanger
1921 – founded American Birth Control League; which became Planned Parenthood in the 1940s. Advocated birth control awareness.
John T. Scopes
An educator in Tennessee who was arrested for teaching evolution. This trial represented the Fundamentalist vs the Modernist. The trial placed a negative image on fundamentalists, and it showed a changing America.
Al Capone
A mob king in Chicago who controlled a large network of speakeasies with enormous profits. His illegal activities convey the failure of prohibition in the twenties and the problems with gangs.
Werner Heisenberg
(1901-1976) German physicist who created the “principle of uncertainty”. The theory said that because it is impossible to know the speed and position of an electron, it is not possible to predict its behavior. Therefore, there is only tendency and probability.
Warren Harding
(Republican) Won the election of 1920 becoming the 29th President. Was hoped for by Americans to improve the economy, however was faced with a series of scandals.
Calvin Coolidge
Became president when Harding died of pneumonia. He was known for practicing a rigid economy in money and words, and acquired the name “Silent Cal” for being so soft-spoken. He was a true republican and industrialist. Believed in the government supporting big business.
Amelia Earhart
First woman aviator to fly solo nonstop across the Atlantic (1928)
Herbert Hoover
1928; Republican; approach to economy known as voluntarism; of course, in 1929 the stock market crashed and he tried to fix it through creating the Emergency Relief and Construction Act and the Reconstruction Finance Corporation
Max Planck
German physicist whose explanation of blackbody radiation in the context of quantized energy emissions initiated quantum theory (1858-1947)

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