Marine Corps Essay, Research Paper
? From the halls of Montezuma to the shores of Tripoli, we fight our state? s conflicts in the air, on land and sea. First to contend for right and freedom, and to maintain our honor clean, we are proud to claim the rubric of United States Marine? ? ( Alexander, 398 )
Why is this first poetry of The Marines? Hymn so familiar to me and to my parents and grandparents before me? As history writes, the Marines have written their page in history and have besides won a topographic point in the Black Marias and psyches of Americans.
From the clip of the conflict calls of the civil war to the beginning of the horrors of trench warfare during World War I, the United States authorities evolved from a state divided to a planetary imperium. The foreign policy of America became to protect American involvements everyplace and anyplace. The United States Marine Corps evolved to run into this challenge. The challenge was to be ever ready, or more articulately put, ever faithful. Semper Fidelis! How did The Marine Corps grow from comparative obscureness, to go an elect American contending force progressing American Imperialsim and proud defender of the? American Empire. ?
? In declared wars, the state ever found demand for an immediately available, strictly trained force of relentless combatants. But in the & # 8220 ; extra-curricular & # 8221 ; contending of the imperial age they ( The Marines ) were particularly ready to hand, showing a powerful national military presence in something of a seagoing constabulary function, ever politically easier to perpetrate than the Army. ? ( Alexander, 14 )
The manner the Marines became so of import and dependable is for the most portion due to their preparation. The policy of the Marines is to take a adult male or adult female, who meets the demands ; tallness, weight, no felon record, no broken castanetss, the mean American Joe, and they turn him or her, into a Marine. ( Webster ) The procedure by which this happens can be described in two different ways, the first being, the physical kingdom. In this realm the campaigner is physically challenged, and pushed beyond his or her bounds on an mundane footing. The existent sum of physical effort may change from drill teacher to bore teacher, but the consequences are ever the same. Somewhere along the developing the individual is broken down and reinforced anew. The 2nd portion of going a Marine is go throughing the mental trial. Not merely do you hold to be physically strong, but besides you must larn and appreciate the new ideals and ends of this brotherhood. You gain a higher regard for what it means to be a Marine. What does it intend to be a Marine?
US Marines? are the most curious strain of human existences I have of all time witnessed. They treat service as if it was some sort of cult, stick oning their emblem on about everything they own, doing themselves look like insane fiends with haircuts to ungentlemanlike lengths, idolizing their Commandant about as if he was a God, and doing eldritch carnal noises like a pack of barbarians. They & # 8217 ; ll fight wish rabid Canis familiariss at the bead of a chapeau merely for the interest of a small action, and are the cockiest boies of bitches I have of all time known. Most have the foulest oral cavities and imbibe good beyond a adult male & # 8217 ; s normal bounds, but their high liquors and sense of brotherhood set them apart and, by and large talking, the United States Marines I & # 8217 ; ve come in contact with are the most professional soldiers and the finest work forces and adult females I have of all time had the pleasance to run into & # 8230 ; ?
Correspondent Richard Harding Davis ( Ellsworth, xi )
Marines are different. What makes them different? When most people try to sum up the ideal of the Marine Corps they frequently use the word ethos. Ethos is the features, attitude or values of a group that sets it apart from others. The Marines are rich in ethos and pass the bulk of their preparation transfusing this into their soldiers. At the nucleus of the Corps is the motto Semper Fidelis ( Always Faithful ) . This is alone from any other subdivision of the armed forces. The Marines offer pride and belonging much like a fraternal organisation. All forces must go through the same trials, even officers, and Marines frequently refer to each other as brother and sister. Every Marine is a rifleman, whether a cook, pilot, drill sergeant, or oink. This is an utmost difference from other subdivisions of the Department of Defense. The Marine Corps is unified beyond any other subdivision ; everyone is a Marine foremost, last and ever.
Marines have a world-wide repute for being difficult, brave leaders and merely gifted. This has much to make with their impressive wartime history, but other factors lead to this premise excessively. The pilots, award guards, and set of the President of the United States, are Marines. In every American Embassy around the universe there are Marines standing guard. ( Allen, 45 )
Every Marine has a considerable sum of heritage to populate up to. This is achieved by literally saturating immature and old Marines in the rich history that came before them. Upon come ining any basic preparation in the Marine Corps, recruits are required to larn extended Marine history including important mileposts and history of epic Marine elite. No other subdivision of the armed forces demands this of its work forces
. Combined with straightforward, yet disputing moral criterions, the Marine bequest builds the nucleus of values that are instilled in immature work forces and adult females, as they become Marines.
The Marines dressed ore on their basic preparation more than the other armed forces. Marine recruit preparation is the longest, enduring 12 hebdomads, while the Army & # 8217 ; s consists of 8 hebdomads and the Air Force 6 hebdomads. Marine recruit preparation is really physical and nerve-racking. It builds utmost subject, teamwork accomplishments and leading ability. Recruits are pressed to accomplish their possible. Basic Training is where Marines acquire their & # 8220 ; every Marine a rifleman & # 8221 ; background. All Marines, irrespective of their occupation forte, pattern utilizing their M-16A2 rifle extensively. Here, Marines are awarded their first rifle position of Rifle Marksman, Rifle Sharpshooter, or Rifle Expert. For the remainder of their military callings, they are held to the same physical and rifle criterions that they were held to at Basic Training. All Marines take regular physical fittingness trials to guarantee that they are physically healthy.
Marines require all freshly commissioned junior officers to describe to an approximative six-month long preparation class called? The Basic School? regardless of the commissioning beginning. No other subdivision offers this nucleus course of study class that unites junior officers. Here, they receive basic leading preparation and exposure to all facets of the Marine Corps. Military officers of different occupation fortes have the chance to larn and turn together during this leading development period. ( Marine Corps Heritage Foundation, 86-89 )
Over the gate of Parris Island, South Carolina is a mark: ? Where the Difference Begins. ? Thousand of work forces and adult females have passed through those Gatess and came out Marines. Parris Island and topographic points like it have been described as forges for Marines. During the preparation period known as? Boot Camp? , the individual is forged into a Marine. Young organic structures harden, adulthood emerges, heads focus, assurance grows, brotherhood takes signifier, and pride begins to prickle. During this basic developing the campaigner is tested physically and mentally. He is given an in depth history of the Corps, along with strict physical demands. The Crucible is a 54 hr event happening near the terminal of recruit preparation. It features small sleep, less nutrient, over 40 stat mis of forced Marches and legion Stationss that test physical stamina and mental legerity. Many say that someplace during this period the person is destroyed and rebuilt. Merely this clip something has changed they are stronger, and have a profound sense of belonging, and brotherhood. It is this that makes Marines different from any other service, and it is this that makes them a? cut above the remainder? . & # 8220 ; I will ne’er give up of my ain free will. If in bid I will ne’er give up my work forces while they still have the agencies to resist. & # 8221 ; ( ? www.parrisisland.com )
? The Marines have a manner of doing you afraid- non of deceasing, but of non making your job. ? First Lieutenant Bonnie Little, USMCR, 2d Amphibious Tractor Battalion, posthumous Navy Cross, D-Day, Tarawa ( Alexander, 136 )
The Marines? character and doctrine are surpassed by their workss. In some Marine-recruiting station in any town USA, and adult male with hapless seeing was being questioned by the recruiter. The recruiter asked him if there was any particular accomplishment that he possessed that would do up for his deficiency of seeing. The adult male said that he taught history. A Sergeant overheard this from across and room, and told the adult male, ? This is the Marine Corps we wear? t Teach history, we make it. ? And history they made! ( Metcalf, six )
On November 10, 1775, the Continental Congress meeting in Philadelphia passed a declaration saying that & # 8220 ; two Battalions of Marines be raised & # 8221 ; for service as landing forces with the fleet. This declaration established the Continental Marines and marked the birth day of the month of the United States Marine Corps. Serving on land and at sea, these first Marines distinguished themselves in a figure of of import operations, including their first amphibian foray into the Bahamas in March 1776, under the bid of Captain Samuel Nicholas. Nicholas, the first commissioned officer in the Continental Marines, remained the senior Marine officer throughout the American Revolution and is considered to be the first Marine Commandant.
The Treaty of Paris in April 1783 brought an terminal to the Revolutionary War and as the last of the Navy & # 8217 ; s ships were sold, the Continental Navy and Marines went out of being. ( Allen, 97 )
Following the Revolutionary War and the formal re-establishment of the Marine Corps on July 11, 1798, Marines saw action in the quasi-war with France, landed in Santo Domingo, and took portion in many operations against the Barbary plagiarists along the & # 8220 ; Shores of Tripoli & # 8221 ; . During the Mexican War ( 1846-1848 ) , Marines seized enemy havens on both the Gulf and Pacific seashores. A battalion of Marines joined General Scott & # 8217 ; s ground forces at Pueblo and fought all the manner to the & # 8220 ; Halls of Montezuma, & # 8221 ; Mexico City. The ictus of advanced naval bases would go one of the primary missions of the Corps. These early successes brought the Marines prominence and regard from the US Government and established them as a reliable force.
Marines besides served ashore and afloat in the Civil War ( 1861-1865 ) . Although most service was with the Navy, a battalion fought at Bull Run. Other units saw action with the blockading squadrons and at Cape Hatteras, New Orleans, Charleston, and Fort Fisher. The last tierce of the nineteenth century saw Marines doing legion landings throughout the universe, particularly in the Orient and in the Caribbean country. ( McCellan, 85-95 )
With the detonation of the U.S.S. Maine, killing 260 Americans 26 of whom were Marines, on February 15, 1898, war with Spain was at hand. The war would turn out to be a short one, but the additions for America would change the function of the Marine Corps everlastingly.
With orders from Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt, the commanding officer of the US? s Asiatic Squadron Commodore Dewey attacked the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay, in the Philippines. On May 3, Commodore Dewey landed Marines from the USS Baltimore, under the bid of Lieutenant Dion Williams, to busy the naval station at Cavite. These Marines were the first to set down on Spanish district and raise an American flag. Shortly thenceforth, other Marines from the Charleston landed unopposed at Guam and the Pacific stage of the war ended. The rapid deployment and rapid advanced ictus of naval bases and strong holds would go the primary mission of the Marine Corps. ( Metcalf, 67 )
While Marines and mariners were contending the Spanish in the Pacific, Marines at place were fixing for a landing in Cuba. On April 16, Commandant Heywood had been given the word to form a Marine battalion to function in Cuba. Within a few hebdomads, the Marine battalion was organized and encamped at Key West, Florida expecting farther orders. On June 10, and a month before Roosevelt & # 8217 ; s Rough Riders saw any action at San Juan Hill, Lieutenant Colonel Robert W. Huntington landed his battalion at Guantanamo Bay and became the first American military personnels to set up a beachhead on Cuban dirt.
The most of import factor of Marine Corps engagement in the War with Spain was the velocity with which its forces had been organized and dispatched to the part where they were needed and its ability to make the occupation one time on the field of conflict. Although the Cuban operation lacked the dare of Dewey & # 8217 ; s decisive triumph in the Philippines, the landing at Guantanamo demonstrated the necessity of Marines as assault military personnels. The triumph at Guantanamo proved that the primary mission of the Marine Corps should be to capture advanced naval bases. ( Ringler, 212 )
The turning animus of the Chinese toward aliens in the 1890 & # 8217 ; s led many of the foreign powers to set up guards at their diplomatic missions in Peking. An American Legation guard was established in November 1898. Shortly there after a Marine guard was placed over the American Consulate at Tientsin. This is peculiarly important because the Marine? s expanded function into China shows that they had the ability to react to crisis anyplace and at anytime in the universe. ( Parker, 39 )
In Haiti, during 1914, strife-torn internal conditions of the authorities required a withdrawal of Marines to set down for the intent of reconstructing order and protecting the belongings of Americans and Europeans likewise. Marine officers directed critical services such as route building, communicating attempts, instruction, and other public activities.
Throughout the period, the Americans had a stabilising influence in the troubled state, and as reforms were made, conditions began to better. The Marines are now characterized as civil leaders and trainers in add-on to being peacekeepers and soldiers.
The push of the Marine engagement in Mexico and the Caribbean in 1914, farther illustrated the necessity of using larger forces. These expanded forces would be necessary on the battlegrounds of France as the United States headed into World War I. The United States is now a universe power and the United States Marine Corps & # 8211 ; the universe constabulary. ( Ellsworth, 42 )
In World War I the Marine Corps distinguished itself on the battlegrounds of France as the 4th Marine Brigade earned the rubric of & # 8220 ; Devil Dogs & # 8221 ; for epic action during 1918 at Belleau Wood, Soissons, St. Michiel, Blanc Mont, and in the concluding Meuse-Argonne offense. Marine air power, which dates from 1912,
besides played a portion in the war attempt, as Marine pilots flew twenty-four hours bomber missions over France and Belgium. More than 30,000 Marines had served in France and more than a 3rd were killed or wounded in six months of intense combat. ( Alexander, 395 )
The Marines continued to protect American involvements throughout Latin America and Asia during the old ages between World War I and World War II. From 1929 until the eruption of the war with Japan, Marines stayed on in China to protect American involvements. Extra Marines were sent to the country during the late thirtiess when war broke out between China and Japan. The Marines did non go involved in the combat and continued to execute their responsibilities of maintaining a alert oculus on the state of affairs and of protecting American citizens and belongings merely before the Nipponese onslaught on Pearl Harbor.
As the United States was hurled into World War II, the Marines? proved expertness in amphibian warfare was apparent foremost on Guadalcanal, so on Bougainville, Tarawa, New Britian, Kwjalein, Eniwetok, Saipan, Guam, Tinian, Pelelui, Iwo Jima and Okinawa. ( www.usmc.gov ) By the terminal of the war in 1945, the Marine Corps had grown to include six divisions, five air wings, and back uping military personnels. Its strength in World War II peaked at 485,113. The war cost the Marines about 87,000 dead and wounded. Eighty-two Marines had earned the distinguished Medal of Honor for heroism. ( Alexander, 395 ) When you read about the History of the Corps 1 must take a measure back to acknowledge the importance of the Corps, and the regard that they earned. They served their state beyond the call of responsibility because the Marines non merely function the United States, but they besides serve the corps. & # 8220 ; Among the work forces who fought on Iwo Jima, uncommon heroism was a common virtue. & # 8221 ; Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, USN, March, 16 1945. ( Parker, 238 ) This? uncommon heroism? was typical of the Corps throughout World War II. Clearly, WWII was the pinnacle point for the Marines. The attempts of the Marine Corps in the old 40 old ages culminated in America? s success peculiarly in the Pacific.
Following WWII, the function of the Marine Corps was a hard one. The United States mission was now to halt the spread of communism in Korea in 1955 and so in Vietnam in 1967. The terminal of World War II did non intend the terminal of amphibian warfare as the Marines continued to make what they do best, prehend the beachhead. & # 8220 ; I have merely returned from sing the Marines at the forepart, and there is non a finer contending organisation in the world. & # 8221 ; General Douglas MacArthur, USA, outskirts of Seoul, September, 21 1950. ( Parker, 276 ) In Vietnam the unstable function of the United States lead to many jobs in Vietnam and on the place forepart, this was non a clip of enormous support for any of the actions of the armed forces, the Corps was no exclusion. The Vietnam War, longest in the history of the Marine Corps, exacted a high cost as good 13,067 Marines killed and 88,633 wounded. ( Alexander, 395 ) In the spring of 1975, Marines evacuated embassy staffs, American citizens, and refugees in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and Saigon, Republic of Vietnam. Later, in May 1975.
The mid-1970s saw the Marine Corps assume an progressively important function in supporting NATO & # 8217 ; s northern wing as amphibian units of the 2d Marine Division participated in exercisings throughout northern Europe. The Marine Corps besides played a cardinal function in the development of the Rapid Deployment Force, a multi-service organisation created to see a flexible, timely military response around the universe. The ability of the Corps to react rapidly has ever been indispensable to its mission. The necessity for an immediately available, strictly trained force of relentless combatants was ever at that place. ( Marine Corps Heritage Foundation, 90 ) The seeds of this characteristic were planted early on this century with the Missions in the Caribbean, and Pacific.
The 1980s brought an increasing figure of terrorist onslaughts on US embassies around the universe. Marine Security Guards, under the way of the State Department, continued to function with differentiation in the face of this challenge. In October 1983, Marines took portion in the extremely successful, short-notice intercession in Grenada. As the decennary of the eightiess came to a stopping point, Marines were summoned to react to instability in Central America. ? Operation Just Cause? was launched in Panama in December 1989 to protect American lives and reconstruct the democratic procedure in that state. Once once more the function of the Marines was the protection of American involvements, in this instance American involvement became keeping democracy. ( Alexander, 365 )
Less than a twelvemonth subsequently, in August 1990, the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait set in gesture events that would take to the largest motion of Marine Corps forces since World War II. Between August 1990 and January 1991, some 24 foot battalions, 40 squadrons, and more than 92,000 Marines deployed to the Persian Gulf as portion of Operation Desert Shield. Operation Desert Storm was launched January, 16 1991, the twenty-four hours the air run began. The chief onslaught came overland get downing February 24 when the 1st and 2d Marine Divisions breached the Iraqi defence lines and stormed into occupied Kuwait. By the forenoon of February 28, 100 hours after the land war began, about the full Iraqi Army in the Kuwaiti Theater of operations had been encircled with 4,000 armored combat vehicles destroyed and 42 divisions destroyed or rendered uneffective. ( Marine Corps Heritage Foundation, 107 )
Overshadowed by the events in the Persian Gulf during 1990-91, was a figure of other important Marine deployments showing the Corps & # 8217 ; flexible and rapid response. Included among these were non-combatant emptying operations in Liberia and Somalia and human-centered lifesaving operations in Bangladesh, the Philippines, and northern Iraq. In December 1992, Marines landed in Somalia taging the beginning of a biennial human-centered alleviation operation in that famine-stricken and strife-torn state. In another portion of the universe, Marine Corps aircraft supported Operation Deny Flight in the no-fly zone over Bosnia-Herzegovina. During April 1994, Marines one time once more demonstrated their ability to protect American citizens in distant parts of the universe when a Marine undertaking force evacuated US citizens from Rwanda in response to civil agitation in that state. Closer to place, Marines went ashore in September 1994 in Haiti as portion of the US force take parting in the Restoration of democracy in that state. During this same period Marines were actively engaged in supplying aid to the Nation & # 8217 ; s counter-drug attempt, helping in combating wild fires in the western United States, and helping in inundation and hurricane alleviation operations. The Marines of yesterday set the case in point of being more than merely soldiers, but to be peacekeepers, to be do-gooders, to be Marines. ( www.usmc.gov )
& # 8220 ; Some people spend an full life-time inquiring if they made a difference. Marines don & # 8217 ; Ts have that problem. & # 8221 ; & # 8211 ; President Ronald Reagan, 1985
The function of the Corps of the early 1900? s is still a significant 1. Human-centered and catastrophe alleviation operations were besides conducted by Marines during 1998 on Kenya, and in the Cardinal American states of Honduras, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Guatemala. In 1999, Marine units deployed to Kosovo in support of Operations Allied Force.
& # 8220 ; The Marines have landed and have the state of affairs good in hand. & # 8221 ; ( Parker, 250 ) This stage illustrates the occupation of to Corps, and the bequest that it must life up to. As we enter into the new millenary, the Marine Corps has continued its tradition of invention to run into the challenges of a new century.
Today & # 8217 ; s Marine Corps stands ready to go on in the proud tradition of those who so valorously fought and died at Belleau Wood, Iwo Jima, the Chosin Reservoir, and Khe Sanh. Uniting a long and proud heritage of faithful service to the state, with the resoluteness to face tomorrow & # 8217 ; s challenges will go on to maintain the Marine Corps the & # 8220 ; best of the best. & # 8221 ;
The Marines go about their concern in a different and perchance more efficient mode than the other subdivisions. The Marines are the lone subdivision of the military defined by Congress ; therefore their mission is a authorization. The Army & # 8217 ; s mission could be considered & # 8220 ; to win wars, & # 8221 ; but that is non the ( merely ) Marine & # 8217 ; s occupation. Granted, the Marine & # 8217 ; s will go on to be really involved in any war that America rewards ; yet wartime is non the specific responsibility.
The Marines & # 8217 ; historic mission has been to be ready to react to international catastrophe, exigency, crisis, and when necessary, war. Marines are considered the international 911 force.
During the Cold War, the Marine Corps responded to 139 undertakings from the National Command Authority & # 8212 ; an norm of one every 15 hebdomads & # 8212 ; runing from military onslaughts against America or our Alliess, to halting Acts of the Apostless of political force against Americans abroad. Marine operations other than war include supplying catastrophe alleviation and evacuating American citizens from hostile countries. The Marines were the first in on the scene, foremost to contend, and foremost the discovery a solution in a bulk of these instances. In present twenty-four hours, the Marines are more active in this function than of all time. Since 1990, Marines have responded one time every 5 hebdomads. ( www.usmc.gov )
Because the Corps is systematically cognizant of their planetary preparedness mission, it stays focused and operates most expeditiously as a little human dynamo. The Marines are the smallest of the armed forces and the least expensive. But America gets more for the money from the Marine Corps than any other service subdivision. Presently, the 6 % of the Defense Budget allotted to the Corps buys 12 % of active U.S. forces, 23 % of active land divisions, and 14 % of all available tactical aircraft. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //home.globalfrontiers.com/jpu/ )
There are many forte forces within the U.S. Military. Navy Seals, Army Green Berets, Army Airborne and other forte units comprise the elect forces of U.S. Military. Merely the United States Marine Corps stands out as an elect force in and of itself. Marines have a history. They have fought in every major and minor battle in which the United States has of all time been involved. Marines are the Presidents, Ambassadors, and Embassy guards. Marines have a tradition. Marines do non give up. Marines do non go forth their dead on the battleground. Marines have an award. Marines die for that award. ( Marine Corps Heritage Foundation, 16,17 )
The award and pride of the USMC inspired me and sparked my involvement in larning about the history of the corps and what makes a Marine? The history I researched through many books and cyberspace beginnings but what impressed me the most was in my personal interview with Corporal Webster of the USMC.
Webster contacted me at place because I had responded to some recruiting booklets in the mail. His attitude and doggedness were apparent in one phone call. My female parent was afraid the Marines would come and take me off in the dark. ( Webster ) He asked me some existent pointed inquiries that enabled me to concentrate on my personal ends and my future professional calling way.
The attitude of the Corps can be observed in other enrolling methods. When Marines go to talk at High Schools along with other services, he will choose to travel last. After the other services have presented the benefits, instruction chances, occupation choice and pay inducements, the Marine recruiter will acquire up and state, ? There may be one or two of you good plenty to be Marines. If you think you are, I? ll talk to you. ? This is the pride of the Marine Corps. Marine postings challenge instead than warrant. The challenge is to go one of them, to go one of? The few, The proud, The Marines. ? It is this challenge that inspires people like myself to fall in the Marines. The ground why I choose this subject is due to my regard and esteem for the Marines. They aren? T? assuring you a rose garden? but they do assure that you will ne’er be the same.
? Unless you try to make something beyond what you have already mastered, you will ne’er grow. ? Ralph Waldo Emerson
? Here? s wellness to you and to our Corps
Which we are proud to function ;
In many a discord we? ve fought for life
And ne’er lost our nervus.
If the Army and the Navy
Ever expression on Heaven? s scenes,
They will happen the streets are guarded
By United States Marines. The Marine? s Hymn
Allen, Gardner W. A Naval History of the American Revolution. 2 vols. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Co. , 1913.
2. Alexander, Col. Joseph H. , Horan, Don, Stahl, Norman C, . The Battle History of the U.S. Marines, A Fellowship of Valor. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1997
3. Ellsworth Capt Harry A. , One Hundred Eighty Landings of United States Marines, 1800-1934. Washington: Historical Section, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, 1934.
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Historical Division Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps. A Chronology of the United States Marine Corps 1775-1934. Washington, D.C. 1965
Marine Corps Heritage Foundation, The Marines. Editor-in-Chief Simmons, Edwin Howard. Editor Moskin, J. Robert. Quantico, Virginia: Hugh Levin Associates, Inc. , 1998
McClellan, Maj. Edwin N. History of the United States Marine Corps. 2 vols. Washington: Historical Section, Headquarters U.S. Marine Corps, 1925-37
Metcalf, Lt. Col Cldye H. History of the United States Marine Corps. New Youk: G.P. Putnam? s Sons, 1939.
Parker, Captain William D. , USMCR, A Concise History of the United States Marine Corps, 1775-1969 Washington: Historical Division, U.S. Marine Corps, 1970
Ringler, Jack K. U.S. Marine Corps Operations in the Dominican Republic, April-June 1965. Washington, DC: Historical Division, Headquarters U.S. Marine Corps, 1992.
Shoup, David M. USMC. , The Marines in China 1927-1928, The China Expedition which turned out to be The China Exhibition, A Contempouraneaus Journal. Hamden, Connecticut: The Shoe String Press, Inc. , 1987
Webster. Corporal Steven. Interview by Steven Towler, 15 March 2000, North Andover. Phone Call.
United States Marine Corps
A.P. United States History
North Andover High School
March 27, 2000