Maslow theories Vz Herzberg

Introduction

Herzberg a psychologist proposed a theory about job factors that motivate employees.

Maslow a behavioral scientist and contemporary of Herzberg’s developed a theory about the rank and satisfaction of various human needs and how people pursue these needs.

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Abraham Maslow

Hierarchy of needs

            Maslow believes people attempt to satisfy these needs in a specific order.  A person will meet physiological needs (for food, sleep etc) before addressing needs for safety, love and so forth.  Moreover, Maslow considers the first four needs in his hierarchy “deficiency needs” which stop providing motivation once they are satisfied.  However the hierarchy’s final need – self actualization is a “being” or “growth” need that drives behavior throughout a person’s life.  Therefore, if a business continually gives its employees opportunities to meet this high-level need, the company can expect a well motivated workforce.

            Maslow identified five levels in his need hierarchy.  They are

a)                  Physiological needs

The most basic level in the hierarchy, the physiological needs, generally food, shelter, clothing, sex are some example.  According to the theory once these basic needs are satisfied, they no longer motivate.  When physiological needs are reasonably satisfied, safety needs begin to manifest themselves.

b). Safety needs

            This second level of need is equivalent to the security need.  One aspect of the safety need is economic security or security of job, which assures continuity of income with which to satisfy physiological needs.  Another aspect of safety is security of income against such contingencies as sickness, injury, loss employment during working life and security in old age after retirement.

c).        Love need

            This third or intermediate, level of needs closely corresponds to affection and affiliation needs.  He feels the need for belonging for being an accepted members of a group.

d)                 Esteem need

The esteem level represents the higher needs of humans.  The needs for power achievement and status can be considered to be part of this level.  Maslow carefully pointed out that the esteem level contains both self esteem and esteem from other.

e)                  Needs for self-actualization

This level represent the culmination of all the lower, intermediate and higher needs of human.  People who have become self-actualized are self-fulfilled and have realized all their potential.

The figure highlights the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

GENERAL EXAMPLES

Achievement

Status

Friendship

Stability

Food

Self

 Actualization

Esteem Needs

Belonginess Needs

Security Needs

Physiological Needs

ORGANISATIONAL EXAMPLES

Challenging Job

Job Title

Friends at Work

Pension Plan

Base Salary

Frederick Herzberg: Motivation –Hygiene theory

Description.

            We have basic needs (hygiene needs) which, when not met cause us to be dissatisfied.  Meeting these needs does not make us satisfied it merely prevents us from becoming dissatisfied.  The ‘hygiene’ word is deliberately medical as it is an analogy of the need to do something that is necessary, but which does contribute towards making the patient well. (it only stops them getting sick)  These are also called maintenance needs.

            There is a separate set of needs which, when resolved, do make us satisfied.  These are called motivators.

            This theory is also called Herzberg’s two factor theory.

Research:

            Herzberg discovered that the key determinants of job satisfaction were Achievement, Recognition, Work itself, Responsibility and Advancement.

            He also found that key dis-satisfier were company policy and administration, Supervision, Salary, Interpersonal relationship and Working conditions.

            What struck him the most was that these were separate groups with separate evaluation and not a part of the same continuous.  Thus if the company resolved the dis-satisfiers they would not create satisfaction.

Hygiene factors

Compensation

Benefits

Working conditions

Job security

Policies & Supervision

Status

Interpersonal Relations
Motivation Factors

Recognition

Opportunity for advancement

Sense of accomplishment

Responsibility

Challenging work

These factors result from internal instincts in employees, yielding motivation  matter them movement.

            Both these approaches must be done simultaneously.  Treat people as best you can so they have  a minimum of dissatisfaction.  Use people so they get achievement, recognition for achievement, interest and responsibility and they can grow and advance in their work.

Example:

            I need to be paid on time each month so I can pay my bills.  If I am not paid on time, I get really unhappy.  But when I get paid on time, I hardly notice it.

            On the otherhand, when my boss gives me a part on the back,  I feel good.  I don’t expect this every day  I don’t specially miss not having praise all of the time.

Comparison

            Both these theories tell the employer what they need to do and what to achieve in order to accomplish this equilibrium between them and their employees

People expect positive hygience factors in their work place, Herzberg says.  When present, these factors can prevent employees from feeling dissatisfied with their jobs, but they don’t necessarily push people to achieve greater productivity.  Motivation factors are not necessarily expected, but when they are  in place, Herzberg believes they produce feelings of satisfaction and derive employees to succeed .  Like Maslow’s needs hierarchy, Herzberg’s motivation hygiene theory suggests that a business must satisfy one set of needs –  in this case hygiene factors –before more powerful employee motivating factors take effect.

According to the theory the absence of hygiene factors can create job dissatisfaction, but their presence does not motivate or create satisfaction.

Maslow classified people’s main needs and drew the hierarchy which includes Herzberg’s hygiene factors.

1.      Ego  –  (Satisfiers) factors

2.      Safety  –  Hygiene fctors.

According to Maslow:  People’s motives are highly complex and no single motive cause behavior.  Low level need must be at least partially satisfied before  a higher level need is satisfied.  Satisfied need no longer motivated, another need will take place.  The higher level can be satisfied in many more ways than the lower.

Money as a Motivator

            Initially many people would say that they only work because of the money, if you pay me more I will work harder etc. etc.  In fact, money is quite low on the list for most people that are unhappy about their jobs.

            People need to have an interest in the job that makes it worthwhile.

            Many people who change jobs do so because of better promotion prospects, more challenging and varied work or just a more exciting place of work.

            People who win large amounts of money in lotteries etc. are never truly happy just spending money useless it is used for personal fulfillment

Herzberg    Vs. Maslow

Money is a hygiene factor.

Having money creates satisfaction not motivation
Money can satisfy self esteem needs.

Conclusion:

            While Maslow dealt with the rank and satisfaction of various human needs and how people pursue these needs,  Herzberg a psychologist proposed a theory about job factors that motivate employees.

            The combination of hygiene and motivation factors can result in four conditions for an employee.

High Hygiene/High Motivation:

            The ideal situation where employees are highly motivated and have few complaints.

High Hygiene/Low Motivation:

            Employees have few complaints but are not highly motivated.  The job is a pay check situation.

Low Hygiene/High Motivation:

            Employees are motivated but have a lot of complaints.  A situation where the job is exciting and challenging but salaries and work conditions are not up to par.

Low Hygiene/Low Motivation:

The worst situation unmotivated employees with lots of complaints.

References:

1.                  Herzberg F. (1959),  The motivation to work.  NewYork. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

2.                  Koontz H & Weihrich H.(1998) Management, New York  Mc Graw Hill Book Co.

3.                  Vroom H.V.(1964)  Motivation and Work NewYork. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

4.                  Vitels, Morris.S. (1953) Motivation and Morale in industry, New York, W.W.Norton & Co.

5.                  Robert Owens. Thomas Valesky. (2006)  Organizational behavior in Education.

6.                  Chauhan and Chauhan,  Management & Change. Vol.5, No.2 (Winter 2001)

7.                  Shyam Bahadur Katuwal and Gurpreet Randhawa,  IJIR Vol.45, No.2 Oct,2007.

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