The wall of the alveolus (air sac) in the lung is composed of which type of epithelium?

simple columnar epithelium
simple squamous epithelium
transitional epithelium

simple squamous epithelium

Yes, this single layer of squamous cells is ideal for the diffusion of gases in the lungs.

The proximal tubule of the nephron (kidney tubule) in the kidney is composed of which type of epithelium?

stratified squamous epithelium
simple cuboidal epithelium
ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium

simple cuboidal epithelium

Yes, the simple cuboidal cells line the kidney tubules (nephrons) so that secretion and absorption can take place.

The epithelium of the esophagus is composed of which type of epithelial tissue?

keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
stratified squamous epithelium
simple columnar epithelium

stratified squamous epithelium

Yes, this epithelium protects underlying tissues from the wear and tear of constant swallowing in the esophagus.

Which part of the neuron (a specialized nerve cell) receives signals from other cells and is also the main metabolic region of the neuron?

dendrites
axon
soma

soma

Yes, the soma or cell body receives inputs (signals) from other cells and sends the information to the axon. But unlike a dendrite, it also is the main metabolic and nutritional center of the cell.

Which of the three muscle cell types has multiple nuclei?

smooth
skeletal
cardiac

skeleton

Yes, skeletal muscle cells are elongated and many can be quite long; therefore, they have multiple nuclei.

Which muscle cell type has visible striations but is not under voluntary control?

cardiac
skeletal
smooth

cardiac

Yes, cardiac cells, like skeletal cells, have visible striations but are not under voluntary control.

Choose the answer that shows the correct order for the standard preparation of a histological specimen.

(1) fixation, (2) staining, (3) sectioning
(1) fixation, (2) staining, (3) sectioning
(1) fixation, (2) sectioning, (3) staining
(1) sectioning, (2) fixation, (3) staining
(1) staining, (2) fixation, (3) sectioning

(1) fixation, (2) sectioning, (3) staining

The correct order for specimen preparation is fixation, then sectioning, followed by staining.

What do the glands shown in A and B both have in common?

Both are unicellular.
Both are sebaceous glands.
Both are exocrine glands.
Both are endocrine glands.

Both are exocrine glands.

Both glands secrete substances onto body surfaces or into body cavities.

Which of the following glands might utilize the secretory mechanism and duct structure shown in A?

thyroid hormone
mucous
salivary
sebaceous

salivary

Merocrine glands, such as that shown in A, produce secretions such as saliva, sweat, digestive enzymes, and so on.

Which of the following cellular processes is portrayed in A?

phagocytosis
mitosis
cell fragmentation
exocytosis

exocytosis

Merocrine secretion involves the release of materials from intracellular secretory vesicles into the duct by exocytosis.

What process is depicted in the basal layer of the glandular epithelium shown in B?

cell division
exocytosis
cell fragmentation
endocytosis

cell division

Cells are regenerated by division in the basal layer and migrate toward the apical surface to replace cells lost by fragmentation. Cell division is indicated by the mitotic phase cells located in the deepest (basal) layer of the glandular epithelium.

Which tissue type consists of a sheet of cells that covers a body surface or lines a body cavity?

epithelial tissue
muscle tissue
connective tissue
nervous tissue

epithelial tissue

Epithelial tissue is a sheet of cells that covers a body surface or lines a body cavity (epithe = laid on, covering). In addition to coverings and linings, epithelial cells can also form glands, called glandular epithelium.

Which type of epithelium lines the interior of the urinary bladder?

simple columnar epithelium
simple squamous epithelium
transitional epithelium
stratified squamous epithelium

transitional epithelium

Transitional epithelium forms the lining of hollow urinary organs, which stretch as they fill with urine. The ability of transitional cells to change their shape (undergo “transitions”) allows a greater volume of urine to flow through the tube-like ureters and allows more urine to be stored in the urinary bladder.

Which type of gland produces hormones?

multicellular exocrine glands
endocrine glands
unicellular exocrine glands
holocrine glands

endocrine glands

Endocrine glands, which are ductless glands, secrete hormones into the interstitial fluid surrounding them. The hormones then diffuse toward and pass through a nearby capillary wall to enter the blood. Circulating throughout the body in the blood stream is how hormones eventually reach their target cells.

Which of the following epithelial tissue locations is NOT correctly matched to its function?

kidney: filtration
skin: absorption
digestive tract: absorption
skin: protection
kidney: secretion

skin: absorption

The keratinized stratified squamous epithelium of skin is designed for protection, not absorption from the external environment.

Which of the following increases the surface area of certain epithelial tissues?

cilia
desmosomes
basal lamina
basement membrane
microvilli

microvilli

Microvilli are small finger-like projections that greatly increase the surface area of epithelial cells (thus epithelial tissues), an important attribute of tissues that have a role in absorption and secretion.

Which of the following is a property of epithelial tissue?

Epithelial tissue is typically unable to regenerate.
Epithelial tissue is innervated.
Epithelial tissue contains blood vessels.
Epithelial tissue does not exhibit polarity.

Epithelial tissue is innervated.

Epithelial tissue is an innervated, avascular tissue that exhibits polarity. Epithelial tissue is also highly regenerative.

Which of the following statements is INCORRECT?

Stratified squamous epithelia are found in areas subjected to wear and tear.
Simple cuboidal epithelia are found in areas that stretch.
Simple columnar epithelia are associated with absorption and secretion.
Simple squamous epithelia are associated with filtration and exchange.

Simple cuboidal epithelia are found in areas that stretch.

This is incorrect; transitional (not simple cuboidal) epithelia are found in areas that stretch, in particular the ureters and urinary bladder. Simple cuboidal epithelia are designed for absorption and secretion (not stretching).

Where is transitional epithelium found?

in areas involved in absorption
in areas subject to wear and tear
in areas subjected to stretching
in areas involved in filtration

in areas subjected to stretching

Transitional epithelium is found in the urinary system. It lines the ureters, bladder and proximal part of the urethra-organs that are subjected to distention or stretching as urine passes through or fills them.

Exocrine glands ________.

are only unicellular in structure
secrete substances onto body -surfaces
secrete hormones
secrete substances into blood

secrete substances onto body surfaces

Exocrine glands use ducts to secrete substances into the external environment (onto the surfaces of the cutaneous and mucous membranes). Note: “exo” means outside. Endocrine glands are ductless; they secrete hormones into the extracellular fluid of our internal environment. Note: “endo” means inside.

An exocrine gland that has an unbranched duct would be classified as a ________.

unicellular simple gland
multicellular compound gland
unicellular compound gland
multicellular simple gland

multicellular simple gland

Multicellular exocrine glands with unbranched ducts are “simple”; those with branched ducts are “compound”. Unicellular exocrine glands do not have ducts.

Which of the following describes a holocrine gland?

Holocrine glands secrete their products by pinching off the apex of the cell.
Holocrine glands secrete their products by rupturing.
Holocrine glands secrete their products by exocytosis.
Holocrine glands secrete their products by endocytosis.

Holocrine glands secrete their products by rupturing.

Holocrine glands secrete their products by rupturing. Sebaceous (oil) glands are the only example of holocrine glands in the body.

Mucous cells are ________.

hormone-producing glands
unicellular exocrine glands
endocrine glands
multicellular exocrine glands

unicellular exocrine glands

Mucous cells are unicellular exocrine glands that secrete mucin, a protein that combines with water to form mucus.

________ is a water-soluble, complex glycoprotein that is secreted by goblet cells.

An amino acid
A hormone
An enzyme
Mucin
Salt

Mucin

Like mucous cells, goblet cells are unicellular exocrine glands that secrete mucin, a protein that combines with water to form mucus. In goblet cells, the cuplike accumulation of mucin distends the top of the cell, making these cells look like a glass with a stem, thus “goblet” cell. This distortion does not occur in mucous cells.

All epithelia have two surfaces, an apical surface and a basal surface, that differ in both structure and function.

True
False

True

All epithelia exhibit polarity, which is defined by the presence of an apical surface and a basal surface that differ in both structure and function.

Pseudostratified epithelium consists of multiple cell layers.

True
False

False

While pseudostratified epithelium has the illusion of being a multi-layered tissue, it is in fact made up of only one cell layer. The irregular heights of the cells in pseudostratified epithelia give the tissue a layered appearance. In reality, all of the cells in this tissue rest on the basement membrane (i.e., their basal surfaces are in contact with the basement membrane).

Which of the numbered cell types is primarily responsible for producing protein fibers found in connective tissue proper?

4
2
5
3

2

Cell 2 is a fibroblast, which is the primary producer of the major ECM components in connective tissue proper.

What activity does cell 1 undertake to contribute to the body’s defense against injury and infection?

differentiation to form red blood cells
phagocytosis of foreign materials
secretion of chemicals that trigger- inflammation
synthesis of protein fibers used to rebuild damaged tissue

phagocytosis of foreign materials

Cell 1 is a macrophage, which avidly phagocytizes foreign materials such as bacteria and debris.

Which numbered cell type initiates inflammatory responses to infection or tissue damage?

3
4
5
6

5

Cell 5 is a mast cell, which produces and secretes inflammation-triggering chemicals such as histamine. Note the secretory granules within the pictured cell.

Cells 3 and 6 are both classified as ______.

blast cells
red blood cells
epithelial cells
white blood cells

white blood cells

Cell 3 (a lymphocyte) and cell 6 (a neutrophil) are two types of white blood cell.

Which of the following statements is NOT characteristic of the areolar connective tissue pictured in the figure?

Areolar connective tissue has elastic properties.
Fibroblasts are the cells primarily responsible for the formation of areolar connective tissue.
Areolar connective tissue is avascular.
Most of the volume of areolar connective tissue is occupied by ground substance.

Areolar connective tissue is avascular.

Most connective tissues (except cartilage) contain blood vessels. A capillary is observed in the figure of areolar connective tissue.

Which of the following substances would NOT be found in significant amounts in the extracellular matrix of the illustrated areolar connective tissue?

collagen
proteoglycan
keratin
elastin

keratin

Keratin is a protein typically found in epithelial tissues, notably the cornified layers of the epidermis. Keratin would therefore not be found in significant quantities in the ECM of connective tissues.

Injured cartilage might heal more quickly if a treatment were discovered that would __________.

prevent chondrocytes from dividing and thereby reducing the relative amount of matrix that is present in the cartilage.
stimulate blood vessels to develop within cartilage.
stimulate calcification of cartilage.
All of the listed responses are correct.

stimulate blood vessels to develop within cartilage

Cartilage is normally avascular, so nutrients required for healing must diffuse from distant blood vessels, which delays the healing process.

Why are adipose, blood, and bone all considered to be connective tissues?

They have a common origin, mesenchyme.
They have the same types of cells.
They connect to each other.
They all have collagen and elastic fibers in their extracellular matrix.

They have a common origin, mesenchyme.

Adipose, bone, and blood (like all connective tissues) are derived from mesenchyme, an embryonic tissue. Also common to all connective tissues is the presence of cells and an extracellular matrix that consists of fibers bathed in ground substance.

What is the most obvious structural feature of areolar connective tissue?

the loose arrangement of its fibers
the presence of blood cells mixed with the areolar cells
the presence of fat cells
the numerous types of cells that are present

the loose arrangement of its fibers

The most obvious structural feature of this tissue is the loose arrangement of its fibers. The rest of the matrix, occupied by ground substance, appears to be empty space when viewed through the microscope. Note: the Latin term areola means “a small open space.”

Which is the most atypical connective tissue since it does not connect things or provide structural support?

areolar connective tissue
blood
cartilage
bone

blood

Blood, the fluid connective tissue (CT) within blood vessels, is the most atypical CT. It does not act as a binding or packing material; it does not provide structural support. It is classified as a CT only because it develops from mesenchyme and consists of cells (blood cells) surrounded by an extracellular fluid matrix (blood plasma).

Connective tissues ________.

are all avascular.
are delicate tissues, not designed to bear weight or withstand abrasion or tension.
arise from different types of embryonic tissue; therefore, they have little relationship or kinship to one another.
primarily consist of extracellular matrix.

primarily consist of extracellular matrix

All other primary tissues are composed mainly of cells, but connective tissues are largely nonliving extracellular matrix, which separates, often widely, the living cells of the tissue.

In connective tissue, the role of collagen fibers is to ________.

form delicate networks around blood
vessels and support the soft tissue of organs
retain fluid
provide tensile strength
provide elasticity

provide tensile strength

Collagen fibers are extremely tough and provide high tensile strength (that is, the ability to resist being pulled apart) to the matrix. Stress tests show that collagen fibers are stronger than steel fibers of the same size!

Which tissue is correctly paired with its primary cell type?

bone: fibrocyte
bone: osteoblast
connective tissue proper: chondroblast
cartilage: fibroblast

bone: osteoblast
Which of the following is NOT a role of connective tissue?

insulation
protection
support
absorption

absorption

Absorption, the movement of substances into the body, is a role of epithelial tissue. Roles of connective tissue include: binding and support, protection, insulation, and transportation of substances, via blood, within the body.

________ are highly phagocytic cells that are a part of the body’s defense system. These cells can be localized (fixed), or they can wander throughout the body.

Eosinophils
Macrophages
Basophils
Mast cells
Erythrocytes (RBC)

Macrophages

Macrophages, which are peppered throughout loose connective tissue, bone marrow, and lymphatic tissue, may be attached to connective tissue fibers (fixed) or may migrate freely through the matrix. They phagocytize a broad variety of foreign materials, ranging from foreign molecules to entire bacteria to dust particles. These “big eaters” also dispose of dead tissue cells, and they are central actors in the immune system.

Select the TRUE statement.

Dense connective tissue includes adipose tissue.
Bundles of collagen are often found in loose connective tissue.
Dense connective tissue is often called fibrous connective tissue
Loose connective tissue includes cartilage.

Dense connective tissue is often called fibrous connective tissue

Correct, dense connective tissue is often called fibrous connective tissue.

Smooth muscle ________.

contains intercalated discs
has striations
has long, cylindrical cells
is under involuntary control

is under involuntary control

Smooth and cardiac muscle are under involuntary control. Skeletal muscle is under voluntary control.

Which tissue type is responsible for regulating and controlling body functions?

connective tissue
blood
muscle tissue
nervous tissue

nervous tissue

Nervous tissue is the main component of the nervous system, which regulates and controls body functions. Note: the other control system of the body is the endocrine system, which is primarily composed of glandular epithelial tissue.

________ is the tissue that regulates and controls body functions.

Blood
Nervous tissue
Muscle tissue
Bone

Nervous tissue

Nervous tissue regulates and controls body functions.

Which type of membrane is a dry membrane exposed to the air?

cutaneous membrane
mucous membrane
serous membrane
synovial membrane

cutaneous membrane

The cutaneous membrane is your skin, an organ consisting of a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium (epidermis) firmly attached to a thick layer of connective tissue (dermis). Unlike other epithelial membranes, the cutaneous membrane is exposed to the air and is a dry membrane.

Which of the following statements is INCORRECT?

Serous membranes line body cavities and organs.
The cutaneous membrane is made of a simple columnar epithelium
The cutaneous membrane is a dry membrane exposed to air.
Mucous membranes line exits and entrances to the body.

The cutaneous membrane is made of a simple columnar epithelium

The cutaneous membrane, a “dry” membrane exposed to air, consists of a keratinized, stratified squamous epithelium called, the epidermis, and an underlying layer of connective tissue called, the dermis.

After open heart surgery, the heart’s pumping efficiency may be reduced because__________.

the undamaged cardiac muscle cells
become fatigued from the energy expended during the healing process.
growth of adhesions can interfere with normal heart pumping activity.
fibrosis will reduce the heart’s effectiveness.
both adhesions and fibrosis will interfere with the heart’s normal pumping activity and reduce its effectiveness.

both adhesions and fibrosis will interfere with the heart’s normal pumping activity and reduce its effectiveness

Adhesions are fibrous scars that form between internal organs, which joins them together abnormally. When tissue is injured, fibrous connective tissue reproduces rapidly and forms a scar. This tissue type lacks the normal function of cardiac tissue.

After a heart attack, fibrosis occurs at the site of cardiac muscle cell death. This reduces the efficiency of the heart’s pumping activity because __________.

the undamaged cardiac muscle cells become fatigued from the energy expended during the healing process.
fibrous connective tissue is incapable of contracting.
fibrosis produces new cardiac muscle cells that are not as strong as the mature ones that died.
the initial death of some cardiac muscle cells triggers a chain reaction in which progressively more and more neighboring healthy cells die.

fibrous connective tissue is incapable of contracting

Cardiac muscle contains sarcomeres, which allow for the tissue to contract when electrically stimulated. Fibrous connective tissue lacks these special contractile units.

Which tissue repair process results in the formation of scar tissue?

inflammation
fibrosis
regeneration
granulation

fibrosis

Fibrosis involves proliferation of fibrous connective tissue, called scar tissue.

Which tissues have little to no functional regenerative capacity?

nervous tissue and smooth muscle.
epithelial tissues, bones, and areolar connective tissue.
cardiac and smooth muscle.
cardiac muscle and nervous tissue in the brain and spinal cord.

cardiac muscle and nervous tissue in the brain and spinal cord

Cardiac muscle and the nervous tissue in the brain and spinal cord have virtually no functional regenerative capacity, and they are routinely replaced by scar tissue.

The correct order of events in tissue repair, from first to last, is ________.

regeneration, organization, and inflammation
inflammation, regeneration, and organization
inflammation, organization, and regeneration
organization, inflammation, and regeneration

inflammation, organization, and regeneration

In order, the basic steps of tissue repair are: inflammation, organization, and regeneration.

Choose the correct pairing for a tissue and its embryonic origin.

Epithelium is derived from all three primary germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.
Connective tissue is derived from the primary germ layer called the endoderm.
Nervous tissue is derived from the primary germ layer called the mesoderm.
Muscle is derived from the primary germ layer called the ectoderm.

Epithelium is derived from all three primary germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.

Mesoderm forms muscle and connective tissue. Ectoderm forms nervous tissue. Endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm all contribute to formation of epithelia.

All connective tissues arise from an embryonic tissue called mesenchyme.

True
False

True

All connective tissues arise from an embryonic tissue called mesenchyme. Mesenchyme has a fluid ground substance containing fine sparse fibers and star-shaped mesenchymal cells. It arises during the early weeks of embryonic development and eventually differentiates (specializes) into all other connective tissue cells. However, some mesenchymal cells remain and provide a source of new cells in mature connective tissues.

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