What are the two major factors determining the distribution of terrestrial biomes?
temperature and rainfall
Which of these biomes is characterized by little rainfall?
desert
Which of these is the largest terrestrial biome on Earth?
coniferous forest
Which biome is characterized by an extensive canopy that allows little light to penetrate to the ground and by the presence of epiphytes?
tropical rainforest
Which biome is characterized by the presence of permafrost?
tundra
Which of these is characteristic of the photic zone of a freshwater biome?
the presence of algae
The benthic zone of aquatic environments is defined as the _____.
substrate at the bottom
The _____ biome is the largest of Earth’s biomes.
marine
A(n) _____ is a region where fresh water and salt water mix.
estuary
Which five of the following statements about aquatic biomes are true?
A freshwater organism permanently attached to the substrate would be unlikely to survive and reproduce in an estuary.

Estuaries are very productive and are used as breeding grounds by many species of fish.

Tropical coral reefs generally exist in relatively shallow areas of the ocean.

Temperature drives water movement in some lakes.

Wetlands have slow water movement or no water movement and no turnover.

Which action influences the abiotic components of an organism’s environment?
water pollution
Which aspects of a region’s climate have the most impact on plants and animals?
temperature and moisture
True or false? Weather is defined as the prevailing long-term atmospheric conditions in a particular region.
False
Which of the following statements about Hadley cells is true?
As warm air rises, air at the top of the atmosphere is pushed poleward and cools.
Which location on Earth receives the most solar radiation per unit area?
equator
What are rain shadows?
Dry regions on the leeward side of mountain ranges.
Which desert is caused by a Hadley cell?
Saharan Desert in Africa
What region of the United States was the American chestnut commonly found in prior to the blight?
The East
You are a plant geneticist working with the group trying to save the American chestnut with genetic engineering. Which of the following plants supplied the gene that has yielded your team’s success?
wheat
The blight that decimated the American chestnut tree could have likely been avoided if which of the following trees had failed to make it to North America?
Asian chestnut
Of the two techniques used to create an American chestnut resistant to the organism that caused its demise, which has had the most success?
It is currently unknown.
American chestnut blight is caused by which of the following?
A fungus
Which of the following statements about energy flow are true?
In a trophic pyramid, biomass represents chemical energy.

Animals that produce their own body heat and maintain a high body temperature are likely to be less efficient at converting food into biomass than are animals that do not regulate their body temperature.

If the lowest trophic level of an ecosystem–the primary producers–contains 1,200 grams of biomass per square meter, it is reasonable to expect the secondary consumer level to contain about 12 grams of biomass per square meter.

Energy used in the production of offspring is available to higher trophic levels.

Which of these provides your body with energy?
fats
Plants use _____ as a source of energy.
light
What element is found in all organic compounds?
Carbon
Plants obtain carbon from _____.
carbon dioxide
What name is given to organisms that convert the carbon in organic compounds into carbon in carbon dioxide?
Decomposers
Where do plants get the energy to make organic molecules?
light
Which of these is NOT an organic molecule?
minerals
Where do plants get the carbon they use to make organic molecules?
carbon dioxide
True or false? Local biogeochemical cycles are isolated within their particular ecosystem and all ions and molecules remain in that ecosystem permanently.
False
Which of the following statements about the movement of nutrients through an ecosystem is true?
Carbon cycles between the atmosphere and living biomass.
Which area is not one of the three major reservoirs of the global carbon cycle?
Sedimentary rock.
True or false? In the global carbon cycle, rivers link the terrestrial and marine reservoirs of carbon, whereas carbon exchange between the atmosphere and the ocean is achieved by active transport.
False
How does carbon move from the biota to the atmosphere?
Carbon dioxide is released during cellular respiration.
How have humans altered the global carbon cycle?
Carbon inputs into the atmosphere have risen.
How do greenhouse gases contribute to global warming?
They prevent infrared light from leaving Earth’s atmosphere.
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