The central dogma describes how the genes in the nucleus work to produce an organism’s phenotype. Another way of putting it is that the central dogma follows the flow of information from _____.

A). protein to DNA
B). protein to RNA
C). RNA to ribosomes
D). DNA to protein

D). DNA to protein
DNA carries out two basic functions in cells: (1) information storage and transfer (genes can be copied and passed to offspring) and (2) the “blueprint” function (genes provide instructions for building proteins). The key process for information storage and transfer to offspring cells is _____.

A). DNA replication
B). transcription
C). translation
D). mRNA processing

A). DNA replication
many nucleotide bases would be required to code for a protein chain that is 100 amino acids long?

A). 100
B). 300
C). 20
D). 4

B). 300
tRNA molecules work to _____.

A). transcribe DNA to mRNA
B). translate DNA to produce a specific amino acid sequence
C). transcribe the amino acid sequence to DNA
D). translate mRNA to produce a specific amino acid sequence
E). none of the above

D). Translate mRNA to produce a specifc amino acid sequence
A particular gene does NOT constantly churn out the same protein at all times in every cell. This is true for two reasons. First, _____ can allow one gene to produce several different proteins. Second, genes are constantly being turned on and off through the process of _____.

A). translation … reverse transcription
B). reverse transcription … mRNA reprocessing
C). mRNA reprocessing … gene regulation
D). mRNA reprocessing … transcription

C). mRNA reprocessing…gene regulation
Which of the following build(s) new strands of DNA?

A). The origins of replication
B). DNA polymerases
C). Parental DNA
D). The leading strand
E). The lagging strand

B). DNA polymerases
Which statement about DNA replication is CORRECT?

A). DNA ligase helps assemble the leading strand.
B). The leading strand is built continuously, and the lagging strand is built in pieces.
C). The leading strand is one of the strands of parental DNA.
D). The lagging strand is built continuously.
E). The lagging strand is one of the strands of parental DNA.

B). The leading strand is built continuously, and the lagging strand is built in pieces.
During DNA replication, which nucleotide will bind to an A nucleotide in the parental DNA?

A). U
B). T
C). G
D). A
E). C

B). T
The molecule that seals the gaps between the pieces of DNA in the lagging strand is

A). RNA.
B). the leading strand.
C). DNA polymerase.
D). the replication fork.
E). DNA ligase.

E). DNA ligase.
Which statement about DNA replication is FALSE?

A). Because the two strands of parental DNA run in opposite directions, the new strands must be made in different ways.
B). The lagging strand is made of a series of pieces that must be joined together to make a continuous strand.
C). DNA polymerase builds a new strand by adding DNA nucleotides one at a time.
D). DNA ligase adds nucleotides to the lagging strand.
E). The two strands of parental DNA are separated during DNA replication.

D). DNA ligase adds nucleotides to the lagging strand.
Which of the following events occurs during transcription?

A). The message in mRNA is translated into a protein.
B). A cap is added to the RNA molecule.
C). mRNA binds to a ribosome in the cytoplasm.
D). A molecule of RNA is formed based on the sequence of nucleotides in DNA.
E). Those segments of the RNA strand that do not actually code for the protein are removed.

D). A molecule of RNA is formed based on sequence of nucleotides in DNA
Which of the following is a correct statement about mRNA?

A). mRNA moves from the nucleus to the cytoplasm following RNA processing.
B). mRNA binds directly to amino acids during translation.
C). mRNA is transcribed from DNA in the cytoplasm.
D). mRNA includes a cap that consists of extra adenine nucleotides.
E). Segments of mRNA that code for protein are removed before translation.

A). mRNA moves from the nucleus to the cytoplasm following RNA processing.
The site of translation is

A). ribosomes in the cell cytoplasm.
B). ribosomes in the cell nucleus.
C). the Golgi apparatus.
D). the plasma membrane.
E). the cell nucleus.

A). Ribosomes in the cell cytoplasm
Which one of the following does not play a role in translation?

A). DNA
B). Anticodon
C). Ribosomes
D). Amino acids
E). tRNA

A). DNA
Which of the following does not occur during RNA processing?

A). Adenine nucleotides are added to the end of the RNA strand, forming a tail.
B). mRNA attaches to the small subunit of a ribosome.
C). A modified guanine nucleotide is added to the beginning of the RNA strand as a cap.
D). Segments of the RNA strand that do not actually code for the protein are removed.
E). Segments of RNA that do code for the protein are reconnected.

B). mRNA attaches to the small subunit of a ribosome.
What do DNA and RNA have in common?

A). Both are composed of nucleotides.
B). They are composed of the same nucleotides.
C). Both contain deoxyribose.
D). Their function is the storage of genetic information.
E). They are composed of the same number of nucleic acid strands.

A). Both are composed of nucleotides.
The DNA polynucleotide structure contains which one of the following?

A). ribose
B). sulfur
C). peptide bonds
D). amino acids
E). adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine

E). Adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine
One strand of DNA serves as a template for the synthesis of another so that __________.

A). DNA can serve as a template for the synthesis of other polymers
B). the helical shape of DNA is conserved
C). the progeny of each cellular replication gets the same genetic information
D). each daughter cell gets the same number of nucleotides
E). energy is conserved

C). The progeny of each cellular replication gets the same genetic information.
A gene is usually __________.

A). made of protein
B). the same thing as a chromosome
C). made of RNA
D). made by a ribosome
E). the information for making a polypeptide

E). The information for making a polypeptide.
The information carried by a DNA molecule is in __________.

A). the order of the nucleotides in the molecule
B). the RNA units that make up the molecule
C). the sugars and phosphates forming its backbone
D). the total number of nucleotides it contains
E). its amino acid sequence

A). The order of the nucleotides in the molecule
One of the questions early geneticists had to answer was how only four nucleotides can specify placement of 20 amino acids in proteins. Today we know that __________.

A). the genetic code is composed of groups of two nucleotides
B). the genetic code has nothing to do with nucleotides in DNA but rather those in RNA
C). the three nucleotide combinations have nothing to do with the genetic code
D). the genetic code is composed of groups of four nucleotides
E). the genetic code is composed of groups of three nucleotides

E). The genetic code is composed of groups of three nucleotides.
After an RNA molecule is transcribed from a eukaryotic gene, portions called _____ are removed and the remaining _____ are spliced together to produce an mRNA molecule with a continuous coding sequence.

A). promoters … terminators
B). introns … exons
C). codons … anticodons
D). exons … introns
E). caps … tails

B). Introns…exons
Which of the following processes occurs in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell?

A). translation and transcription
B). DNA replication
C). transcription
D). DNA replication and translation
E). translation

E). Translation
The flow of information in a cell proceeds __________.

A). from RNA to DNA to protein
B). from DNA to RNA to protein
C). from DNA to protein to RNA
D). from RNA to protein to DNA
E). from protein to RNA to DNA

B). From DNA to RNA to protein
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